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Peter Kropotkin
Peter Kropotkin

Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called "anarchist communism": the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. Because of his title and his prominence as an anarchist in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, he was known by some as "the Anarchist Prince". He left behind many books, pamphlets and articles, the most prominent being his works The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops, and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution. He was also a contributor to 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jump to: navigation, search December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of all forms of government and social hierarchy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Anarchist Communism, also known as Anarcho-Communism, Communo-Anarchism or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Cover of Elephant Editions reprint of Conquest Of Bread, 1985. ... Fields, Factories and Workshops is a landmark anarchist text by Peter Kropotkin, and arguably one of the most influential and positive statements of the anarchist political position. ... // What is science? There are various understandings of the word science. According to empiricism, scientific theories are objective, empirically testable, and predictive — they predict empirical results that can be checked and possibly contradicted. ... Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution (1902) was written by Peter Kropotkin while in exile in England. ... Jump to: navigation, search Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

Contents


Biography

Peter (or Pyotr) Kropotkin was born in Moscow. His father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, traced his male line to the legendary prince Rurik; his mother, the daughter of a general in the Russian army, had remarkable literary and liberal tastes. Jump to: navigation, search Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: listen ▶(?)) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a historic title of Slavic rulers. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about a real person named Rurik. ...


In 1857, at the age of fifteen, Kropotkin entered the Corps of Pages at St. Petersburg. Only a hundred and fifty boys — mostly children of the nobility belonging to the court — were educated at this privileged corps, which combined the character of a military school endowed with special rights and of a Court institution attached to the imperial household. He remained there till 1862, reading widely on his own account, and giving special attention to the works of the French encyclopaedists and to French history. Before he left Moscow, Prince Kropotkin had developed an interest in the condition of the Russian peasantry, and this interest increased as he grew older. The years 1857-1861 witnessed a rich growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, and Kropotkin came under the influence of the new Liberal-revolutionary literature, which indeed largely expressed his own aspirations. Since 1810, the Page Corps had been located in the Vorontsov Palace, designed by Rastrelli half a century earlier. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Jump to: navigation, search The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the template to the right. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th...


In 1862 he was promoted from the Corps of Pages to the army. The members of the corps had the prescriptive right of choosing the regiment to which they would be attached. Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St. Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work. For some time he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita, subsequently being appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk. Jump to: navigation, search 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Russia-related stubs | Universities and colleges in Russia | Saint Petersburg ... Jump to: navigation, search Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江, Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江, HÄ“ilóng Jiāng, or Black Dragon River; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is one of the world’s ten longest rivers, located between the Russian Far East and Manchuria of China. ... Transbaikal (Забайкалье in Russian) is a mountainous region to the east of the Lake Baikal in Russia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Chita (Russian: Чита́) is a city in Russia, and functions as the administrative center of Chita Oblast in eastern Siberia. ... A Decembrist house, with distinctive hand-carved trim. ...


Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria. Both these expeditions yielded most valuable geographical results. The impossibility of obtaining any real administrative reforms in Siberia now induced Kropotkin to devote himself almost entirely to scientific exploration, in which he continued to be highly successful. Jump to: navigation, search 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: ) is name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... The Songhua River (松花江 song4 hua1 jiang1) is the largest tributary of the Amur River, flowing about 1,800 km from Changbai Mountains. ... Geographers not only investigate what is where on Earth but also why it is there and not somewhere else. ...


He quit the army in 1867 and returned to St. Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the geography section of the Russian Geographical Society. In 1873 he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he proved that the existing maps of Asia entirely misrepresented the physical formation of the country, the main structural lines being in fact from south-west to north-east, not from north to south, or from east to west as had been previously supposed. Jump to: navigation, search World map showing Asia (geographically) Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia and worlds largest continent. ...


In 1871 he explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Russian Geographical Society, and while engaged in this work was offered the secretaryship of that society. But by this time he had determined that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existing knowledge among the people at large, and he accordingly refused the offer, and returned to St. Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party.


