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Encyclopedia > Pyramid
For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation).

A pyramid is any three-dimensional polyhedron where the faces other than the base are triangular and converge on one point, called the apex. The base of a pyramid can be any polygon; it is typically a square or a triangle, leading to four or three non-base faces. // See Pyramid (geometry) A pyramid is a three-dimensional polyhedron formed by connecting an n-sided polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by n triangular faces (n ≥ 3). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In geometry, the square pyramid, a pyramid with a square base and equilateral sides, is one of the Johnson solids (J1). ... For the game magazine, see Polyhedron (magazine). ... A triangle. ... Look up polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A pyramid is said to be regular if its base is a regular polygon and its upper faces are congruent isosceles triangles. A regular pentagon A regular polygon is a simple polygon (a polygon which does not intersect itself anywhere) which is equiangular (all angles are equal) and equilateral (all sides have the same length). ... An example of congruence. ... A triangle. ...


Cutting off the top of a pyramid, using a plane parallel to the plane of the base, leaves a frustrum of a pyramid, sometimes called a flat-topped pyramid, though it no longer satisfies the definition of a pyramid. A frustum is the portion of a solid – normally a cone or pyramid – which lies between two parallel planes cutting the solid. ...

Contents

Ancient monuments

See also: List of ancient pyramids by country

Pyramid-shaped structures were built by many ancient civilizations. This article lists ancient pyramids by country. ...


China

Main article: Chinese pyramids

There are many flat-topped pyramids in China. The First Emperor of Qin (circa 221 B.C.) was buried under a large pyramid outside modern day Xi'an. In the following centuries about a dozen more Han Dynasty royals were also buried under flat-topped pyramidal earth works. Xian, area of the majority of Chinese pyramids. ... Xian redirects here. ...


Egyptian pyramids

The ancient pyramids of Egypt
The ancient pyramids of Egypt

The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the largest man-made constructions. In Ancient Egypt, a pyramid was referred to as mer, literally "place of ascendance." The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. Until Lincoln Cathedral was built in 1300 A.D., it was the tallest building in the world. The base is over 13 acres in area. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (4372 × 2906 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (4372 × 2906 pixel, file size: 4. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ...


It is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, though many of the stones used for the purpose have fallen or been removed for other structures. For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River...


France

There is a Roman era pyramid built in Falicon, France. There were many more pyramids made in France in this period. // The Falicons pyramid The Falicons pyramid was build above the karstic Cave of the Bats (Occitan: Bauma des Ratapignata) on the surrounds of Nice, on the French Riviera. ...


Greece

Pyramid of Hellinikon
Pyramid of Hellinikon

There are several structures in Greece that archaeologists have called pyramids.[citation needed] Dotted throughout the landscape are remains of buildings that were described by ancient travelers as pyramids, they were first excavated by Americans and Germans in the early 1930s and the 1990s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,733 × 1,182 pixels, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,733 × 1,182 pixels, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Pausanias, a Greek traveler in the second century A.D. described several of the structures as pyramids. One of these pyramids was located in Hellenikon, Ελληνικό in Greek,a village near Argos near the ancient ruins of Tiryns.[1] The story surrounding the monument was that it was built as a polyandria, a common grave, for those soldiers who had fallen in the struggle for the throne of Argos back in the 14th Century B.C. He described the structure as something that resembled a pyramid with the decorations of Argolic shields, showing the military connection to it. Another pyramid that Pausanias saw on his journeys was at Kenchreai, another polyandria dedicated to the Argives and Spartans who lost their lives at the Battle of Hysiai in 669 B.C. Unfortunately neither of these structures remain fully intact today to test how closely they resembled the pyramids of Egypt nor is there any proof that they even resembled an Egyptian pyramid at all. Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ...


There are two surviving pyramid-like structures still available to study, one at Helleniko and the other at Ligourio, a village near the ancient theatre Epidaurus. With these two pyramid’s base stones remaining, it is possible to determine that Grecian pyramids existed, but were not used as the Egyptians used them. These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. The buildings at Helleniko and Ligourio were no more than 100 feet tall and were surrounded by walls, with the base of the Helleniko pyramid being nine meters by 7 meters. The stone used to build the pyramids was limestone quarried locally and was cut to fit, not into freestanding blocks like the Great Pyramid of Giza. The base of the structures also differed from the Egyptian pyramids as they were rectangular, not square. This simple construction shape made it very difficult to make the top of the building come together in a point. As such, it makes more sense that these structures could have been peaked by a roof or platform. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ...


There are no remains or graves in or near the structures. Instead, the rooms that the walls housed were made to be locked from the inside. This coupled with the platform roof, means that one of the functions these structures could have served was as watchtowers. Another possibility for the buildings is that they are shrines to heroes and soldiers of ancient times, but the lock on the inside makes no sense for such a purpose.


