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Encyclopedia > Puyi
Puyi / Xuantong Emperor
溥儀 / 宣統帝
Puyi in 1922
Puyi in 1922
Reign 2 December 19085 November 1924
1 March 1934 - 15 August 1945
Predecessor Guangxu Emperor
Spouse Empress Wan Rong
Li Shuxian
Full name
Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Pǔyí 愛新覺羅溥儀
Titles
The Emperor of Manchuko
The Emperor of Great Qing
Era name
Xuāntǒng 宣統
Gehungge yoso
Kāngdé 康德
Era dates
January 22, 1909February 12, 1912
March 1, 1934August 15, 1945
Royal house House of Aisin-Gioro
Father Zaifeng, Prince Chun
Mother Youlan, Princess Chun
Born February 7, 1906(1906-02-07)
Beijing, China
Died October 17, 1967 (aged 61)
Beijing, China
Burial Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery

Puyi (traditional Chinese: 溥儀; simplified Chinese: 溥仪) (February 7, 1906October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty to rule over China. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (563 × 724 pixel, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Empress Wan Rong Her Imperial Majesty Wan Rong, the last Qing Empress of China, and Empress of Manchukuo. ... Lĭ Shúxían (李淑賢 1926/27-June 9, 1997) was the fifth and last wife of Aixinjueluo Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... Zai Feng, the second Prince Chun The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載沣; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... Lady Aisin-Gioro(幼蘭) (1884 - 1921), was the mother of the last Chinese emperor Pu Yi, also known as the Xuantong Emperor. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Peking redirects here. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Peking redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


He was married to the Empress Gobulo Wan Rong under the suggestion of the Imperial Dowager Concubine Duan-Kang. Later, between 1934 and 1945, he was the Kangde Emperor (康德皇帝) of Manchukuo. In the People's Republic of China, he was a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from 1964 until his death in 1967 under the Chinese name Aixinjueluo Puyi[citation needed]. His abdication being a symbol of the end of a long era in China, he is widely known as the Last Emperor (末代皇帝). Gobulo, the Xiaoke Empress (Chinese: 孝恪愍皇后郭博勒氏); also known as Empress Wan Rong (Chinese: 婉容皇后) (13 November 1906 - 20 June 1946) was the last Empress Consort of the Qing Dynasty in China, and later Empress of Manchukuo (also known as the Manchurian Empire). ... Jinfei (Imperial Jin Concubine Tatala) (1874 - 1924), was an imperial concubine of the Guangxu Emperor, of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Name

In English, he is known more simply as Puyi (Pu-i in Wade-Giles romanization), which is in accordance with the Manchu tradition of never using an individual's clan name and given name together, but is in complete contravention of the traditional Chinese and Manchu custom whereby the private given name of an emperor was considered taboo and ineffable. It may be that the use of the given name Puyi after the overthrow of the empire was thus a political technique, an attempt to express desecration of the old order. Indeed, after Puyi lost his imperial title in 1924 he was officially styled "Mr. Puyi" (溥儀先生) in China. His clan name Aisin-Gioro was seldom used. He is also known to have used the name "Henry"¹, a name allegedly chosen with his English language teacher, Scotsman Reginald Johnston, in reference to King Henry VIII of England. However, the name Henry was merely used in communication with Westerners between 1920 and 1932, and was never used in China. Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston (1874–1938) was a Scottish academic, diplomat and pedagogue and the teacher of Pu Yi, the last emperor of China, and later appointed as commissioner of British-held Weihaiwei. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ...


Ancestry

Paternal side

Puyi's great-grandfather was the Daoguang Emperor (r.1820–1850), who was succeeded by his fourth son, who became Xianfeng Emperor (r.1850–1861). The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 – February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ... The Xianfeng Emperor, born Yizhu, (July 17, 1831 - August 22, 1861) was the eighth Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861. ...


