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Encyclopedia > Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pjotr Il’ič Čajkovskij; listen )[1] ( May 7 [O.S. April 25] 1840November 6 [O.S. October 25] 1893) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. While not part of the nationalistic music group known as "The Five", Tchaikovsky wrote music which was distinctly Russian: plangent, introspective, often modal-sounding. Tchaikovsky may refer to MichaÅ‚ Czajkowski (1804-1886), Polish/Ukranian writer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), Russian composer Nikolai Tchaikovsky (1851-1926), Russian revolutionary Boris Tchaikovsky (1925-1996), Russian composer Tchaikovsky and Other Russians, the patter song by Kurt Weill to lyrics by Ira Gershwin, popularised by Danny Kaye This... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Ru-Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under... In music, a scale is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ...

Contents

Life

Childhood and early manhood

Pyotr Tchaikovsky was born on April 25, 1840 (Julian calendar) or May 7 (Gregorian calendar) in Votkinsk, a small town in present-day Udmurtia (at the time the Vyatka Guberniya of Imperial Russia). He was the son of a mining engineer in the government mines and the second of his three wives, Alexandra, a Russian woman of French ancestry. He was the older brother (by some ten years) of the dramatist, librettist, and translator Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky. The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Votkinsk (Во́ткинск) is a small industrial town in the ural parts of the District of Viatka in former Vyatka Province in Udmurtia, Russia. ... The Udmurt Republic (Russian: ; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Kirov (Ки́ров) is a city in eastern European Russia, on the Vyatka River, capital of Kirov Oblast. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... Libretto can also refer to a sub-notebook PC manufactured by Toshiba. ... Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Modest Tchaikovsky Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Модест Ильич Чайковский, May 13 [OS May 1] 1850, Alapaevsk – January 15 [OS January 2] 1916, Moscow) was a Russian dramatist, opera librettist and translator. ...


Musically precocious, Pyotr began piano lessons at age five with a local woman, Mariya Palchikova, and within three years could read music as well as his teacher. In 1850, his father was appointed director of the St Petersburg Technological Institute. There, the young Tchaikovsky obtained an education at the School of Jurisprudence. Though music was not considered a high priority on the curriculum, Tchaikovsky was taken with classmates on regular visits to the theater and the opera. He was very taken with the works of Rossini, Bellini, Verdi and Mozart. The only music instruction he received at school was some piano tuition from Franz Becker, a piano manufacturer who made occasional visits as a token music teacher. A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Lapel pin of a graduate from Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Technology Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technological University) (Russian: ) is one of the oldest institutions of higher education in Russia (founded in 1828), that currently trains around 5000 students. ... Hall of the School of Jursiprudence, a 1840 painting by Sergey Zaryanko. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...

Tchaikovsky as bureaucrat.
Tchaikovsky as bureaucrat.

Tchaikovsky's mother died of cholera in 1854. The 14-year-old Tchaikovsky took the news hard; for two years, he could not write about his loss. He reacted by turning to music. Within a month of her death, he was making his first serious efforts at composition, a waltz in her memory. Image File history File links Youngtchaik. ... Image File history File links Youngtchaik. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... A waltz (German: , Italian: , French: , Spanish: , Catalan: ) is a ballroom and folk dance in   time, done primarily in closed position. ...


Tchaikovsky's father indulged his interest in music, funding studies with Rudolph Kündinger, a well-known piano teacher from Nuremberg, beginning in 1855. But when Tchaikovsky's father consulted Kündinger about prospects for a musical career for his son, Kündinger wrote that nothing suggested a potential composer or even a fine performer. Tchaikovsky was told to finish his course work, then try for a post in the Ministry of Justice. “Nürnberg” redirects here. ...


Tchaikovsky graduated on May 25, 1859 with the rank of titular counselor, the lowest rung of the civil service ladder. On June 15, he was appointed to the Ministry of Justice. Six months later the Ministry made him a junior assistant to his department and a senior assistant two months after that, where he remained.


In 1861, Tchaikovsky learned of music classes being held by the Russian Musical Society (RMS) by accident. According to Tchaikovsky's friend Nikolay Kashkin, Tchaikovsky enjoyed a friendly rivalry with a music-loving cousin, an officer in the Horse Grenadiers. This cousin boasted one day that he could make the transition from one key to any other in no more than three chords. Tchaikovsky took up this challenge and lost, then learned his cousin had learned it from Nikolai Zaremba's RMS class in music theory. The Russian Musical Society (RMS) was an organisation founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and her protégé, pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein, with the intent of raising the standard of music in the country and disseminating musical education... Nikolai Ivanovich Zaremba (15 June 1821 - 8 April 1879) was a Russian musical theorist and composer. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ...


Tchaikovsky promptly began studies with Zaremba. The following year, when Zaremba joined the faculty of the new St Petersburg Conservatory, Tchaikovsky followed his teacher and enrolled, but still did not give up his post at the ministry, until his father consented to support him. From 1862 to 1865, Tchaikovsky studied harmony, counterpoint and fugue with Zaremba, and instrumentation and composition under the director and founder of the Conservatory, Anton Rubinstein, who was impressed by Tchaikovsky's talent. Theatre Square and the conservatory in 1913. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... Rubinsteins portrait by Ilya Repin. ...


After graduating, Tchaikovsky was approached by Anton Rubinstein's younger brother Nikolai to become professor of harmony, composition, and the history of music. Tchaikovsky gladly accepted the position, as his father had retired and lost his property. Nikolai Rubinstein Born Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (2 June 1835–23 March 1881) was a Russian pianist and composer. ... For the academic study of history of music, see Music history. ...


