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Encyclopedia > Pyramid
For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation).

A pyramid is any three-dimensional polyhedron where the faces other than the base are triangular and converge on one point, called the apex. The base of a pyramid can be any polygon; it is typically a square or a triangle, leading to four or three non-base faces. // See Pyramid (geometry) A pyramid is a three-dimensional polyhedron formed by connecting an n-sided polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by n triangular faces (n â‰¥ 3). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In geometry, the square pyramid, a pyramid with a square base and equilateral sides, is one of the Johnson solids (J1). ... For the game magazine, see Polyhedron (magazine). ... A triangle. ... Look up polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A pyramid is said to be regular if its base is a regular polygon and its upper faces are congruent isosceles triangles. A regular pentagon A regular polygon is a simple polygon (a polygon which does not intersect itself anywhere) which is equiangular (all angles are equal) and equilateral (all sides have the same length). ... An example of congruence. ... A triangle. ...

Cutting off the top of a pyramid, using a plane parallel to the plane of the base, leaves a frustrum of a pyramid, sometimes called a flat-topped pyramid, though it no longer satisfies the definition of a pyramid. A frustum is the portion of a solid &#8211; normally a cone or pyramid &#8211; which lies between two parallel planes cutting the solid. ...

Pyramid-shaped structures were built by many ancient civilizations. This article lists ancient pyramids by country. ...

### China

Main article: Chinese pyramids

There are many flat-topped pyramids in China. The First Emperor of Qin (circa 221 B.C.) was buried under a large pyramid outside modern day Xi'an. In the following centuries about a dozen more Han Dynasty royals were also buried under flat-topped pyramidal earth works. Xian, area of the majority of Chinese pyramids. ... Xian redirects here. ...

### Egyptian pyramids

The ancient pyramids of Egypt

The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids — huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the largest man-made constructions. In Ancient Egypt, a pyramid was referred to as mer, literally "place of ascendance." The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. Until Lincoln Cathedral was built in 1300 A.D., it was the tallest building in the world. The base is over 13 acres in area. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 532 pixelsFull resolution (4372 Ã— 2906 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 532 pixelsFull resolution (4372 Ã— 2906 pixel, file size: 4. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ...

It is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, though many of the stones used for the purpose have fallen or been removed for other structures. For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River...

### France

There is a Roman era pyramid built in Falicon, France. There were many more pyramids made in France in this period. // The Falicons pyramid The Falicons pyramid was build above the karstic Cave of the Bats (Occitan: Bauma des Ratapignata) on the surrounds of Nice, on the French Riviera. ...

### Greece

Pyramid of Hellinikon

There are several structures in Greece that archaeologists have called pyramids.[citation needed] Dotted throughout the landscape are remains of buildings that were described by ancient travelers as pyramids, they were first excavated by Americans and Germans in the early 1930s and the 1990s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 546 pixelsFull resolutionâ€Ž (1,733 Ã— 1,182 pixels, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 Ã— 546 pixelsFull resolutionâ€Ž (1,733 Ã— 1,182 pixels, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

There are two surviving pyramid-like structures still available to study, one at Helleniko and the other at Ligourio, a village near the ancient theatre Epidaurus. With these two pyramid’s base stones remaining, it is possible to determine that Grecian pyramids existed, but were not used as the Egyptians used them. These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. The buildings at Helleniko and Ligourio were no more than 100 feet tall and were surrounded by walls, with the base of the Helleniko pyramid being nine meters by 7 meters. The stone used to build the pyramids was limestone quarried locally and was cut to fit, not into freestanding blocks like the Great Pyramid of Giza. The base of the structures also differed from the Egyptian pyramids as they were rectangular, not square. This simple construction shape made it very difficult to make the top of the building come together in a point. As such, it makes more sense that these structures could have been peaked by a roof or platform. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ...

There are no remains or graves in or near the structures. Instead, the rooms that the walls housed were made to be locked from the inside. This coupled with the platform roof, means that one of the functions these structures could have served was as watchtowers. Another possibility for the buildings is that they are shrines to heroes and soldiers of ancient times, but the lock on the inside makes no sense for such a purpose.

The dating of these ‘pyramids’ has been made from the pot shards excavated from the floor and on the grounds. The latest dates available from scientific dating have been estimated around the 5th and 4th centuries. There are many researchers who have given dates to the structures that pre-date the pyramids at Giza, but the method to obtain these dates was thermoluminescence of the stone. Normally this technique is used for dating pottery, but here researchers have used it to try and date stone flakes from the walls of the structures. This has created some debate about whether or not these ‘pyramids’ are actually older than Egypt, which is part of the Black Athena controversy. The basis for their use of thermoluminescence in order to date these structures is a new method of collecting samples for testing. Scientists from laboratories hired out by the recent excavators of the site, The Academy of Athens, say that they can use the electrons trapped on the inner surface of the stones to positively identify the date that the stones were quarried and put together.