He visited Switzerland in 1872 and became a member of the International Workingmen's Association at Geneva. The socialism of this body was not, however, advanced enough for his views, and after studying the programme of the more radical Jura federation at Neuchâtel and spending some time in the company of the leading members, he definitely adopted the creed of anarchism. On returning to Russia, he took an active part in spreading revolutionary propaganda through the nihilist-led Circle of Tchaikovsky. Jump to: navigation, search The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jet dEau in Geneva Geneva (French: Genève) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (known in French as Lac Léman) flows into the Rhône River. ... Jump to: navigation, search The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... The Jura federation was the most important anti-authoritarian and anarchist section of the First International, based largely among watch-makers in the Jura mountain range in Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland Neuchâtel is a city in Switzerland which is the capital of the Canton of Neuchâtel. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Russian cultural and political movement. ... The Circle of Tchaikovsky was a Russian literary society for self-education. ...


In 1873 he was arrested and imprisoned, but escaped in 1876 and went to England, removing after a short stay to Switzerland, where he joined the Jura Federation. In 1877 he went to Paris, where he helped to start the socialist movement, returning to Switzerland in 1878, where he edited for the Jura Federation a revolutionary newspaper, Le Révolté, subsequently also publishing various revolutionary pamphlets. Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Jump to: navigation, search The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


In 1881, shortly after the assassination of the Tsar Alexander II, Kropotkin was expelled from Switzerland by the Swiss government, and after a short stay at Thonon (Savoy) went to London, where he remained for nearly a year, returning to Thonon towards the end of 1882. Shortly afterwards he was arrested by the French government, and, after a trial at Lyons, sentenced by a police-court magistrate (under a special law passed on the fall of the Paris Commune) to five years' imprisonment, on the ground that he had belonged to the International Workingmen's Association (1883). In 1886 however, as the result of repeated agitation on his behalf in the French Chamber, he was released, and settled near London. Jump to: navigation, search 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь, listen ▶(?); often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the Bulgarian Empire in 913-1396/1422 and 1908-1946, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in... Jump to: navigation, search Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation). ... The term Paris Commune originally referred to the government of Paris during the French Revolution. ...


In 1902 Kropotkin published the book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, which provided an additional means for animal and human survival, beyond claims of 'Survival of the Fittest' proffered at the time by some Darwinists, such as T.H. Huxley. (See Murray Bookchin and social ecology, and also sociobiology). Jump to: navigation, search 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 - June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Murray Bookchin (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Jump to: navigation, search Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that attempts to explain behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ...

"In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense -- not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution. The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay."
-- Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902), Conclusion.

Prince Kropotkin's authority as a writer on Russia is universally acknowledged, and he has contributed largely to the Encyclopædia Britannica, including an entry on anarchism in the 1910 edition (see external links, below). Jump to: navigation, search 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt - look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia, first published in 1768-1771 as From the late...


Kropotkin returned to Russia after the February Revolution. He died on February 8, 1921 in the city of Dmitrov, Moscow province and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow. The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Jump to: navigation, search February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Dmitrov (Дмитров in Russian) is a city in Moscow Oblast of Russia, 65 km to the north of Moscow. ... Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище) is located in Moscow, Russia and is the citys third most popular tourist site. ...