Tchaikovsky and the Five

See also: Tchaikovsky and the Five

As Tchaikovsky studied with Zaremba, the critic Vladimir Stasov and the composer Mily Balakirev formed a nationalistic school of music, recruiting what would be known as The Mighty Handful (better known in English as "The Five") in St. Petersburg. As he became Anton Rubinstein's best known student, Tchaikovsky was associated by The Five with the conservative opposition. However, when Rubinstein exited the St. Petersburg musical scene in 1867, Tchaikovsky entered into a working relationship with Balakirev, resulting in the fantasy-overture Romeo and Juliet. The young Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ... Portrait of Balakirev Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian: , Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) (January 2, 1837 – May 29, 1910) was a Russian composer. ... The Mighty Handful, also known as The Five in English-speaking countries (and by comparable translation of such in other languages), was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under the leadership of Mily Balakirev with the... Romeo and Juliet is a musical work by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, subtitled Overture-Fantasy. ...


Tchaikovsky remained ambivalent about The Five's music and goals, and his relationship with its members was cordial but never close. Tchaikovsky enjoyed close relations with Alexander Glazunov, Anatol Lyadov and, at least on the surface, the elder Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Portrait by Ilya Repin, 1887. ... Anatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov (Анатолий Константинович Лядов), often transliterated Liadov, (May 11, 1855 - August 28, 1914) was a Russian composer, teacher and conductor. ... Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: Никола́й Андре́евич Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков), also Nikolai, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 18, 1844 &#8211...


Homosexuality, marriage and Dostoyevsky

See also: Tchaikovsky's personal life

Tchaikovsky's homosexuality, as well as its importance to his life and music, has been known to the West for at least 75 years. Suppressed in Russia by the Soviets, it has only recently become widely known in post-Soviet Russia. Evidence that Tchaikovsky was homosexual is drawn from his letters and diaries, as well as the letters of his brother, Modest, who was also a homosexual.[2] Tchaikovsky in 1874 Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich reportedly told Solomon Volkov, Really, musicians do like to talk about Mussorgsky, in fact I think that its the second favorite topic after Tchaikovskys love life[1]. Though the veracity of the book in which that quote appears, Testimony: The Memoirs... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


More controversial is how comfortable Tchaikovsky might have been with his sexual nature. Alexander Poznansky surmises that the composer "eventually came to see his sexual peculiarities as an insurmountable and even natural part of his personality ... without experiencing any serious psychological damage."[3] On the other hand, the British musicologist and scholar Henry Zajaczkowski's research "along psychoanalytical lines" points instead to "a severe unconscious inhibition by the composer of his sexual feelings":

One consequence of it may be sexual overindulgence as a kind of false solution: the individual thereby persuades himself that he does accept his sexual impulses. Complementing this and, also, as a psychological defense mechanism, would be precisely the idolization by Tchaikovsky of many of the young men of his circle [the self-styled "Fourth Suite"], to which Poznansky himself draws attention. If the composer's response to possible sexual objects was either to use and discard them or to idolize them, it shows that he was unable to form an integrated, secure relationship with another man. That, surely, was [Tchaikovsky's] tragedy.[4]

Tchaikovsky with his wife Antonina Miliukova.

One of his conservatory students, Antonina Miliukova, began writing him passionate letters around the time that he had made up his mind to "marry whoever will have me." He hastily married her on July 18, 1877. Within days, while still on their honeymoon, he deeply regretted his decision. Two weeks after the wedding the composer supposedly attempted suicide by putting himself into the freezing Moscow River. Once recovered from the effects of that, he fled to St Petersburg --his mind verging on a nervous breakdown. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Antonina Ivanovna Tchaikovskaya (née Miliukova) (1849–1917) was the wife (and after 1893, the widow) of Russian composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... Antonina Ivanovna Tchaikovskaya (née Miliukova) (1849–1917) was the wife (and after 1893, the widow) of Russian composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Tchaikovsky's marital debacle forced him to face the truth concerning his sexuality. He wrote to his brother Anatoly that there was "nothing more futile than wanting to be anything other than what I am by nature."[5]


Moreover, the mental and emotional strain the composer suffered from his abortive marriage may have enhanced rather than endangered his creativity. Despite some interruptions, the six months between Tchaikovsky's engagement to Antonina and his "rest cure" in Clarens, Switzerland, following his marriage saw him complete two of his finest works, the Fourth Symphony and the opera Eugene Onegin. Clarens is a small farming town situated in the foothills of the Rooiberge in the Free State Province of South Africa and called the Jewel of the Free State. It was established in 1912 and named after the town in Switzerland where exiled Paul Kruger spent his last days. ... Peter Ilich Tchaikovskys Symphony No. ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ...


Because of the intense emotional directness now manifest in Tchaikovsky's music, starting with the Fourth Symphony, in Russia the composer's name started being placed alongside that of the novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky. A typical passage about the two reads, "With a hidden passion they both stop at moments of horror, total spiritual collapse, and finding acute sweetness in the cold trepidation of the heart before the abyss, they both force the reader to experience those feelings, too."[6] Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...