Puyi's paternal grandfather was the 1st Prince Chun (1840–1891) who was himself a son of the Daoguang Emperor and a younger half-brother of Xianfeng Emperor, but not the next in line after Xianfeng (the 1st Prince Chun had older half-brothers that were closer in age to Xianfeng). Xianfeng was succeeded by his only son, who became the Tongzhi Emperor (r.1861-1875). 1st Prince Chun The 1st Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇賢親王, officially Prince of the First Rank Chun Xian) (October 16, 1840 - January 1, 1891), commonly known in his days as the Seventh Prince (七王爺) was born Yixuan (Chinese: 奕譞; Wade-Giles: I-hsüan), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing Dynasty imperial... The Tong Zhi Emperor, born Zai Chun (April 27, 1856–January 12, 1875) was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875. ...


Tongzhi died without a son, and was succeeded by Guangxu Emperor (r.1875–1908), the son of the 1st Prince Chun and his wife, who was the younger sister of Empress Dowager Cixi. Guangxu died without an heir. The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... 1st Prince Chun The 1st Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇賢親王, officially Prince of the First Rank Chun Xian) (October 16, 1840 - January 1, 1891), commonly known in his days as the Seventh Prince (七王爺) was born Yixuan (Chinese: 奕譞; Wade-Giles: I-hsüan), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing Dynasty imperial... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ...


Puyi, who succeeded Guangxu, was the eldest son of the 2nd Prince Chun (1883–1951), who was the son of the 1st Prince Chun and his second concubine, the Lady Lingiya (1866–1925). Lady Lingiya was a maid at the mansion of the 1st Prince Chun whose original Chinese family name was Liu (劉); this was changed into the Manchu clan's name Lingyia when she was made a Manchu, a requirement before becoming the concubine of a Manchu prince. The 2nd Prince Chun was, therefore, a younger half-brother of the Guangxu Emperor and the first brother in line after Guangxu. Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... the Lady Lingiya (born 1866 - died 1925), was second concubine of the 1st Prince Chun. ... 1st Prince Chun The 1st Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇賢親王, officially Prince of the First Rank Chun Xian) (October 16, 1840 - January 1, 1891), commonly known in his days as the Seventh Prince (七王爺) was born Yixuan (Chinese: 奕譞; Wade-Giles: I-hsüan), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing Dynasty imperial... Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ...


Puyi was in a branch of the imperial family with close ties to Cixi, who was herself from the (Manchu) Yehe-Nara clan (the imperial family were the Aisin-Gioro clan). Cixi married the daughter of her brother to her nephew Guangxu, who became, after Guangxu and Cixi's death, the Empress Dowager Longyu (1868–1913). Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de facto ruler... The Yehe Nara, originally a Mongol clan, were a Manchu clan who ruled Yehe, one of the HÅ«lun Four States. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian(載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1875 to 1908. ... Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (Chinese: 隆裕皇后), (given name: Jingfen 靜芬) (1868 - 1913). ...


It is interesting to note that Puyi's lesser known brother, Pu Xuezhai 溥雪齋, is an important master of the guqin musical instrument tradition and an artist of Chinese painting.[1] This article is becoming very long. ... Wall scroll painted by Ma Lin in 1246. ...


Maternal side

Puyi's mother, the 2nd Princess Chun (1884-1921), given name Youlan (幼蘭), was the 2nd Prince Chun's wife. She was the daughter of the Manchu general Ronglu (榮祿) (1836–1903) from the Guwalgiya clan. Ronglu was one of the leaders of the conservative faction at the court, and a staunch supporter of Empress Dowager Cixi; Cixi rewarded his support by marrying his daughter, Puyi's mother, into the Imperial family. Lady Aisin-Gioro (1884 - 1921), was the mother of the last Chinese emperor Pu Yi, also known as the Xuantong Emperor. ... Ronglu (荣禄, April 6, 1836- April 11, 1903) was a Manchu statesman during the late Qing dynasty. ... Guwalgiya was one of powerful Manchu Clan. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Empress Dowager Cixi Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835–November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de facto ruler...


