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Encyclopedia > Pyroelectric fusion

Pyroelectric fusion is a technique for achieving nuclear fusion by using an electric field generated by pyroelectric crystals to accelerate ions of deuterium (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing detuerium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to fuse together. The novel idea at work with this approach to fusion is in its application of the pyroelectric effect to generate a strong electric field (gigavolts per meter), by heating the crystal from −30°C to +45°C in a few minutes. The strong field is used to accelerate deuterium ions from a needle-thin tungsten probe tip mounted on a copper disk into a solid target containing deuterium. Some of the deuterium atoms fuse, producing helium and neutrons. Like muon-catalyzed fusion, the process does not appear to be able to generate net power, but may have other uses. UCLA Cold Fusion team. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Pyroelectricity is the electrical potential created in certain materials when they are heated. ... Quartz crystal In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... In physics, an electric field or E-field is an effect produced by an electric charge (or a time-varying magnetic field) that exerts a force on charged objects in the field. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ...


A UCLA team, headed by Brian Naranjo, has observed the nuclear fusion of deuterium nuclei in a laboratory bench top device in April 2005. The device uses a lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) pyroelectric crystal to ionize deuterium atoms and accelerate the ions towards a stationary erbium dideuteride (ErD2) target. Around 1000 fusion reactions per second took place, each resulting in the production of an 820 keV helium-3 nuclei and a 2.45 MeV neutron. The team anticipated applications of the device as a neutron generator, or in "microthrusters" for space propulsion. Wikinews has news related to: Tabletop fusion may lead to neutron source Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3), is a crystalline solid which possesses unique optical, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties which make it valuable for infrared motion detectors, terahertz generation and detection, surface acoustic wave applications, cell phones and possibly pyroelectric nuclear fusion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Atomic mass 180. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 167. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Kev can refer to either: A regional term for the chav social group in the United Kingdom An abbreviation - keV - of the unit Kiloelectronvolt An abbreviation for the given name Kevin. ... Helium-3 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ... Plural: nuclei In chemistry and physics, the nucleus (atomic nucleus) is the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom that carries the bulk of the atoms mass and positive charge. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ...


A team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, led by Jeffrey Geuther, has confirmed and improved upon these findings, with a device using two pyroelectric crystals and capable of operating at non-cryogenic temperatures. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a coeducational private university in Troy, New York, near Albany, founded in 1824 by Stephen Van Rensselaer. ...


Nuclear D-D fusion driven by pyroelectric crystals was proposed by Naranjo and Putterman in 2002. It was also discussed by Brownridge and Shafroth in 2004. The possibility of neutron production (by D-D fusion) was first proposed in a conference paper by Geuther and Danon in 2004 and later in a publications discussing electron and ion acceleration by pyroelectric crystals. The key ingredient of using a tungsten needle to produce sufficient ion beam current for use with a pyroelectric crystal power supply was first proposed and demonstrated in the 2005 Nature paper although in a broader context tungsten emitter tips have been used as ion sources in other applications for maany years.


This development is not related to earlier claims of fusion having been observed during sonoluminescence (bubble fusion). In fact, the leader of the team behind this development was one of the main critics of these earlier prospective fusion claims. Long exposure image of multi-bubble sonoluminescence created by a high intensity ultrasonic horn immersed in a beaker of liquid. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ...


Sources

  • B. Naranjo, J.K. Gimzewski and S. Putterman "Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal". Nature, April 28, 2005
  • James D. Brownridge and Stephen M. Shafroth, [1], 1 May 2004
  • Jeffrey A. Geuther, Yaron Danon, “Pyroelectric Electron Acceleration: Improvements and Future Applications”, ANS Winter Meeting Washington, D.C, November 14 – 18, 2004.
  • Jeffrey A. Geuther, Yaron Danon “Electron and Positive Ion Acceleration with Pyroelectric Crystals”, Journal of Applied Physics 97, 074109 (April 1 2005).
  • Matin Durrani and Peter Rodgers "Fusion seen in table-top experiment". Physics Web, April 27, 2005

First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of California, Los Angeles, popularly known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university situated in the neighborhood of Westwood within the city of Los Angeles. ...

External links

See also

Neutron sources A neutron source is a device, used in solid state physics (see neutron diffraction), particle physics and to start nuclear chain reactions, that emits neutrons. ...


Neutron generator Neutron generators are devices which contain compact linear accelerators and that produce neutrons by fusing isotopes of hydrogen together. ...