Beginning with the Fourth, Tchaikovsky's younger contemporaries equated his symphonies with Dostoyevsky's psychological novels. This was because they heard, for the first time in Russian music, an ambivalent, suffering personality at the heart of these works. They felt that like Dostoyevsky's characters, Tchaikovsky's hero persisted in exploring the meaning of life while trapped in a fatal love-death-faith triangle in the Dostoyevskian fashion.


Timely benefactress

Nadezhda von Meck, Tchaikovsky's patroness and confidante from 1877 to 1890.

One who was especially taken with Tchaikovsky's music was Nadezhda von Meck, the wealthy widow of a Russian railway tycoon. Von Meck had commissioned some minor works from Tchaikovsky and begun an ongoing correspondence just before his marital episode. Tchaikovsky in turn had asked her for loans to cover his marital and living expenses. Now von Meck suggested paying Tchaikovsky an annual subsidy of 6,000 rubles a year, in monthly installments, to avoid any embarrassment of asking for future loans. This would also allow Tchaikovsky to resign from the Moscow Conservatory in October 1878 and concentrate primarily on composition. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nadezhda von Meck. ... Nadezhda von Meck. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ...


Von Meck and Tchaikovsky's correspondence would grow to over 1,200 letters between 1877 and 1890. The details of these letters are extraordinary for two people who would never even meet, let alone become lovers. Tchaikovsky was also prepared to be more openly and abundantly confiding to his patroness about some of his attitudes to life and about his creative processes than to any other person.


However, after 13 years she ended the relationship unexpectedly, claiming bankruptcy. During this period, Tchaikovsky had already achieved success throughout Europe and the United States by 1891. Von Meck's claim of financial ruin is disregarded by some who believe that she ended her patronage of Tchaikovsky because she supposedly discovered the composer's homosexuality. The two later became related by marriage — one of her sons, Nikolay, married Tchaikovsky's niece Anna Davydova.


Later career

After a year away from his post following his marriage and its aftermath, Tchaikovsky returned to Moscow Conservatory in the fall of 1879. Shortly into that term, however, he resigned. Tchaikovsky eventually settled at his sister's estate in Kamenka, just outside Kiev. Even with this base, he travelled incessantly. With the assurance of a regular income from von Meck, he took advantage of open-ended wandering around Europe and rural Russia. He did not stay long in any one place, lived mainly solitary and avoided social contact whenever possible. During these rootless years, Tchaikovsky's reputation as a composer grew rapidly outside Russia. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


In 1880, during the commemoration of the Pushkin Monument in Moscow, Dostoyevsky gave a famous speech on Pushkin, in which he called for the Russian "to become brother to all men, uniman, if you will." [7] While Dostoyevsky had been a fervent nationalist, like Tchaikovsky he also had a trait that Osip Mandelstam would call "a longing for world culture." [7] The conclusion he gave in his speech on the "European" essence of Pushkin's work was that the poet had given a prophetic call to Russia for "universal unity" with the West[7] Reaction to this speech was unprecedented, with acclaim for Dostoyevsky's message spreading quickly throughout Russia. “Pushkin” redirects here. ... Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ...


The benefit of the uniman speech for Tchaikovsky was overwhelming. Before it, Alexandre Benois writes in his memoirs, "it was considered obligatory [in progressive musical circles] to treat Tchaikovsky as a renegade, a master overly dependent on the West." [7] He drew a cult following among the young intelligentsia of St. Petersburg, including Benois, Leon Bakst and Sergei Diaghilev. Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (May 4, 1870, St Petersburg - February 9, 1960, Paris) was probably the most important member of the artistic Benois family. ... Leon Bakst (1866-1942) was a Russian painter and scene- and costume- designer. ... Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ...

Tchaikovsky at Cambridge, 1893.
Tchaikovsky at Cambridge, 1893.

In 1885 Tsar Alexander III conferred upon Tchaikovsky the Order of St. Vladimir (fourth class). This gave the composer the right of hereditary nobility. That year, Tchaikovsky resettled in Russia — at first in Maidanovo, near Klin; then Frolovskoye, also near Klin, in 1888; and finally in Klin itself in 1891. After Tchaikovsky's death, his brother Modest and his nephew Vladimir "Bob" Davydov converted this house into a museum in the composer's honor. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... The Order of Saint Vladimir was an Imperial Russian Order established in 1782 in memory of the deeds of Saint Vladimir, the Kniaz (Prince) and the Baptizer of the Kievan Rus. ... Categories of Russian nobility and royalty Kniaz (as ancient ruler) Velikiy Kniaz Boyar Tsar (Emperor), Tsarina (Empress, Empress consort) Tsar family Tsarevich, Tsarevna Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Duke) (as title), Velikaya Knyaginya (Grand Duchess), Velikaya Knyazhna (Grand Duchess) Dvoryanstvo Titled Dvoryanstvo Earl Baron Kniaz (as title) Related article Table of Ranks... Klin (Клин) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. ...


Tchaikovsky took to orchestral conducting after filling in at a performance in Moscow of his opera The Enchantress (Russian: Чародейка) (1885-7). Overcoming a life-long stage fright, his confidence gradually increased to the extent that he regularly took to conducting his pieces. A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... The Enchantress, also The Sorceress or Charodeyka (Russian: Чароде ́йка) is an opera in 4 acts (1885-87) by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Tchaikovsky visited America in 1891 in a triumphant tour to conduct performances of his works. On May 5, he conducted the New York Music Society's orchestra in a performance of Marche Slave on the opening night of New York's Carnegie Hall. That evening was followed by subsequent performances of his Third Suite on May 7, and the a cappella choruses Pater Noster and Legend on May 8. The U.S. tour also included performances of his First Piano Concerto and Serenade for Strings. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The New York Symphony Society was an orchestra founded in New York City by Leopold Damrosch in 1878. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... Slavonic March is a musical composition written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... Pater Noster may refer to: The Lords Prayer, a Christian prayer paternoster lift, a kind of elevator This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys Piano Concerto No. ... Tchaikovskys Serenade for Strings in C major, Op. ...