The dating of these ‘pyramids’ has been made from the pot shards excavated from the floor and on the grounds. The latest dates available from scientific dating have been estimated around the 5th and 4th centuries. There are many researchers who have given dates to the structures that pre-date the pyramids at Giza, but the method to obtain these dates was thermoluminescence of the stone. Normally this technique is used for dating pottery, but here researchers have used it to try and date stone flakes from the walls of the structures. This has created some debate about whether or not these ‘pyramids’ are actually older than Egypt, which is part of the Black Athena controversy. The basis for their use of thermoluminescence in order to date these structures is a new method of collecting samples for testing. Scientists from laboratories hired out by the recent excavators of the site, The Academy of Athens, say that they can use the electrons trapped on the inner surface of the stones to positively identify the date that the stones were quarried and put together.


The issue with this method is that they date the pyramids with a margin of error of up to over 700 years. This method dated the Helleniko pyramid to 2730 B.C. with an error factor of plus or minus 720 years. It also dated the Ligourio pyramid to 2260 B.C. with an error of plus or minus 710 years. Though these initial dates are indicative of these structures being built before the pyramid complex at Giza, it also means that they could have been built well after Khufu’s Great Pyramid was erected. Some archaeologists, however, have indicated that these samples may have been very select in their choice of which stones to sample. Further excavations of the site at Helleniko reveal that it was constructed on a previously existing structure, giving a possibility that the new methods of dating may be a misinterpretation.


Along with these two structures there are 14 more pyramid-like buildings, or their remains, scattered throughout the rest of the country side of Greece. These sites do not get as much attention as the two at Helleniko and Ligourio as they are the only ones mentioned in surviving accounts of ancient travelers.


India

Detail of the main gopura (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple pyramid in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
Detail of the main gopura (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple pyramid in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu

Many giant granite temple pyramids were made in South India during the Chola Empire, many of which are still in religious use today. Examples of such pyramid temples include Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. However the largest temple pyramid in the area is Sri Rangam in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu. The Brihadisvara Temple was declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1987; the Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were added as extensions to the site in 2004.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x900, 70 KB) Summary Detail of the main Vimanam (Tower) of the Great Temple at Thanjavur Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... , Tanjore redirects here. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Airateswara Temple is a Hindu temple located in the town of Darasuram, near Kumbakonam in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Darasuram is a small town near Kumbakonam in Tamil Nad state in southern India. ... The Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu India is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Ranganatha, a reclining form of Lord Vishnu. ... Srirangam (Tamil: ஸ்ரீரங்கம்), also known as Thiruvarangam, is an island town in the district of Tiruchirapalli ( also known shortly as Trichy or Tiruchi) in South India. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mesoamerican pyramids

Pyramid in the Mayan city of Chichen-Itza, Mexico
Pyramid in the Mayan city of Chichen-Itza, Mexico
Pyramid of the Sun on the city of Teotihuacán, Mexico
Pyramid of the Sun on the city of Teotihuacán, Mexico

A number of Mesoamerican cultures also built pyramid-shaped structures. Mesoamerican pyramids were usually stepped, with temples on top, more similar to the Mesopotamian ziggurat than the Egyptian pyramid. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla. This pyramid is considered the largest monument ever constructed anywhere in the world, and is still being excavated. There is an unusual pyramid with a circular plan at the site of Cuicuilco, now inside Mexico City and mostly covered with lava from an ancient eruption of Xictli. Pyramids in Mexico were often used as places of human sacrifice. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The famous El Castillo (The castle), formally named Temple of Kukulcan, in the archeological city of Chichén-Itzá, in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The famous El Castillo (The castle), formally named Temple of Kukulcan, in the archeological city of Chichén-Itzá, in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... map of central portion of Chichen Itza Chichen Itza (IPA pronunciation: [1]) (from Yucatec Maya: , At the mouth of the well of the Itza) is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization located in the northern center of the Yucatán Peninsula, present-day Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2810x1668, 1670 KB) Summary Licensing If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2810x1668, 1670 KB) Summary Licensing If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Teotihuacán[1] was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. ... This article is about the culture area. ... Mesoamerican pyramids, pyramid-shaped structures, are an important part of Ancient Mesoamerican architecture. ... The Great Pyramid of Cholula, the worlds largest monument and largest Pre-Columbian pyramid by volume, is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Cuicuilco was an ancient Mexica city (circa 700 B.C. to A.D. 150) and is a significant archaeological site in the central Mexican highlands, near the southeastern portion of the valley of Mexico. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ...


Mesopotamian pyramids

The Mesopotamians also built pyramids, called ziggurats. In ancient times these were brightly painted. Since they were constructed of mud-brick, little remains of them. The Biblical Tower of Babel is believed to have been a Babylonian ziggurat. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


North American pyramids

Many mound-building societies of ancient North America built large pyramidal earth structures known as platform mounds. Among the largest and best-known of these structures is Monk's Mound at the site of Cahokia, which has a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid at Giza. While the North American mounds' precise function is not known, they are believed to have played a central role in the mound-building people's religious life. Miamisburg Mound, the largest conical mound in Ohio, is attributed to the Adena archaeological culture. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A Platform Mound is any earthwork intended to support a structure or activity. ... Monks Mound is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in North America north of Mesoamerica. ... Cahokia is the site of an ancient Native American city near Collinsville, Illinois, across the Mississippi River from St. ...