Ancestors

Puyi's ancestors in three generations
Puyi Father:
Zaifeng, 2nd Prince Chun
Paternal Grandfather:
Yixuan, 1st Prince Chun
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Daoguang Emperor
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Lin
Paternal Grandmother:
Lady Lingiya
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Mother:
Youlan
Maternal Grandfather:
Ronglu
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Maternal Grandmother:
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Maternal Great-grandmother:

Zai Feng, the second Prince Chun The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載沣; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... 1st Prince Chun The 1st Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇賢親王, officially Prince of the First Rank Chun Xian) (October 16, 1840 - January 1, 1891), commonly known in his days as the Seventh Prince (七王爺) was born Yixuan (Chinese: 奕譞; Wade-Giles: I-hsüan), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing Dynasty imperial... The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 – February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ... the Lady Lingiya (born 1866 - died 1925), was second concubine of the 1st Prince Chun. ... Ronglu (荣禄, April 6, 1836- April 11, 1903) was a Manchu statesman during the late Qing dynasty. ...

Biography

Emperor of China (1908–1912)

Chosen by Dowager Empress Cixi while on her deathbed, Puyi ascended the throne at age 2 years 10 months in December 1908 following his uncle's death on November 14. Puyi's introduction to emperorship began when palace officials arrived at his family household to take him. Puyi screamed and resisted as the officials ordered the eunuchs to pick him up. His wet-nurse, Wen-Chao Wang, was the only one who could console him, and therefore accompanied Puyi to the Forbidden City. Puyi would not see his real mother again for six years.[2] Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) The Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835 –November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds a baby that is not her own. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ...


Puyi's upbringing was hardly conducive to the raising of a healthy, well-balanced child. Overnight, he was treated as a god and unable to behave as a child. The adults in his life, save his wet-nurse Mrs. Wang, were all strangers, remote, distant, and unable to discipline him. Wherever he went, grown men would kneel to the floor in a ritual kow-tow, averting their eyes until he passed. Soon the young Puyi discovered the absolute power he wielded over the eunuchs, and frequently had them beaten for small transgressions.[3] Kowtowing in an Imperial Court Kowtow, from the Chinese term kou tou (叩頭), is the act of deep respect shown by kneeling and bowing so low as to touch the head to the ground. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ...


Puyi's father, the 2nd Prince Chun, served as a regent until December 6, 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu took over in the face of the Xinhai Revolution. Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (Chinese: 隆裕皇后), (given name: Jingfen 靜芬) (1868 - 1913). ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ...


Empress Dowager Longyu signed the "Act of Abdication of the Emperor of the Great Qing" (《清帝退位詔書》) on February 12, 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, under a deal brokered by Yuan Shikai (the great general of the army Beiyang) with the imperial court in Beijing and the republicans in southern China: by the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (《清帝退位優待條件》) signed with the new Republic of China, Puyi was to retain his imperial title and be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. This was similar to Italy's Law of Guarantees (1870) which accorded the Pope certain honors and privileges similar to those enjoyed by the King of Italy. He and the imperial court were allowed to remain in the northern half of the Forbidden City (the Private Apartments) as well as in the Summer Palace. A hefty annual subsidy of 4 million silver dollars was granted by the Republic to the imperial household, although it was never fully paid and was abolished after just a few years. is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Peking redirects here. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. ... After the overthrow of the Papal States in 1870, Italys Law of Guarantees accorded the Pope certain honors and privileges similar to those enjoyed by the King of Italy, including the right to send and receive ambassadors as if he still had temporal power as ruler of a state. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... The Summer Palace in Beijing. ...


