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Encyclopedia > Pursuit of Nazi collaborators

The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-WWII pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead... Non-German cooperation with nazis during World War 2 existed in all the countries occupied by Germany during the World War 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Background

The main motives for the apprehension of suspected collaborators were:

  • Trial and, if guilty, punishment of traitors, for example members of the Waffen-SS British Free Corps.
  • Revenge for those killed, especially those killed on ethnic grounds in the Holocaust (principally amongst Jews and Russians)
  • A desire after a bitter war, to see those responsible face justice, and be characterised as criminals under a court of law (See Nuremberg Trials).
  • To ensure that the acts done were brought to light and placed on formal record, with evidence, so that they could never be denied (some of the acts being so unthinkable that denial was plausible).
  • A widespread sense that wanton annihilation of whole communities and cultures on such a scale was intolerable and must not be left unpursued even despite the inadequacy of existing laws.

Other motives included: Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... A recruitment poster produced by the British Free Corps In World War II, the British Free Corps (BFC) or Britisches Freikorps was a unit of the Waffen-SS consisting of British and Dominion prisoners of war who had been recruited by the Nazis. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...

  • Fear that a "Nazi underground" of some kind existed, such as the ODESSA, which would allow the enemy to somehow regroup for their proclaimed Fourth Reich.
  • Political gain, in the turbulent politics of the last 1940's and the commencement of the Cold War.

For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... Fourth Reich is used by neo-Nazi and Nazi mystic groups who believe or hope that a Fourth Reich, a resurrection of the Third Reich will one day be established. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Means of pursuit

This pursuit takes many forms, both individual and organised. Several organizations hunt for and pursue individuals they believe complicit in Nazi war crimes. Others were due to after-war spontaneous retaliation committed by populations within occupied countries. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Some of the main ways this pursuit took place were:

  • Individuals who reported they saw someone that they recognised, who had now assumed an identity and were slipping back into civilian life undetected.
  • Specific individuals named and sought by groups or governments for their activities in the war.
  • "Witch hunt" in some areas for those suspected of having been collaborators.
  • Government action - investigation and interrogation of people suspected to be such. For example: U.S. DOJ Office of Special Investigations
  • Non-governmental agencies like the Simon Wiesenthal Center
  • Infiltration of Nazi support and escape organisations and those believed to be aiding and abetting them.
  • Vigilantism and "summary justice", often without trial.

This affected not only individuals, but whole groups perceived as collaborators. Another part was legal action and laws punishing cooperation with Nazis, implemented by provisional authorities. The Office of Special Investigations operates under the auspices of the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ...


Controversial aspects

Controversy surrounds some forms of pursuit, particularly when they involve the collective punishment of ethnic groups because some members collaborated with the Third Reich.


Pursuit in specific countries

Argentina

It is alleged that many Nazis lived for decades in Argentina with the authorities looking the other way. It is also believed that Juan Perón's government protected and abetted Nazis fleeing Europe after the war and they settled in the southern regions of the country (especially Bariloche), especially for the physical similarties that exist between this area and the German Alps. All of this claims are unsubstantiated, but Perón's liking of the German Regime is well documented. It is precisely in Bariloche where Erich Priebke was living when Argentina extradited him to Italy in 1995 for his alleged participation on The Ardeatine massacre. Notably, Adolf Eichmann was kidnapped from Argentina in 1961 to be tried and subsequently hanged in Israel for his crimes during the Holocaust. Other Nazis that are claimed to have lived in Argentina for a period after the war are Josef Mengele. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine soldier and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... View of the Nahuel Huapi Lake, Bariloche San Carlos de Bariloche in Argentina is situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes (Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez, Moreno and Mascardi) and mountains (Tronador, Catedral, López). ... View of the Nahuel Huapi Lake, Bariloche San Carlos de Bariloche in Argentina is situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes (Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez, Moreno and Mascardi) and mountains (Tronador, Catedral, López). ... Erich Priebke during the war Erich Priebke during the trial Erich Priebke, born July 29, 1913 at Hennigsdorf, Brandenburg, Germany is a former S.S.-Hauptsturmführer of Nazi Germany. ... The Ardeatine massacre took place in Italy during World War II. In March 1944, 33 German soldiers were killed when a group of Italian Communist partisans set off a bomb close to a column of German soldiers which were marching on Via Rasella. ... Adolf Eichmann, Germany 1940. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Josef Mengele Dr. Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979) was a Nazi German SS officer and a physician in the concentration camp Auschwitz. ...