In 1893, Cambridge University awarded Tchaikovsky an honorary Doctor of Music degree. Other composers similarly honored on the same occasion included Camille Saint-Saëns, Max Bruch, Arrigo Boito and Edvard Grieg (who was unable to attend personally, due to illness). The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, and Symphony No. ... Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (Cologne, January 6, 1838 – Friedenau, October 20, 1920) was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including a violin concerto which is a staple of the violin repertoire. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ...


Death

Tchaikovsky's tomb at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery
Tchaikovsky's tomb at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery
See also: Death of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Tchaikovsky died nine days after the premiere of his Sixth Symphony, the Pathétique, on November 6, 1893. Download high resolution version (1324x1765, 1127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1324x1765, 1127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ... Tchaikovskys tomb at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery Nine days after the premiere of the Sixth Symphony, the Pathétique, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky died on 6 November 1893. ... Excerpt from the fourth movement of Tchaikovskys Pathetique Symphony. ...


Most biographers of Tchaikovsky's life have considered his death to have been caused by cholera, most probably contracted through drinking contaminated water several days earlier. In recent decades, however, theories have been advanced that his death was a suicide. According to one variation of the theory, a sentence of suicide was imposed in a "court of honor" by Tchaikovsky's fellow alumni of the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence, as a censure of the composer's homosexuality. Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


Tchaikovsky's life in media

Tchaikovsky's life is the subject of Ken Russell's fictionalized motion picture The Music Lovers (1970). Two other motion pictures were based on his life - the low-budget, fictionalized Song of My Heart, released in 1948, and the 1972 Russian-language "Tchaikovsky", which was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell, known as Ken Russell (born July 3, 1927), is an iconoclastic English film director, particularly well-known for his films about famous composers and his controversial, often outrageous pioneering work in film. ... The Music Lovers is a 1971 biopic of the 19th century Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, as conceived by maverick director Ken Russell. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... As a Special Award 1947 Shoeshine (Sciuscià) (Italy) - Societa Co-operativa Alfa Cinematografica - Paolo William Tamburella producer - Vittorio De Sica director 1948 Monsieur Vincent (France) - E. D. I. C., Union Général Cinématographique - George de la Grandiere producer - Maurice Cloche director 1949 The Bicycle Thief (Ladri di biciclette...


In November 1993 the BBC aired a documentary entitled Pride or Prejudice, which investigated various theories regarding Tchaikovsky's death. The English composer Michael Finnissy composed a short opera, Shameful Vice, about Tchaikovsky's last days and death. Michael Finnissy is an English composer and pianist born in Tulse Hill, London in 1946. ...


Music

See also: List of compositions by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Tchaikovsky wrote several works well known among the general classical public—Romeo and Juliet, the 1812 Overture and Marche Slave. These, along with two of his concertos and three of his latter symphonies, are probably his most familiar works, thanks in part to Tchaikovsky's considerable gift for melody, along with the emotional accessibility of his music. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... Romeo and Juliet is a musical work by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, subtitled Overture-Fantasy. ... The 1812 Overture (full title: Festival Overture The Year 1812 in E flat major, Op. ... Slavonic March is a musical composition written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Original cast of Tchaikovsky's ballet, The Sleeping Beauty, St Petersburg, 1890

Tchaikovsky is well known for his ballets, although it was only in his last years, with his last two ballets, that his contemporaries came to really appreciate his finer qualities as ballet music composer. His final ballet, The Nutcracker, has become among the most popular ballets performed, primarily around Christmas time. He also completed ten operas, although one of these is mostly lost and another exists in two significantly different versions. In the West his most famous operas are Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades. Image File history File links Sleeping_beauty_cast. ... Image File history File links Sleeping_beauty_cast. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Ballet as musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. ... (left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker, an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier, and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhskys costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker, St. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ...


Tchaikovsky's earlier symphonies are generally optimistic works of nationalistic character. The later symphonies are more intensely dramatic, with the Fourth a breakthrough work; there Tchaikovsky found the symphonic method that matched his temperament to his talents. The most famous of these, the Sixth, is especially interpreted by many as a declaration of despair. These two symphonies, along with the Fifth, are recognized as highly original examples of symphonic form and are frequently performed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Peter Ilich Tchaikovskys Symphony No. ... Excerpt from the fourth movement of Tchaikovskys Pathetique Symphony. ... Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky composed his Symphony No. ...


In the ten years between the Fourth and Fifth Symphonies, Tchaikovsky also wrote four orchestral suites. He originally intended to designate the Third Suite a symphony - but, as he told Taneyev, "... the title is of no importance". [8]. Tchaikovsky used the suites to experiment with new instrumental combinations. In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or recording without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. ...