Brief restoration (1917)

In 1917, the warlord general Zhang Xun (張勛) restored Puyi to his throne for twelve days from July 1 to July 12. The male residents of Beijing hastily bought some false queues (long plaits or "pigtails") to avoid punishment for cutting off their queues in 1912. During those 12 days, one small bomb was dropped over the Forbidden City by a republican plane, causing minor damage. This is considered the first aerial bombardment ever in Eastern Asia. The restoration failed due to extensive opposition across China, and the decisive intervention of another warlord general, Duan Qirui. In mid-July, the streets of Beijing were strewn with the thousands of false queues that had been discarded as hastily as they had been bought. A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Zhang Xun (Zhāng XÅ«n, 張勳, 1854-1923) Qing-loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in 1917. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A plait is a knot usually tied from multiple lines and exhibiting a repeating pattern, often a braid and often referring to hair. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Duan Qirui. ... Peking redirects here. ...


Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing in 1924 by warlord Feng Yuxiang. For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... Peking redirects here. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Feng Yü-hsiang (Traditional Chinese:馮玉祥, Simplified Chinese: 冯玉祥, pinyin: Féng Yùxíang; 1882-1948) was a warlord during the early years of the Republic of China. ...


Residence in Tianjin

Following his expulsion from the Forbidden City, Puyi resided in the "Quiet Garden Villa" in the Japanese Concession in Tianjin.[4] For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


Ruler of Manchukuo (1932–1945)

Puyi as ruler of Manchukuo

On March 1, 1932, Puyi was installed by the Japanese as the ruler of Manchukuo, considered by most historians as a puppet state of Imperial Japan, under the reign title Datong (大同). In 1934, he was officially crowned the emperor of Manchukuo under the reign title Kangde (康德). He was constantly at odds with the Japanese in private, though submissive in public. He resented being "Head of State" and then "Emperor of Manchukuo" rather than being fully restored as Qing Emperor. As part of the Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo, Puyi would be living in the Wei Huang Gong during this time. At his enthronement he clashed with Japan over dress; they wanted him to wear a Manchukuoan uniform whereas he considered it an insult to wear anything but traditional Qing Dynasty robes. In a typical compromise, he wore a uniform to his enthronement and dragon robes to the announcement of his accession at the Altar of Heaven. His brother Pujie, who married Hiro Saga, a distant cousin to the Japanese Emperor Hirohito, was proclaimed heir apparent. Image File history File links 满洲国皇帝溥仪.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links 满洲国皇帝溥仪.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... A political project known as Manchukuo was created by the Imperial Japanese Army in northeastern China during the 1930s and 1940s. ... Puppet Emperors Palace Wei Huang Gong (Chinese: 伪皇宫) also known as Puppet Emperors Palace was created by the Japanese Army for Chinas last emperor Puyi to live in as part of the Japanese colonialism in Manchukuo. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... Hall of Annual Prayer, the largest building in the Temple of Heaven The Temple of Heaven, literally the Altar of Heaven (Traditional Chinese: 天壇; Simplified Chinese: 天坛; pinyin: ) is situated in south eastern urban Beijing, in Xuanwu District. ... 2nd Prince Chun with his eldest son Puyi on his left, and his second son Pujie on his lap. ... Lady Hiro Saga ), (April 16, 1914 - June 20, 1987), was the daughter of Marquis Saga and a relative of Japanese Emperor Shōwa. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


During Puyi's reign as Emperor of Manchukuo, his household was closely watched by the Japanese who increasingly took steps toward the full Japanization of Manchuria, just as they had done in Korea and elsewhere. When Puyi went on a state visit to Tokyo, he was flattering to the Japanese imperial family. At a review, he thanked Emperor Hirohito for "allowing" clear skies and sunshine for the event. During these empty years, he began taking a greater interest in Buddhism. However, Japan soon forced him to make Shinto the national religion of Manchukuo. Slowly, his old supporters were eliminated and pro-Japanese ministers put in their place. During this period, his life consisted mostly of signing laws prepared by Japan, reciting prayers, consulting oracles, and making formal visits throughout his kingdom. Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