Australia

Latvia applied to Australia to extradite Konrad Kalejs, allegedly a senior officer in the pro-Nazi Arajs Commando, but he died on November 8, 2001 before he could be extradited. Kalejs migrated to Australia in 1950 and took citizenship. He would have been the first Australian citizen extradited to face war crimes charges. November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Belgium

Belgium imprisoned Belgian nationals who had joined the Waffen-SS and executed some. Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...


Czechoslovakia

Actions against Nazi collaborators in Czechoslovakia, real or alleged, had two significant forms.


Immediately after liberation of Czechoslovakia by Soviet and American armies, in atmosphere of chaos, wild chase started. Individual revenge, mob violence, and simply criminal acts motivated by possibility to rob or loot, took place. In some places, where conducted by organized groups of self-styled partisans, violence resembled what is today known as ethnic cleansing. In most places this stopped when provisional Czechoslovak government and local authorities took power. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Look up partisan on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory. ...


Other form were legal action, undertaken by state administration. After war, until regular Czechoslovak parliament was set up, president Beneš ruled by issuing decrees. These were later ratified by parliament. Edvard BeneÅ¡ Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ (May 28, 1884 - September 3, 1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement and the second President of Czechoslovakia. ... The BeneÅ¡ decrees (BeneÅ¡ovy dekrety in Czech, Benesch Dekrete in German , BeneÅ¡ove dekréty in Slovak) refers to a series of laws enacted by the Czechoslovak government of exile during World War II in absence of Czechoslovak parliament (see details in Czechoslovakia: World War II (1939 - 1945)). Today...


By decree 5/1945 property of untrustworthy persons was put under national administration. Untrustworthy were considered German and Hungarian nationals, people who were active in destruction of Czechoslovak state and its democratic government, supported Nazi occupation by any means or were members of organizations considered fascist or collaborator.


By the same decree, property of people of German and Hungarian nationality, who could prove they were anti-Nazi, should have been returned to them.


By decree 12/1945 Sb. farm property of German and Hungarian nationals or citizens was confiscated, unless they could prove active resistance against Nazism. Property of traitors, and enemies of republic was confiscated no matter what nationality or citizenship.


By decree 16/1945 Sb. special tribunals were set up. These people courts had right to sentence to long term imprisonment, life sentence or death. Prosecuted were

  • traitors, members of SS, FS and similar organizations, the officials of NSDAP or SdP, those who supported Nazi movement by any means, including verbal support or advocacy of occupation
  • who committed crimes against humanity, contributed to false imprisonment, ordered forced labour
  • informants, or anyone who caused imprisonment of any citizen

No prosecution was based on ethnicity. However, many Sudeten Germans were members of NSDAP or voiced support for annexation of Sudetenland by Third Reich. SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... FS may stand for: Fall semester Ferrocarril de Sóller, a railway on Majorca Ferrovie dello Stato, the Italian railways File Separator, a character in the C0 control code set file system, in computer science Financial statements, in accounting Fin-stabilized projectiles, such as APFSDS or HEAT-FS (ammunition for... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


By 33/1945 Sb. people of German and Hungarian nationality or ethnicity lost Czechoslovakian citizenship. However, they had right to apply for renewal.


Most problematic is the law 115/1946 about resistance against Nazi regime, which shifted limit of immunity to year 1946, effectively amnestying all crimes, acts of individual revenge and atrocities against Germans and Hungarians long after war.


People, who lost Czechoslovakian citizenship and did not apply for new or did not get it, were transferred to Germany. (Population transfers are discussed in article Expulsion of Germans after World War II). Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The flight and expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (both Reichsdeutsche and Volksdeutsche) from Soviet-occupied areas of Europe during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...