Among Tchaikovsky's concertos, his First Piano Concerto is now the best known and among the most frequently played piano concerti. The same holds true for his Violin Concerto, but he wrote two other works for piano and orchestra and left another unfinished at his death. In addition, Tchaikovsky composed two concertante works for cello and orchestra — the Variations on a Rococo theme and Pezzo capriccioso. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys Piano Concerto No. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... The Violin Concerto in D major, Op. ... Sinfonia concertante is a musical form that originated in the classical music era, and is a mixture of the symphony and the concerto genres: It is a concerto, in that it has one or more soloists (in the classical music era usually more than one). ... Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ... The Variations on a Rococo theme for violoncello and orchestra in A major Op. ... Tchaikovsky composed his Pezzo Capriccioso for cello and orchestra in a single week in August 1887. ...


Musical style

“Love led the two of us unto one death” (Dante, Inferno V.108). Illustration of Francesca da Rimini by Gustave Dore.
“Love led the two of us unto one death” (Dante, Inferno V.108). Illustration of Francesca da Rimini by Gustave Dore.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gianciotto Discovers Paolo and Francesca by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Francesca da Rimini or Francesca da Polenta (died 1285) was the beautiful daughter of Guido da Polenta of Ravenna. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (1855) Paul Gustave Doré (January 6, 1832 - January 23, 1883), a French artist, was born in Strasbourg. ...

Arch romantic

Tchaikovsky demonstrated the Romantic ideals of color, emotional expressiveness, and dramatic intensity. He fused many elements of his style into a single symphonic experience — his love of dance and folk music, his feelings of the Russian countryside and people, and his sense of Fate. The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ...


Tchaikovsky was also typically Romantic in his choice of subject matter in his operas and symphonic poems. He leaned toward doomed lovers and heroines — Romeo and Juliet, Francesca and Paolo (Francesca da Rimini), Tatiana (Eugene Onegin), even the title character from his abandoned opera Undina. The composer, Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys symphonic poem Francesca da Rimini, Op. ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... For disambiguation see Undine Undina (also Undine or Ondine_ (Russian: Ундина) is an opera in 3 acts ( composed in 1869) by Pyotr Tchaikovsky to the Russian libretto by Vladimir Sollogub, after Vasily Zhukovskys translation of Friedrich de la Motte-Fouqués Ondine. // Creation and performance history The opera was composed...


Sometimes, as in his final opera, Iolanta, and in his final tone poem, The Voyevode, the love music could outshine the rest of the composition. This could happen especially in Tchaikovsky's choices of opera subjects. He could become interested in an otherwise sub-standard story if a heroine or love scene caught his attention. This article describes the Tchaikovsky Gilbert and Sullivan, see Iolanthe. ...


Melody and tone color

Tchaikovsky stood out from many of his contemporaries in his great fund of melody and quality of that melody—sweet and at times bittersweet in tone, sensuous in the undulations of the melodic line, and lush in texture. Some of those melodies have proved popular enough for Tin Pan Alley song composers to re-use. Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ...


Tchaikovsky's melodic line is expressively full and provides a clear periodic structure. That structure can be obscured by melodic phrase's sheer expansiveness, as well as by its sequential extension. The love theme in Romeo and Juliet is an example. The theme starts as an eight-bar phrase, the second half a free sequence of the first. This sequence establishes a principle of growth which is used on the theme's recurrence to expand freely and unpredictably. A sequence in music occurs when a given melodic or harmonic passage is successively repeated at different pitches (transposed). ... A sequence in music occurs when a given melodic or harmonic passage is successively repeated at different pitches (transposed). ...


Imperial style

Tchaikovsky's musical cosmopolitanism made him especially adept in writing in an "Imperial style" favored by Tsar Alexander III and the Russian upper classes, as opposed to the "Russian" harmonies of Mussorgsky, Borodin and Rimsky-Korsakov. Imperial style, the historian Orlando Figis writes, was symbolized by the polonaise. Imported into Russia by the Polish composer Jozef Kozlowski near the end of the 18th century, the polonaise "became the supreme courtly form and the most brilliant of all the ballroom genres." [9] The polonaise also came to symbolize the European brilliance of 18th-century Petersburg itself. Pushkin and Tchaikovsky both use this dance for Tatiana's climactic entry in the ball scene of Eugene Onegin. Leo Tolstoy also uses it at the climax of the ball in War and Peace, where the Emperor makes his appearance and Natasha dances with Andrei. Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... Typical rhythm of a Polonaise For a robe à la polonaise, see Polonaise (clothing). ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ...

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northen in the 19th century
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northen in the 19th century

Tchaikovsky's writing in Imperial style echoed a theme traditional in Russian culture and first sounded by Pushkin. This theme was glorification of the Russian empire and the victories of Russian arms. The rapid expansion of the empire following the defeat of Napoleon, the ethnic variety of its peoples and the capital's growing appetite for conquests was reflected especially in Russian music. 19th century art. ... 19th century art. ... Adolph Northen (also credited as Adolf Northen,[1] Adolf Northern[2] or Adolph Northern)[3] (November 6, 1828 - May 28, 1876) was a 19th century German painter. ... “Pushkin” redirects here. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Tchaikovsky made full use of the emotional and symbolic possibilities of the Russian anthem "God Save the Tsar" in several commemorative works — including two of his most popular compositions, the Marche Slave and the 1812 Overture. Tchaikovsky wrote Marche Slave in support of one of the most cherished ideas of imperial Russia — Pan-Slavism. When Serbia rebelled against Turkish rule in 1876, the atmosphere in Russia toward the Serbs became so electric that performances of the Marche Slave, with its Serbian folk melodies, inevitably elicited outbursts of patriotism. This was something the equally patriotic composer did not mind one bit. The 1812 Overture likewise glorified the greatest military and political victory of the Romanov dynasty, in the Patriotic War against Napoleon. God save the Tsar! was the national anthem of Imperial Russia. ... Slavonic March is a musical composition written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... The 1812 Overture (full title: Festival Overture The Year 1812 in E flat major, Op. ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Nightmares, whimsy, delicate fantasy