Later life (1945–1967)

At the end of World War II, Puyi was captured by the Soviet Red Army (August 16, 1945). He testified at the Tokyo war crimes trial 1946. There he was scathing in his resentment of how he had been treated by the Japanese. When Chinese Communists under Mao Zedong had come to power in 1949, Puyi wrote letters to Joseph Stalin with requests not to send him back to China. He also wrote of his new life attitude, changed by the works of Karl Marx and Lenin, which he had read while in prison. However, because Stalin wished to warm his relations with a new "political friend Mao", he repatriated the former emperor to China in 1950. Puyi spent ten years in a reeducation camp in Fushun, in Liaoning province until he was declared reformed. Puyi came to Beijing in 1959, with special permission from Chairman Mao Zedong, and lived the next six months in an ordinary Beijing residence with his sister, before being transferred to a government-sponsored hotel. He voiced his support for the Communists and worked at the Beijing Botanical Gardens. He married Li Shuxian, a hospital nurse, on April 30, 1962, in a ceremony held at the Banquet Hall of the Consultative Conference. He subsequently worked as an editor for the literary department of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, where his salary was around 100 Yuan[5] before becoming a member of the Conference, an office he served from 1964 until his death. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... CCCP redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Mao redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official name given to the prison camps operated by the government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War. ... Location within China Fushun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km from Shenyang, with a population about 1. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao redirects here. ... Lĭ Shúxían (李淑賢 1926/27-June 9, 1997) was the fifth and last wife of Aixinjueluo Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


With encouragement from Mao and then Premier Zhou Enlai, and openly endorsed by the Government, Puyi wrote his autobiography (我的前半生 — "The former half of my life", translated in English as From Emperor to Citizen) in the 1960s alongside Li Wenda, an editor of Beijing's People Publishing Bureau. Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Death and burial

Mao began the Cultural Revolution in 1966, and the youth militia known as the Red Guards saw Puyi, who symbolized Imperial China, as an easy target of attack. Puyi was placed under protection by the local public security bureau, although his food rations, salary, and various luxuries, including his sofa and desk, were moved. Puyi became affected physically and emotionally. He died in Beijing of complications arising from kidney cancer and heart disease in 1967 during the Cultural Revolution.[6] This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia formed to instigate, support, or defend communist revolutions. ... Peking redirects here. ... Renal cell carcinoma, a form of kidney cancer that involves cancerous changes in the cells of the renal tubule, is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In accordance to the laws of the People's Republic of China at the time, Puyi's body was cremated. Puyi's ashes were first placed at the Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery, alongside those of other party and state dignitaries (before the establishment of the People's Republic of China this was the burial ground of Imperial concubines and eunuchs). The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1995, as a part of a commercial arrangement, Puyi's widow transferred his ashes to a new commercial cemetery in return for monetary support. The cemetery is located near the Western Qing Tombs (清西陵), 120 km (75 miles) southwest of Beijing, where four of the nine Qing emperors preceding him are interred, along with three empresses, and 69 princes, princesses, and imperial concubines. Peking redirects here. ...


In 2004 descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon Puyi. Posthumous name: Mindi (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). This has not been approved by the direct line of the imperial family. However, Xùndì (遜帝) ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Puyi. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Mongolian name Mongolian: Номын Нэр Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Ly, Tran, and Le) royalty. ...


Family

Emperor Puyi and Empress Wan Rong in Tianjin
Emperor Puyi and Empress Wan Rong in Tianjin

Puyi had several brothers, two of whom are important for the history of China and the Qing Dynasty: Image File history File linksMetadata Puyi_and_Wanrong. ... Empress Wan Rong Her Imperial Majesty Wan Rong, the last Qing Empress of China, and Empress of Manchukuo. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...