France

After the liberation, France was swept with a wave of executions of people connected with Vichy regime. Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Nazi officers or soldiers were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved. Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later...


The French members of the Waffen-SS Charlemagne Division who survived the war were regarded as traitors. Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were give prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indo-China with the Foreign Legion instead of prison. The SS Division Charlemagne and Charlemagne Regiment are collective names used for units of French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during the World War II. The Charlemagne division was not a single military unit but succession of groups of collaborating French volunteers (though the exact nature of...


Philippe Pétain, the former Prime Minister of Vichy France, was charged with treason in mid-1945. He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. Most convicts were amnestied a few years later. In the police, collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of 1961, executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon, who was judged in the 1990s for his role during Vichy. Henri-Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... France under German occupation 1940-44 Presidential flag of Vichy France For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maurice Papon (born September 3, 1910) was an official of the French Vichy government, who collaborated with Nazi Germany in World War II. After the war ended, he hid his role in the Vichy government and went on to have a successful career in politics until the emergence of details...


Netherlands

So many Dutch men had volunteered for the Waffen-SS that the country took many years to come to terms with the extent to which this had happened. Men who had volunteered for the Waffen-SS and returned to the Netherlands were interned. Subsequently some rose to prominence in the political and business fields, but because of their background they remained vulnerable to blackmail.


Norway

Vidkun Quisling, the war time Norwegian "Minister President", along with two other Nasjonal Samling leaders, Albert Viljam Hagelin and Ragnar Skancke, were convicted and executed by firing squad. In later days these sentences have been controversial, since the capital punishment was reintroduced to the Norwegian legal system during the end of the war, by the exile government, to handle the post war trials. Vidkun Quisling Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian fascist politician and officer. ... A minister-president is the head of government in a number of European countries, and is alternative for prime minister or first minister. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... Albert Viljam Hagelin (1881 - 1946) was a businessman and opera singer. ... Ragnar Sigvald Skancke (1890 - August 28, 1948) was the Norwegian Minister of Labour and Minister for Church and Educational Affairs in Vidkun Quislings government of the Nasjonal Samling party during World War II. Before the war Skancke was a highly respected professor of electrical engineering at the Norwegian Institute... The Executions of the Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ...


The term "quisling" has become a synonym in many European languages for traitor (see Judas, and the understanding of Benedict Arnold in the United States). Most of the many indigenous languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... For the American black metal band, see Judas Iscariot (band). ... Benedict Arnold (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ...


Poland

In occupied Poland the status of Volksdeutsche had many privileges but one big disadvantage: Volksdeutsche were conscripted into the German army. The Volksliste had 4 categories. No. 1 and No. 2 were considered ethnic Germans, while No. 3 and No. 4 were ethnic Poles that signed the Volksliste. No. 1 and No. 2 in the Polish areas re-annexed by Germany numbered ~1,000,000 and No. 3 and No. 4 ~1,700,000. In the General Government there were ~120,000 Volksdeutsche.


Volksdeutsche of Polish origins were treated by Poles with special contempt, and also it constituted high treason according to Polish law.


German citizens that remained on territory of Poland became as a group personae non gratae. They had a choice of applying for Polish citizenship or being expulsed to Germany. The property that belonged to Germans, German companies and German state, was confiscated by the Polish state along with many other properties in communist Poland. German owners, as explicitly stated by the law, were not eligible for any compensation. Those who decided to apply became subject to a verification process. At the beginning many acts of violence against Volksdeutsche took place. However, soon the verification of Volksdeutsche became controlled by the juridical process and was completed in a more controlled manner.


Soviet Union

Soviet and other Russian members of the Russian Liberation Army and the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia were pursued tried and either sent to the gulags or executed. A soldier of the Russian Liberation Army Russian Liberation Army or ROA (Русская Освободительная Армия, Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya), also known as the Vlasov army, was a group of volunteer Russian forces allied with Nazi Germany during World War II. The ROA was organized by former Red Army general Andrey Vlasov, who tried... General Vlasov (in glasses) and members of the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia The Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (in Russian: Комитет Освобождения Народов России, abbreviated as КОНР) was a committee composed of military and civilian anticommunists from the Soviet Union. ...