Nubian pyramids

Nubian pyramids were constructed (roughly 220 of them) at three sites in Nubia to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ...


The Nubians built more pyramids than the Egyptians, but they are smaller. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones and were monuments to dead kings[citation needed]. For the breed of goat of the same name, see Anglo-Nubian. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ...


Pyramids were still being built in Nubia up to AD 300.


Rome

Pyramid of Cestius.
Pyramid of Cestius.

The 27-meter-high Pyramid of Cestius was built by the end of the first century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo. Another one, named Meta Romuli, standing in the Ager Vaticanus (today's Borgo), was destroyed at the end of the 15th century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 931 KB) Summary Roma, Piramide Cestia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 931 KB) Summary Roma, Piramide Cestia. ... Pyramid of Cestius engraved by Giovanni Battista Piranesi The pyramid was included in the Aurelian Walls, and is close to Porta San Paolo (on the right). ... The Porta San Paolo is one of the southern gates in the ancient but well-preserved 3rd century Aurelian Walls of Rome, Italy. ... Logo of the rione Borgo is the XIV rione of Rome. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


These Roman imitations of Egyptian monuments are important as contemporary "portraits" of the Egyptian ones, providing some sense of their original color and smoothness.


Medieval Europe

Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the feudal era, e.g. as the tower of Oviedo's Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador. In some cases this leads to speculations on masonic or other symbolical intentions. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Cathedral of San Salvador is a large cathedral placed in the centre of Oviedo, in the Asturias region of northern Spain. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Modern pyramids

The Louvre Pyramid, a modern pyramid built as an entrance to the Louvre Museum in Paris

Examples of modern pyramids are: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The large glass pyramid of le musée du Louvre The Louvre Pyramid is a large metal and glass pyramid which serves as the main entrance to the Musée du Louvre and has become a landmark for the city of Paris. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

The large glass pyramid of le musée du Louvre The Louvre Pyramid is a large metal and glass pyramid which serves as the main entrance to the Musée du Louvre and has become a landmark for the city of Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the museum. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; b. ... The Transamerica Pyramid. ... William Leonard Pereira (April 25, 1909 – November 13, 1985) was an American architect from Chicago Illinois, of Portuguese ancestry[1] who was noted for his futuristic designs of landmark buildings such as the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco. ... The Pyramid Arena is a 21,000 seat arena located in downtown Memphis at the banks of the Mississippi River. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The University of Memphis is a public American research university located in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, and is the flagship public research university of the Tennessee Board of Regents system. ... This article is about the sport. ... NBA redirects here. ... This is an article about the National Basketball Association team; for the defunct World Football League team, see Memphis Southmen. ... Slovak Radio headquarters The Slovak Radio (Slovak: ) is the Slovak national public service radio broadcaster. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... The Walter Pyramid. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... The Walter Pyramid, the Universitys most prominent sporting complex and most recognizable landmark. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The view inside the Luxor. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... The Summum Pyramid The Summum Pyramid is a sanctuary and temple used by the organization of Summum for instruction in the Summum philosophy. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of Summum, see Summum (disambiguation). ... The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation (also known as the Pyramid of Peace and Accord) is a 62 m high pyramid in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Moody Gardens is a tourist complex in Galveston, Texas. ... Galveston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Stockport is a large town in the north west of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An office is a room or other area in which people work, but may also denote a position within an organisation with specific duties attached to it (see officer, office-holder, official); the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one... Stockport is a large town in the north west of England. ... The River Mersey is a river in the north west of England. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Muttart Conservatory The Muttart Conservatory is located in the North Saskatchewan river valley, across from downtown Edmonton. ... For other places with the same name, see Edmonton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... The Ryugyong Hotel (or Ryu-Gyong Hotel or Yu-Kyung Hotel or the 105 Building) is a partially constructed concrete skyscraper that was once intended for use as a hotel in Sojang-dong, in the Potong-gang District of Pyongyang, North Korea. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ...

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Helleniko Pyramid http://www.grecoreport.com/pyramids_in_ancient_greece.htm
  • Patricia Blackwell Gary and Richard Talcott, "Stargazing in Ancient Egypt," Astronomy, June 2006, pp. 62-67.
  • Fagan, Garrett. "Archaeological Fantasies." RoutledgeFalmer. 2006

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine dealing with issues about astronomy. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Pyramid - Encyclopedia Article (504 words)
A pyramid is a geometric shape formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point called the apex by triangular faces.
The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times.
Pyramid is a concept album by the Alan Parsons Project, released in 1978.
Pyramid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (870 words)
The ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, though many of the stones used for the purpose have fallen or been removed for other structures over the millennia.
The 27-meter-high Pyramid of Cestius was built by the end of the first century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo.
The Walter Pyramid, home of the basketball and volleyball teams of the California State University, Long Beach, campus in California, United States, is an 18-story-tall blue pyramid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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