  • Pujie (1907–1994), who had a minor role in the government of Manchukuo
  • Puren (who later took the name Jin Youzhi), a younger half-brother, born after the imperial family had lost power

Two wives 2nd Prince Chun with his eldest son Puyi on his left, and his second son Pujie on his lap. ... Jin Youzhi (金友之) is currently the only surviving brother of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China. ...

Three concubines Empress Wan Rong Her Imperial Majesty Wan Rong, the last Qing Empress of China, and Empress of Manchukuo. ... Lĭ Shúxían (李淑賢 1926/27-June 9, 1997) was the fifth and last wife of Aixinjueluo Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ...

  1. Wen Xiu, the Imperial Shu Concubine (淑妃) (1907–1950/51). Married in 1922, divorced in 1931
  2. Tan Yuling, the Xiang Concubine (谭玉龄)(1920–1942). Married in 1937
  3. Li Yuqin, the Fu Concubine (李玉琴)((1928–2001). Married in 1943, divorced in 1958

In detail: In 1922, at the age of 16, Puyi married two women. His first choice for wife was Wen Xiu (1907–1950/51), whom court officials deemed not beautiful enough to be an Empress; Wen Xiu was designated as a concubine, and eventually divorced him in 1931. Puyi's second choice, a Manchu named Wan Rong (1906–1946, a.k.a. Radiant Countenance), became the Empress; she later became addicted to opium, and died in a Chinese prison. Wen Xie, Imperial Consort of the Xuantong Emperor Wen Xiu was an Imperial Consort of the Third Degree, who was conferred the title Shu on her by the Xuantong Emperor Pu Yi, in Beijings Forbidden City. ... Tan Yuling (谭玉龄) (1921 - 14 August 1942) held the title of High-ranking Concubine Mingxian conferred on her by Puyi during the period of puppet Manchukuo regime. ... Li Yuqin (李玉琴) (July 15, 1928 – April 24, 2001) was the fourth wife and last Imperial Consort of Puyi, the last Emperor of Chinas Qing Dynasty. ... Wen Xie, Imperial Consort of the Xuantong Emperor Wen Xiu was an Imperial Consort of the Third Degree, who was conferred the title Shu on her by the Xuantong Emperor Pu Yi, in Beijings Forbidden City. ... Gobulo, the Xiaoke Empress (Chinese: 孝恪愍皇后郭博勒氏); also known as Empress Wan Rong (Chinese: 婉容皇后) (13 November 1906 - 20 June 1946) was the last Empress Consort of the Qing Dynasty in China, and later Empress of Manchukuo (also known as the Manchurian Empire). ... Gobulo, the Xiaoke Empress (Chinese: 孝恪愍皇后郭博勒氏); also known as Empress Wan Rong (Chinese: 婉容皇后) (13 November 1906 - 20 June 1946) was the last Empress Consort of the Qing Dynasty in China, and later Empress of Manchukuo (also known as the Manchurian Empire). ...


His third wife was a Manchu, Tan Yuling, whom he married around 1937. Although only a teenager at the time of marriage, she died mysteriously five years later while being treated for an illness by a Japanese-occupation doctor. Tan Yuling (谭玉龄) (1921 - 14 August 1942) held the title of High-ranking Concubine Mingxian conferred on her by Puyi during the period of puppet Manchukuo regime. ...


In 1943, Puyi married his fourth wife, a 15-year-old student named Li Yuqin (1928?–2001), a Han. She divorced him in 1958. She was diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1995 and died six years later at the age of 73. Li Yuqin (李玉琴) (July 15, 1928 – April 24, 2001) was the fourth wife and last Imperial Consort of Puyi, the last Emperor of Chinas Qing Dynasty. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ...


In 1962, he married his fifth and last wife, a Han nurse, Li Shuxian (1925–1997), who died of lung cancer in 1997. Lĭ Shúxían (李淑賢 1926/27-June 9, 1997) was the fifth and last wife of Aixinjueluo Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ...