In The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, Tchaikovsky conjures a "world of captivating nightmares" of E.T.A. Hoffmann, as Alexandre Benois phrases it, "a mixture of strange truth and convincing invention."[10] Another glimpse of this world comes earlier, with the movement titled "Rêves d'enfant" (A Child's Dream) from the Second Suite for orchestra. After a strange, unnerving section of music with no apparent harmonic foundation, the music eventually reverts to the peaceful state in which it started. The Apotheosis from the Kirov/Mariinsky Ballets reconstruction of Petipas original 1890 production of The Sleeping Beauty. ... (left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker, an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier, and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhskys costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker, St. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ...


Tchaikovsky also had a lighter side. He could be whimsical, such as in the "Chacteristic Dances" that make up most of Act Two of The Nutcracker and, several years earlier, the "Marche miniature" (originally titled "March of the Lilliputians") from the First Suite. He could also be good-natured, almost tongue-in-cheek, such as in the scherzo and gavotte which follow the "Marche miniature" in the First Suite and the "Danse baroque" which concludes the Second Suite. Then there are moments of delicate, almost ethereal fantasy, as in the scherzo of the Manfred Symphony, subtitled "The Alpine Fairy appears before Manfred in a rainbow." Lilliput and Blefuscu are two island nations that appear in the 1726 novel Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... A gavotte dance in Brittany, France, 1878 The gavotte (also gavot or gavote) originated as a French folk dance, taking its name from the Gavot people of the Pays de Gap region of Dauphiné, where the dance originated. ... Manfred Symphony in B minor, Op. ...

"Reclining upon a bed was a princess of radiant beauty." Illustration by Gustave Dore.
"Reclining upon a bed was a princess of radiant beauty." Illustration by Gustave Dore.[11]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (1855) Paul Gustave Doré (January 6, 1832 - January 23, 1883), a French artist, was born in Strasbourg. ...

"Passé-ism"

In The Sleeping Beauty and The Queen of Spades, Tchaikovsky reconstructs the imperial grandeur of the 18th-Century world. Tchaikovsky sets The Sleeping Beauty in the realm of Louis XIV, a nostalgic tribute to the French influence of 18th-century Russian music and culture. This was dictated at least in part by the source of the story, Charles Perrault's fairy tale La Belle au bois Dormant, and in part by the head of the Imperial Theaters in St. Petersburg, Ivan Vsevolozhsky, who wrote the libretto and approached Tchaikovsky for the music. He wrote the composer, "I want to stage it in the style of Louis XIV, allowing the musical fantasy to run high and melodies to be written in the spirit of Lully, Bach, Rameau and such-like. If this idea is to your liking, why shouldn't you undertake to compose the music?" [12] The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... “Louis XIV” redirects here. ... Charles Perrault, 1665 Charles Perrault (January 6, 1628 – May 16, 1703) was a French author who laid foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, and whose best known tales include Le Petit Chaperon rouge (Little Red Riding Hood), La Belle au bois dormant (Sleeping Beauty), Le Chat bott... Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ... Ivan Vsevolozhsky, circa 1880 Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolozhsky (1835 - 1909) was the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881 to 1898. ... Jean-Baptiste de Lully, originally Giovanni Battista di Lulli (November 28, 1632 – March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ...


The key phrase here is "to be written in the spirit of..."—not "to be written in the style of...." As Benois emphasizes, Tchaikovsky had a powerful talent for letting his imagination enter into the spirit of a past era, allowing him to write in a vein that brought that era to life as though it were happening in the present. Benois calls this quality "passé-ism." [13]


"Passé-ism" is also fully in effect in the opera The Queen of Spades, based on the Pushkin story. In the opera Tchaikovsky evokes the St. Petersburg of Catherine the Great — an era where the Russian capital was fully integrated with, and played a major role in, the culture of Europe. Infusing the opera with rococo elements (Tchaikovsky himself describes the ballroom scenes as a "slavish imitation" of 18th-century style), he uses the story's layers of ghostly fantasy to conjure up a dream world of the past. Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ...


Musical form

Melody versus form

Western musical form was analytical and architectural; it simply was not designed to handle the personal emotions Tchaikovsky wished to express. Nor was this challenge Tchaikovsky's. The Romantics in general were never natural symphonists because music was to them primarily evocative and biographical—generally autobiographical. The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... The Romantic music era was the predominant music era of the 19th century. ...


With Tchaikovsky, however, the challenge was not simply emotion in music, but intensity of emotion, beginning with the Fourth Symphony. In his first three symphonies Tchaikovsky had striven to stay within strict Western form. The turbulent changes in the composer's personal life, including his marital crisis, now led him to write music so strongly personal and expressive that structural matters could not stay as they had been.


There was a melodic change. Here, Tchaikovsky's gift could be more freely deployed than it had previously. Paradoxically, Tchaikovsky's asset was also his greatest enemy in terms of form. A melody is complete on its own terms. Because of this completeness, it stands apart from other themes meant not only to contrast, but more importantly to interact and build upon one another naturally. This dominance of one melody can ruin the balance and proportion Western classical composers considered the proper beauties of sonata form. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In a second change, as the Fourth Symphony shows, the symphony had become a human document—dramatic, autobiographical, concerned not with everyday things but with things psychological. This was because Tchaikovsky's creative impulses had become unprecedentedly personal, urgent, capable of enormous expressive forcefulness, even violence.