  Fusion power  v·d·e 
Atomic nucleus | Nuclear fusion | Nuclear power | Nuclear reactor | Timeline of nuclear fusion
Plasma physics | Magnetohydrodynamics | Neutron flux | Fusion energy gain factor | Lawson criterion
Methods of fusing nuclei
Fusion experiments

Magnetic confinement devices
ITER (International) | JET (European) | JT-60 (Japan) | Large Helical Device (Japan) | EAST (China) | T-15 (Russia) | DIII-D (USA) | TFTR (USA) | NSTX (USA) | NCSX (USA) | Alcator C-Mod (USA) | LDX (USA) | PACER (USA) | H-1NF (Australia) | MAST (UK) | START (UK) | DEMO (Commercial) The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... A nuclear power station. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Timeline of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion: 1929 - Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of light elements and applied Einsteins discovery that E=mc² to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together. ... A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics), is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ... The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state. ... In nuclear fusion research, the Lawson criterion, first derived by John D. Lawson in 1957, is an important general measure of a system that defines the conditions needed for a fusion reactor to reach ignition, that is, that the heating of the plasma by the products of the fusion reactions... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) is a sustained nuclear fusion reaction in a plasma that is contained by magnetic fields. ... A split image of the largest tokamak in the world, the JET, showing hot plasma in the right image during a shot. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Stellarator magnetic field and magnets A stellarator is a device used to confine a hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction. ... Reversed-Field Pinch is a toroidal magnetic confinement scheme. ... A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a device developed for magnetic fusion energy research that confines a plasma on closed magnetic field lines without a central penetration. ... A Levitated Dipole is a unique form of fusion reactor technology using a solid superconducting torus, magnetically levitated in the reactor chamber. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. ... The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Bubble fusion or sonofusion is the common name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation; officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy causing a rise in temperature. ... Charles Bennett examines three cold fusion test cells at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA Cold fusion is a nuclear fusion reaction that takes place at or near room temperature and normal pressure instead of the millions of degrees and thousands of pounds of force required for plasma fusion reactions. ... Muon-catalyzed fusion is a process allowing nuclear fusion to take place at room temperature. ... Inertial electrostatic confinement (often abbreviated as IEC) of a plasma can be achieved with electrostatic fields which accelerate charged particles (either ions or electrons) directly, in a confined space. ... U.S. Patent 3,386,883 - fusor — June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth–Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ... Cutaway of the ITER Tokamak Torus in casing. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... JT-60 (JT stands for Japan Torus) is the flagship of Japans magnetic fusion program, run by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the Naka Fusion Research Establishment in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Nuclear technology ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... The T-15 is a Russian nuclear fusion research reactor, based on the (Russian-invented) tokamak design. ... DIII-D or D3-D is the name of a tokamak machine developed in the 1980s by General Atomics in San Diego, USA, as part of the ongoing effort to achieve magnetically confined fusion. ... The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental fusion test reactor built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (in Princeton, New Jersey) circa 1980. ... The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. ... The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a plasma confinement experiment being conducted at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. ... Alcator C-Mod is a tokamak, a magnetic confined nuclear fusion device, at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion center. ... The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a project devoted to researching a type of nuclear fusion which utilizes a floating superconducting torus to provide an axisymmetric magnetic field which is used to contain plasma. ... Pacer could refer to: A type of British train, see Pacer (train). ... The H-1 flexible Heliac is a three field-period helical axis stellarator located in the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering at the Australian National University. ... The Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak, or MAST experiment is a nuclear fusion experiment in operation at Culham since December 1999. ... The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak, or START was a nuclear fusion experiment that used magnetic confinement to hold plasma. ... The word demo may refer to one of the following. ...


Inertial confinement devices
NIF (USA) | Nova laser (USA) | OMEGA laser (USA) | Shiva laser (USA) | Z machine (USA) A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... The Nova laser was a laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 and which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. ... The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is a scientific research facility which is part of the University of Rochesters south campus, located in Rochester, New York. ... The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. ... Zork universe Zork games Zork Anthology Zork trilogy Zork I   Zork II   Zork III Beyond Zork   Zork Zero   Planetfall Enchanter trilogy Enchanter   Sorcerer   Spellbreaker Other games Wishbringer   Return to Zork Zork: Nemesis   Zork Grand Inquisitor Zork: The Undiscovered Underground Topics in Zork Encyclopedia Frobozzica Characters   Kings   Creatures Timeline   Magic   Calendar...


See also: International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility The International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, also known as IFMIF, is an international scientific research program designed to test materials for suitability for use in a fusion reactor. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cold_fusion (5229 words)
He had since turned his attention to the problem of fusion in high-pressure environments, believing it could explain the fact that the interior temperature of the Earth was hotter than could be explained without nuclear reactions, and by unusually high concentrations of helium-3 around volcanoes that implied some sort of nuclear reaction within.
Muon-catalyzed fusion is a well established and reproducible fusion process that occurs at ordinary temperatures.
Pyroelectric fusion was reported in April 2005 by a team at UCLA.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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