The Emperor had no children. According to "Newsweek" correspondent Edward Behr, who wrote a book on the last imperial emperor of China, "There is no doubt in my own mind that Puyi was bisexual." And Puyi's Japanese sister-in-law once claimed that "the Emperor had an unnatural love for a pageboy. He was referred to as the male concubine."


Film

Li Han Hsiang's 1986 film "Huo Long" ("Fire Dragon") and Bernardo Bertolucci's 1987 film The Last Emperor are biographical films of Puyi. Richard Li Han Hsiang (李翰祥, 7 March 1926 in Jinxi, China - 17 December 1996 in Beijing, China) was a Chinese film director. ... Bernardo Bertolucci (born March 16, 1940) is an Italian writer and Academy Award winning film director. ... For the rapper, see Last Emperor. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Books

  • Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi's autobiography "The First Half of My Life (我的前半生)", ghost-written by Li Wenda, is well known as "From Emperor to Citizen" in the Western world. It was released in China again in 2007 as a newly and correctly revised version. Many sentences which had been deleted in the 1964 version will be correctly included. In his book he admits that he committed perjury in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East.[citation needed]
  • Edward Behr's biography of Puyi "The Last Emperor", was written in 1987 as a companion to Bernardo Bertolucci's film of the same name.
  • Reginald Fleming Johnston, Puyi's Scottish tutor from 1919 to 1924, published "Twilight in the Forbidden City" in 1934.

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... For the rapper, see Last Emperor. ... Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston (1874–1938) was a Scottish academic, diplomat and pedagogue and the teacher of Pu Yi, the last emperor of China, and later appointed as commissioner of British-held Weihaiwei. ...

Notes

¹ Aisin-Gioro is the clan's name in Manchu, pronounced Àixīn Juéluó in Mandarin; Pǔyí is the Chinese given name as pronounced in Mandarin. Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.ieshu.com/dic_display.php?id=628: 溥雪斋(1893~1966 ):古琴演奏家。出生在清代皇族家庭。
  2. ^ Edward Behr, The Last Emperor, 1987, p. 63
  3. ^ Edward Behr, ibid, p. 80
  4. ^ Rogaski, R: Hygienic Modernity, page 262. University of California Press, 2004
  5. ^ CCTV-10 Historical Series:公民溥仪, Episode 10, 17:34
  6. ^ "Pu Yi, Last Emperor of China And a Puppet for Japan, Dies; Enthroned at 2, Turned Out at 6, He Was Later a Captive of Russians and Peking Reds", Associated Press, October 19, 1967, Thursday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Henry Pu Yi, last Manchu emperor of China and Japan's puppet emperor of Manchukuo, died yesterday in Peking of complications resulting from cancer, a Japanese newspaper reported today. He was 61 years old." 

CCTV-10 is the science and education focused channel of the CCTV (China Central Television) Network in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pu Yi

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The following monarchs either lost their thrones through deposition by a coup détat, by a referendum which abolished their throne, or chose to abdicate during the 20th century. ... There are several personalities of the 20th century who went on to be Heads of State, or Heads of Government, like Presidents, Prime Ministers or monarchs of their respective nation states, who became prisoners later. ...

External links

Coat Of Arms of Manchukuo
Pretenders to
the Manchu throne
since 1945

Kāngdé (1945-1967)
Pǔjié (1967-1994)
Pǔrèn (1994-) Image File history File links Manchukuo_Coat_Of_Arms. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... 2nd Prince Chun with his eldest son Puyi on his left, and his second son Pujie on his lap. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Jin Youzhi (金友之) is currently the only surviving brother of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

See also Qing Dynasty
Flag of China from 1889 to 1912
Pretenders to
the Chinese throne
since 1912