Tchaikovsky described this new element to von Meck:

You ask me if this symphony [the Fourth] has a definite programme. Usually when asked this question about a symphonic piece, I reply: none. And indeed it is difficult to answer such a question. How can one express those inexpressible sensations which pass through one when writing an instrumental work without a definite subject? It is a purely lyrical process. It is a musical confession of the soul, which is full to the brim and which, true to its essential nature, pours itself out in sound, just as the lyric poet expresses himself in verse. The difference is that music possesses incomparably more powerful means and is a subtler language for the articulation of the thousand different moments of the soul's moods.....[14]

Russian versus Western

The European principles Tchaikovsky learned, and the forms of organizing musical material, also seemed to work in opposition to his native instincts. Mikhail Glinka's Kamarinskaya, which Tchaikovsky called the acorn from which the oak of Russian classical music grew, is an example of the musical positives and negatives with which Tchaikovsky had to deal. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ...


Glinka uses the principle from folk song of unfolding around a thematic constant—or actually two constants, since he uses two folk songs. Glinka varies the background material surrounding these songs more than the songs themselves. The music does not evolve or progress toward an all-embracing point, as it would in Western music. Instead of becoming an organic creation where the themes interact, contrast, change, and grow, it repeats itself constantly, albeit with changing backgrounds, remaining static instead of moving forward.


Using Western principles that would have the music moving in a constant discourse or argument with music that could stay intrinsically, even stubbornly static, would seem a paradox. Russian working methods would seem totally unsuitable for building large-scale, evolving Western-style structures due to the nature of Russian music's reflectiveness.


Symphonic hybrid

By using a scheme introduced by Franz Liszt, a modular rotation in sequences of thirds, along with a loose symphonic-poem type of structure, "The Five" avoided Western laws of modulation in sonata form. “Liszt” redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see sequence (disambiguation). ... In music, see the following intervals: Major third Minor third The mediant, and the chord built on the mediant, is often called simply the third, as it is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The symphonic poem would, ironically, become Tchaikovsky's solution as well, though he would stay much closer than the Five to Western tonality. Using the principles of the symphonic poem, Tchaikovsky could combine large-scale orchestral writing with emotions and instrumental colors toward which he gravitated naturally. Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...


With the range and intensity of emotions, the symphony's whole nature was changed and widened. The result was a symphonic hybrid, a cross between the primarily architectural form of the symphony and the primarily "literary" or "poetic" form of the symphonic poem.


Tchaikovsky's solution

The compromise Tchaikovsky makes with sonata form is as follows:


In each of his symphonies except the First, he begins with a slow introduction. A first subject or melody is introduced and repeated with new orchestration and emotional emphasis. A second, more lyrical subject follows; Tchaikovsky treats it similarly. After a second long transition, both melodies are recapitulated and the movement ends with a coda. Tchaikovskys first symphony (Op. ... In music theory, the recapitulation is the third major section of a movement written in sonata form. ... Look up coda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Tchaikovsky gives an ingenious episodic treatment of two contrasting melodies, since these melodies, being self-sufficient, cannot act upon each other in an organic, evolutionary progress. It is basically a static mechanism, as in Russian folk music. Tchaikovsky falls back on a number of musical devices, with expectation for the next entry of a melody—ostinato figures, dramatic pedal points, sequences. Even with this repetitiveness, there is not a lack of ingenuity in the development sections of Russian symphonic works when it comes to manipulating musical material. An episode is to television and radio what a chapter is to a book: a part of a sequence of a body of work. ... In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English: obstinate) is a motif or phrase which is persistently repeated at the same pitch. ... In tonal music, a pedal point (also pedal tone, organ point, or just pedal) is a sustained tone, typically in the bass, during which at least one foreign, i. ... A sequence in music occurs when a given melodic or harmonic passage is successively repeated at different pitches (transposed). ...


This ingenuity can seem a game played according to a well-learned method, not of a stage-by-stage musical argument moving logically toward its conclusion. In this sense, there may be considerable truth in Mussorgsky's dictum: "The German, when he thinks, will first examine and explore, then make his conclusion: our [Russian] brother will first make his conclusion, then amuse himself with examination and exploration."[15]


Media

Image File history File links Tschikovsky_Op_40. ... Image File history File links Violinist_CARRIE_REHKOPF-TCHAIKOVSKY_VIOLIN_CONCERTO_3rd_mvt_. ... The Violin Concerto in D major, Op. ... Image File history File links CELLO_LIVE_PERFORMANCES_JOHN_MICHEL-TCHAIKOVSKY_VIOLIN_CONCERTO_3rd_mvt_. ... The Violin Concerto in D major, Op. ...

See also

Nadezhda von Meck. ... Antonina Ivanovna Tchaikovskaya (née Miliukova) (1849–1917) was the wife (and after 1893, the widow) of Russian composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. ... Nikolai Rubinstein Born Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (2 June 1835–23 March 1881) was a Russian pianist and composer. ... The International Tchaikovsky Competition is one of the most prestigious classical music competitions in the world. ... The Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra of Moscow Radio is one of the most prestigious orchestras in Russia. ...