Many Soviet Prisoners of War were seen to have collaborated with the Nazis, even if they had done no more than been captured by the Wehrmacht and spent the war in a camp. Many such unfortunate Soviet citizen was persecuted on their repatriation to the Soviet Union. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Wehrmacht troops of the Heer (military land forces) marching at a military parade in honour of the 50th birthday of Adolf Hitler, on April 20th, 1939. ...


In general, after a short trial, if they were not executed, Nazi collaborators were imprisoned in Gulag forced labor camps. Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ...


The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was abolished and Volga Germans were banished from their settlements on the Volga River with many being deported to Siberia or Kazakhstan. Volga German ASSR location map Volga German ASSR map 1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen, Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomy established in the Soviet Union, with its capital at the Volga port of Engels (until... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ...


United Kingdom

At the end of the war a number of people were tried for high treason. These included members of the Waffen-SS British Free Corps and William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw), who, although a U.S. citizen, had travelled on a British passport. Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... A recruitment poster produced by the British Free Corps In World War II, the British Free Corps (BFC) or Britisches Freikorps was a unit of the Waffen-SS consisting of British and Dominion prisoners of war who had been recruited by the Nazis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lord Haw-Haw. ...


As agreed at the Yalta Conference, the British handed back many Soviet citizens to the Soviet regime. Some of these were collaborators who had fought in the Russian Liberation Army. In later years there would be a controversy because some of those handed over were White Russians who had never been Soviet citizens. Yugoslavs were handed over to Tito's forces, and many were subsequently killed. The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейц&#1099... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


In 1948 Victor Arajs, who was the leader of the eponymous commando unit which helped the Nazis murder the Jews of Latvia and Belarus, had been captured in the British zone of occupied Germany after the war but was allowed to go free. He remained at large until 1979 when West Germany put him on trial. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


One of Arajs's deputies, Harijs Svikeris, settled in Britain after the war and in the 1990s was thought to be a strong candidate to be prosecuted under the War Crimes Act, but he died before a prosecution was brought. See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the very late 1980s and from 2000 and beyond. ... The War Crimes Act is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1991. ...


On April 1, 1999, Anthony Sawoniuk was sentenced to life imprisonment after being found guilty of murdering two Jews in the UK's first full Nazi war crimes trial. Sawoniuk had led "search-and-kill" police squads to hunt down Jews trying to escape after nearly 3,000 were massacred at Domachevo in Nazi-occupied Belarus during September, 1942. He died in prison on November 7, 2005 at the age of 84[1]. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Anthony Sawoniuk (real name in Belarusian: Андрэй Саванюк Andrej Savaniuk; real name in Polish: Antoni Sawoniuk) was born on March 7, 1921, in Domaczewo, Poland. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Yugoslavia

The reprisals for collaboration with the Nazis were particularly harsh in Yugoslavia, because collaborators were also on the losing side of a de facto civil war fought on the Yugoslav territory during WWII. The Partisans executed many Ustashe and Chetniks, as well as their collaborators. One of the best documented incidents was the Bleiburg massacre. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all South Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for the three separate political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Slovene: Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... The Chetniks (Serbian četnici, четници) were a Serbian nationalist and royalist organization with origins in the 19th century Serbian movement opposing Ottoman rule. ... The Bleiburg massacre occurred near to the end of World War II, during May 1945. ...


Middle East

  • Amin al-Husayni

Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...

See also

Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... Jacob Luitjens (born 1919) was a Dutch collaborator during World War II. He was nicknamed The terror of Roden, as he was active in and around Roden in the Drenthe Province. ... The Deschênes Commission of Inquiry on War Criminals in Canada, often referred to as the Deschênes Commission was established by the government of Canada in February 1985 to investigate claims that Canada had become a haven for Nazi war criminals. ... Ex-Nazis are those who were once Nazis and resigned from the party. ... This is a list of Second world war era Nazis that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Between 1925 and 1945, the German SS grew from a mere 8 members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS members and well over a million members of the Allgemeine-SS. The following list of SS personnel indicates a few of the SS members who were the most...

External links

  • BBC: UK Life for war criminal Anthony Sawoniuk

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