Puyi (1912-1967)
Yuyan (1967-1997)
Hengzhen (1997-) Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Aisin-Gioro Yùyán (Chinese:) (1918-1997) was a prince of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in China and appointed heir to the Imperial throne of China by Puyi the last Emperor. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Hengzhen (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) of the Aisin-Gioro clan, also spelled Heng Chen, Heng-shen and also known as Yüan Yüan (born 1944) is the son of Yuyan, descendant of the Dàoguāng Emperor. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

See also Qing Dynasty
Puyi
Born: 7 February 1906 Died: 17 October 1967
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Guāngxù Emperor
Emperor of China
December 2, 1908February 12, 1912
Deposed
New title
State created
Chief Executive of Manchukuo
March 9, 1932February 28, 1934
became Emperor
New title
Empire created
Emperor of Manchukuo
March 1, 1934August 15, 1945
Empire dissolved
Political offices
Preceded by
Guāngxù Emperor
as Emperor of China
Head of State of China
as Emperor of China

December 2, 1908February 12, 1912
Succeeded by
Sūn Yat-sen
as President of the Republic of China
New title
State created
Head of State of Manchukuo
March 9, 1932August 15, 1945
Succeeded by
Chiǎng Kai-shek
as President of the Republic of China
Manchukuo given back to the
Republic of China after World War II
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
Republics declared
— TITULAR —
Emperor of China
February 12, 1912October 17, 1967
Succeeded by
Yùyán
— TITULAR —
Emperor of Manchukuo
August 15, 1945October 17, 1967
Succeeded by
Pǔjié
Family information
Yìxuān, 1st Prince Chun
House of Qīng
Zàifēng, 2nd Prince Chun Puyi
Lady Lingiya
House of Qīng
Rónglù
House of Gûwalgiya
Yòulán, 2nd Princess Chun
?
Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Presidential Building is located in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Aisin-Gioro Yùyán (Chinese:) (1918-1997) was a prince of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in China and appointed heir to the Imperial throne of China by Puyi the last Emperor. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... 2nd Prince Chun with his eldest son Puyi on his left, and his second son Pujie on his lap. ... 1st Prince Chun The 1st Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇賢親王, officially Prince of the First Rank Chun Xian) (October 16, 1840 - January 1, 1891), commonly known in his days as the Seventh Prince (七王爺) was born Yixuan (Chinese: 奕譞; Wade-Giles: I-hsüan), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing Dynasty imperial... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Zai Feng, the second Prince Chun The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載沣; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... the Lady Lingiya (born 1866 - died 1925), was second concubine of the 1st Prince Chun. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Ronglu (荣禄, April 6, 1836- April 11, 1903) was a Manchu statesman during the late Qing dynasty. ... Guwalgiya was one of powerful Manchu Clan. ... Lady Aisin-Gioro(幼蘭) (1884 - 1921), was the mother of the last Chinese emperor Pu Yi, also known as the Xuantong Emperor. ...

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Puyi Information (2011 words)
Puyi (Chinese:溥儀;) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth and last emperor of the Qing Dynasty to rule over China.
Puyi's paternal grandfather was the 1st Prince Chun (1840–1891) who was himself a son of the Daoguang Emperor and a younger half-brother of Xianfeng Emperor, but not the next in line after Xianfeng (the 1st Prince Chun had older half-brothers that were closer in age to Xianfeng).
Puyi was in a branch of the imperial family with close ties to Cixi, who was herself from the (Manchu) Yehe-Nara clan (the imperial family were the Aisin-Gioro clan).
Puyi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1920 words)
Puyi's paternal grandfather was the 1st Prince Chun (1840–1891) who was himself a son of the Daoguang Emperor and a younger half-brother of Xianfeng Emperor, but not the next in line after Xianfeng (the 1st Prince Chun had older half-brothers that were closer in age to Xianfeng).
Puyi was in a branch of the imperial family with close ties to Cixi, who was herself from the (Manchu) Yehe-Nara clan (the imperial family were the Aisin-Gioro clan).
Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City in Beijing in 1924 by warlord Feng Yuxiang.
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