The issue with this method is that they date the pyramids with a margin of error of up to over 700 years. This method dated the Helleniko pyramid to 2730 B.C. with an error factor of plus or minus 720 years. It also dated the Ligourio pyramid to 2260 B.C. with an error of plus or minus 710 years. Though these initial dates are indicative of these structures being built before the pyramid complex at Giza, it also means that they could have been built well after Khufu’s Great Pyramid was erected. Some archaeologists, however, have indicated that these samples may have been very select in their choice of which stones to sample. Further excavations of the site at Helleniko reveal that it was constructed on a previously existing structure, giving a possibility that the new methods of dating may be a misinterpretation.

Along with these two structures there are 14 more pyramid-like buildings, or their remains, scattered throughout the rest of the country side of Greece. These sites do not get as much attention as the two at Helleniko and Ligourio as they are the only ones mentioned in surviving accounts of ancient travelers.

### India

Detail of the main gopura (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple pyramid in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu

### Mesoamerican pyramids

Pyramid in the Mayan city of Chichen-Itza, Mexico
Pyramid of the Sun on the city of Teotihuacán, Mexico

### Mesopotamian pyramids

The Mesopotamians also built pyramids, called ziggurats. In ancient times these were brightly painted. Since they were constructed of mud-brick, little remains of them. The Biblical Tower of Babel is believed to have been a Babylonian ziggurat. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...

### North American pyramids

Many mound-building societies of ancient North America built large pyramidal earth structures known as platform mounds. Among the largest and best-known of these structures is Monk's Mound at the site of Cahokia, which has a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid at Giza. While the North American mounds' precise function is not known, they are believed to have played a central role in the mound-building people's religious life. Miamisburg Mound, the largest conical mound in Ohio, is attributed to the Adena archaeological culture. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A Platform Mound is any earthwork intended to support a structure or activity. ... Monks Mound is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in North America north of Mesoamerica. ... Cahokia is the site of an ancient Native American city near Collinsville, Illinois, across the Mississippi River from St. ...

### Nubian pyramids

Nubian pyramids were constructed (roughly 220 of them) at three sites in Nubia to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ...

The Nubians built more pyramids than the Egyptians, but they are smaller. The Nubian pyramids were constructed at a steeper angle than Egyptian ones and were monuments to dead kings[citation needed]. For the breed of goat of the same name, see Anglo-Nubian. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ...

Pyramids were still being built in Nubia up to AD 300.

### Rome

Pyramid of Cestius.

The 27-meter-high Pyramid of Cestius was built by the end of the first century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo. Another one, named Meta Romuli, standing in the Ager Vaticanus (today's Borgo), was destroyed at the end of the 15th century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 931 KB) Summary Roma, Piramide Cestia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 931 KB) Summary Roma, Piramide Cestia. ... Pyramid of Cestius engraved by Giovanni Battista Piranesi The pyramid was included in the Aurelian Walls, and is close to Porta San Paolo (on the right). ... The Porta San Paolo is one of the southern gates in the ancient but well-preserved 3rd century Aurelian Walls of Rome, Italy. ... Logo of the rione Borgo is the XIV rione of Rome. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

These Roman imitations of Egyptian monuments are important as contemporary "portraits" of the Egyptian ones, providing some sense of their original color and smoothness.

## Medieval Europe

Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the feudal era, e.g. as the tower of Oviedo's Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador. In some cases this leads to speculations on masonic or other symbolical intentions. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Cathedral of San Salvador is a large cathedral placed in the centre of Oviedo, in the Asturias region of northern Spain. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...

## Modern pyramids

The Louvre Pyramid, a modern pyramid built as an entrance to the Louvre Museum in Paris

## References

1. ^ Helleniko Pyramid http://www.grecoreport.com/pyramids_in_ancient_greece.htm
• Patricia Blackwell Gary and Richard Talcott, "Stargazing in Ancient Egypt," Astronomy, June 2006, pp. 62-67.
• Fagan, Garrett. "Archaeological Fantasies." RoutledgeFalmer. 2006

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine dealing with issues about astronomy. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Encyclopedia4U - Pyramid - Encyclopedia Article (504 words) A pyramid is a geometric shape formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point called the apex by triangular faces. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. Pyramid is a concept album by the Alan Parsons Project, released in 1978.
 Pyramid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (870 words) The ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, though many of the stones used for the purpose have fallen or been removed for other structures over the millennia. The 27-meter-high Pyramid of Cestius was built by the end of the first century BC and still exists today, close to the Porta San Paolo. The Walter Pyramid, home of the basketball and volleyball teams of the California State University, Long Beach, campus in California, United States, is an 18-story-tall blue pyramid.
More results at FactBites »

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