Timeline of Kropotkin's Life

  • 1857 - joins the Corps of Pages where he begins to develop a rebellious reputation.
  • 1858 - Peter's early writings show interest in political economy and statistics, begins contact with "real" peasants.
  • 1861 - Peter has his first prison experience as a result of participating in a student protest.
  • 1862 - becomes disillusioned with royalty when as page de chambre to the tsar he witnesses the extravagances of court life.
  • 1862-1867 - at his own request serves with the military in Siberia. Witnesses the living conditions there, and the unwillingness of the corrupt administration to do anything to improve this.
  • 1868-1870 - pursues survey and geographical studies.
  • 1871 - becomes interested in the workers' movement and the events surrounding the Paris Commune.
  • 1872 - travels to Switzerland, where he joins the International; returns to Russia with a quantity of prohibited socialist literature.
  • 1873 - as a member of the Chaikovskii Circle, he helps with rewriting pamphlets in a way that can be understood by the uneducated; he shows great ability for communicating with the workers.
  • 1874 - Peter is imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress because of his revolutionary activities. At the intervention of the Geographical Society, he is given special dispensation to work on a paper on glacial periods.
  • 1876 - Escapes from a military hospital and moves to England.
  • 1877 - Returns to Switzerland to work with the Jura Federation. Attends the last meeting of the First International in Ghent.
  • 1881 - Attends the International Anarchist congress in London. In his propaganda of deed he supports the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on the grounds that an explosion is far more effective than a vote in encouraging the workers to revolution. This gets him kicked out of Switzerland. The Russian government is embarrassed when he discovers a plot to assassinate him in London.
  • 1882 - Shortly after moving to France he is arrested for his work in The International and sentenced to five years in prison. He stays there until 1886 when he is released on condition that he leave France.
  • 1886 - returns to England. Learns of his brother Alexander's suicide in Siberian exile for political activity.
  • 1890s - Spends most of his time writing. Visits Canada and the United States in 1897. The Atlantic Monthly agrees to publish his memoirs. In his books he attempts to develop an anarchist-communist view of society.
  • 1901-1909 - writes material in Russian for readers in his homeland. He was very disappointed by the failure of the 1905 revolution.
  • 1909-1914 - returns to Switzerland on condition that he refrain from anarchist activities. Tries to publicize the massacre of 270 workers at the Lena gold mines, but this activity is cut short by World War I.
  • 1914-1917 - actively supports the war against Germany as a war against the state. This position, a strange and questionable one for an anarchist to take, alienated him from many of his associates, particularly Errico Malatesta.
  • 1917 - Returns to Petrograd where he helps the Kerensky government to formulate policy. He curtails his activity when the Bolsheviks come to power.
  • 1921 - His funeral at the Novodevichy Cemetery, with Lenin's approval, becomes the last mass gathering of anarchists in Russia.

Jump to: navigation, search 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1858 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь, listen â–¶(?); often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the Bulgarian Empire in 913-1396/1422 and 1908-1946, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in... Jump to: navigation, search 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The term Paris Commune originally referred to the government of Paris during the French Revolution. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1872 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Circle of Tchaikovsky was a Russian literary society for self-education. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1917 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the Russian Provisional Government, immediately before the Bolsheviks and Lenin came to power. ... Jump to: navigation, search Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище) is located in Moscow, Russia and is the citys third most popular tourist site. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...

Works

Books

Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution (1902) was written by Peter Kropotkin while in exile in England. ... Cover of Elephant Editions reprint of Conquest Of Bread, 1985. ... Fields, Factories and Workshops is a landmark anarchist text by Peter Kropotkin, and arguably one of the most influential and positive statements of the anarchist political position. ...

Articles

  • "Research on the Ice age", Notices of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, 1876.
  • "The desiccation of Eur-Asia", Geographical Journal, 23 (1904), 722-741.

Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Pamphlets

  • Listen, Anarchist!
  • Appeal to the Young

See also

Katorga (ка́торга, from Greek: katergon (galley)) was a system of penal servitude in Imperial Russia. ...

External links and references

Sources: 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, [1]; The Anarchists, James Joll. ISBN 0-416-72250-4 (hardback) ISBN 0-416-72260-1 (paperback) The Anarchists is a book by the historian James Joll. ... Jump to: navigation, search Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

  • George Woodcock The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peter Kropotkin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1821 words)
Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called "anarchist communism": the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government.
Peter (or Pyotr) Kropotkin was born in Moscow.
Kropotkin returned to Russia after the February Revolution and was offered the ministry of education in the provisional government, a post he rejected.
Peter Kropotkin (1491 words)
Prince Peter Alexeievich Kropotkin (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called "anarchist communism": the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communist society free from central government.
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University[?], he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River[?] into the heart of Manchuria.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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