References

  1. ^ Note: His names are also transliterated Piotr, Petr, or Peter; Ilitsch, Ilich, Il'ich or Illyich; and Tschaikowski, Tschaikowsky, Chajkovskij and Chaikovsky (and other versions; Russian transliteration can vary between languages)
  2. ^ Some historians still consider evidence to this effect scant or non-existent. Dr. Petr Beckmann claims Tchaikovsky's homosexuality has been asserted "not without bias ... too often ... done by tone setters who had a stake in the outcome." (Petr Beckmann, Musical Musings, Golem Press, August 1989.) Others, such as Rictor Norton and Alexander Poznansky, conclude some of Tchaikovsky's closest relationships were homosexual, citing Tchaikovsky's servant Aleksei Sofronov and his nephew, Vladimir "Bob" Davydov, as romantic interests.
  3. ^ As quoted in Holden, 394.
  4. ^ Zajaczkowski, Henry, The Musical Times, cxxxiii, no. 1797, November 1992, 574. As quoted in Holden, 394.
  5. ^ Letter to Anatoly Tchaikovsky, February 25, 1878, as quoted in Holden, 172
  6. ^ Osoovskii, A.V., Muzykal'no-kritcvheskie stat'i, 1894-1912 (Musical Criticism articles, 189401912) (Lenningrad, 1971), 171. As quoted in Volkov, 116.
  7. ^ a b c d Volkov, 126.
  8. ^ As quoted in Warrack, Tchaikovsky (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973), 161.
  9. ^ Figis, Orlando, Natasha's Dance: A Cultural History of Russia (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2002), 274.
  10. ^ Benois, Alexandre, Moi vospominaniia (My Reminiscences), vol. 1 (bks. 1-3), 603. As quoted in Volkov, 124.
  11. ^ This illustration was commissioned for "Les Contes de Perrault" (Paris: J. Hetzel, 1867), Tchaikovsky's source for the story of The Sleeping Beauty.
  12. ^ Brown, Tchaikovsky: The Final Years, 185.
  13. ^ Volkov, St. Petersburg, 124.
  14. ^ As quoted in Warrack, Tchaikovsky, 129-130.
  15. ^ M.P. Mussorgsky, Pisma, ed. E. Gordeyeva (Moscow, 1981), 75. As quoted in Brown, Tchaikovsky: The Final Years, 425-426.

Further reading

  • Brown, David. Tchaikovsky: The Man and his Music. London: Faber & Faber, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-571-23194-2); New York: Pegasus Books, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 1-933648-30-9).
    • Reviewed by Jonathan Keates in The Telegraph, October 29, 2006.
  • Greenberg, Robert "Great Masters: Tchaikovsky -- His Life and Music"
  • Holden, Anthony Tchaikovsky: : A Biography Random House; 1st U.S. ed edition (February 27, 1996) ISBN 0-679-42006-1
  • Kamien, Roger. Music : An Appreciation. Mcgraw-Hill College; 3rd edition (August 1, 1997) ISBN 0-07-036521-0
  • ed. John Knowles Paine, Theodore Thomas, and Karl Klauser (1891). Famous Composers and Their Works, J.B. Millet Company.
  • Meck Galina Von, Tchaikovsky Ilyich Piotr, Young Percy M. Tchaikovsky Cooper Square Publishers; 1st Cooper Square Press ed edition (October, 2000) ISBN 0-8154-1087-5
  • Meck, Nadezhda Von Tchaikovsky Peter Ilyich, To My Best Friend: Correspondence Between Tchaikovsky and Nadezhda Von Meck 1876-1878 Oxford University Press (January 1, 1993) ISBN 0-19-816158-1
  • Poznansky, Alexander & Langston, Brett The Tchaikovsky Handbook: A guide to the man and his music. (Indiana University Press, 2002) Vol. 1. Thematic Catalogue of Works, Catalogue of Photographs, Autobiography. 636 pages. ISBN 0-253-33921-9. Vol. 2. Catalogue of Letters, Genealogy, Bibliography. 832 pages. ISBN 0-253-33947-2.
  • Poznansky, Alexander, Tchaikovsky's Last Days, Oxford University Press (1996), ISBN 0-19-816596-X
  • Poznansky, Alexander Tchaikovsky: the Quest for the Inner Man Lime Tree (1993) ISBN 0-413-45721-4 (hb), ISBN 0-413-45731-1 (pb)
  • Poznansky, Alexander. Tchaikovsky through others' eyes. (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1999). ISBN 0-253-33545-0
  • Tchaikovsky, Modest The Life And Letters Of Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky University Press of the Pacific (2004) ISBN 1-4102-1612-8

is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...

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Public Domain Sheet Music: The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries with streaming and downloadable versions of over 5,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1895 and the mid 1920s. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3276 words)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky was born in Votkinsk, a small town in present-day Udmurtia (at the time the Vyatka Guberniya under Imperial Russia), the son of a mining engineer in the government mines and the second of his three wives, Alexandra, a Russian woman of French ancestry.
From 1862 to 1865, Tchaikovsky studied harmony, counterpoint and the fugue with Zaremba, and instrumentation and composition under the director and founder of the Conservatory, Anton Rubinstein, who was both impressed by and envious of Tchaikovsky's talent.
Tchaikovsky is well known for his ballets, although it was only in his last years, with his last two ballets, that his contemporaries came to really appreciate his finer qualities as ballet music composer.
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Evelyn Taylor
22nd March 2011
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