FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Purna Swaraj
The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War.
The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War.

The Declaration of the Independence of India was promulgated by the Indian National Congress on January 26, 1930 - resolving the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight for Purna Swaraj, or complete self-rule apart from the British Empire. Image File history File links The flag of India used in 1931. ... Image File history File links The flag of India used in 1931. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Self rule is the term used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The flag of India had been officially hoisted by Congress President Jawaharlal Nehru on December 31, 1929 in Lahore. The Congress asked the people of India to observe January 26th as Independence Day. The flag of India was hoisted publicly across India by Congress volunteers, nationalists and the public. Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on the 15 August, 1947. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. ...

Contents

Background

Before 1930, few Indian political parties had openly embraced the goal of political independence from the United Kingdom. The All India Home Rule League had been advocating Home Rule for India: dominion status within the British Empire, as granted to Australia, Canada, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South Africa. The All India Muslim League favored dominion status as well, and opposed calls for outright Indian independence. The Indian Liberal Party, by far the most pro-British, explicitly opposed India's independence and even dominion status if it weakened India's links with the British Empire. The Indian National Congress, the largest Indian political party of the time, was at the head of the national debate. Veteran Congress leaders such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Motilal Nehru and Bipin Chandra Pal had opposed explicit Indian independence from the Empire. The All India Home Rule Leagues was a national political organization founded in 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule to the British Raj in India. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Liberal Party of India was an organization espousing the liberal, pro-British point of view in the politics of India under the British Raj. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ...


Following the 1919 Amritsar Massacre, there was considerable public outrage against British rule. Europeans, civilians and officials, were targets and victims of violence across India. In 1920, Gandhi and the Congress committed themselves to Swaraj, described as political and spiritual independence. At the time, Gandhi described this as the basic demand of all Indians; he specifically said that the question of whether India would remain within the Empire or leave it completely, would be answered by the behavior and response of the British. Between 1920 and 1922, Mohandas Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation movement: nationwide civil disobedience to oppose the Rowlatt Acts and the exclusion of Indians from the government of their own country and affairs, and the denial of political and civil freedoms. The Amritsar massacre The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. ... Self rule is the term used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... ... Anti-war activist Midge Potts is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ...


Simon commission and the Nehru report

In 1928, the British government further outraged people across India by appointing an all-European Simon Commission to deliberate on constitutional and political reforms for India. No Indians were included in the commission, nor were any Indian political parties consulted or asked to involve themselves in the process. Upon arrival in India, Chairman Sir John other commission members were met with angry public demonstrations, which followed them everywhere. The death of a prominent Indian leader, Lala Lajpat Rai, from severe beatings by British police officials further outraged the Indian public. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... The Right Honourable John Allsebrook Simon, 1st Viscount Simon (1873-1954) was a British politician and statesman. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ...


The Congress appointed an all-Indian commission to propose constitutional reforms for India. Members of other Indian political parties joined the commission led by Congress President Motilal Nehru. The Nehru Report demanded that India be granted self-government under the dominion status within the Empire. While most other Indian political parties supported the Nehru commission's work, it was opposed by the Indian Liberal Party and the All India Muslim League. The British ignored the commission, its report and refused to introduce political reforms. The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... The Nehru Report (1928) was a memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion (see dominion status) constitution for India. ...


Dominion or independence?

But the Nehru Report was also controversial within the Congress. Younger nationalist leaders like Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru (Motilal Nehru's son) demanded that the Congress resolve to make a complete and explicit break from all ties with the British Empire. Jawaharlal Nehru had introduced a resolution demanding "complete national independence" in 1927, which was rejected owing to Gandhi's view that the Congress had to re-learn how to fight, not re-phrase its goal.[1] Now Bose and Nehru opposed dominion status, which would retain the Monarch of the United Kingdom as the constitutional head of state of India (although in the separate capacity as King of India), and preserve political powers for the British Parliament in Indian constitutional affairs. They were supported in their stand by a large number of rank-and-file Congressmen. Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ...


In the December of 1928, Congress held in Calcutta, Mohandas Gandhi proposed a resolution that called for the British to grant dominion status to India within two years. If the British failed to meet the deadline, the Congress would call upon all Indians to fight for complete independence. Bose and Nehru objected to the time given to the British - they pressed Gandhi to demand immediate action from the British. Gandhi brokered a further compromise by reducing the time given from two years to one. Jawaharlal Nehru voted for the new resolution, while Subhash Bose told his supporters that he would not oppose the resolution, and abstained from voting himself. The All India Congress Committee voted 118 to 45 in its favor (the 45 votes came from supporters of a complete break from the British). However, when Bose introduced an amendment during the open session of Congress that sought a complete break with the British, Gandhi admonished the move: This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The All India Congress Committee or AICC is the central decision-making assembly of the Congress Party. ...

"You may take the name of independence on your lips but all your muttering will be an empty formula if there is no honour behind it. If you are not prepared to stand by your words, where will independence be?"[2]

The amendment was rejected, by 1350 to 973, and the resolution was fully adopted.


On October 31, 1929, the Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin announced that the government would meet with Indian representatives in London for a Round Table Conference. To facilitate Indian participation, Irwin met with Mohandas Gandhi, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and out-going Congress President Motilal Nehru to discuss the meeting. Gandhi asked Irwin if the conference would proceed on the basis of dominion status and Irwin said he could not assure that, resulting in the end of the meeting.[3] is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (16 April 1881–23 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a British Conservative politician. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ...


The declaration

As a result of the denial of reforms and political rights, and the persistent ignorance of Indian political parties, the Indian National Congress grew increasingly cohesive - unified in the desire to oust the British from India completely.[3] A very large number of Congress volunteers and delegates, members of other political parties and an especially large public gathering attended the session convened in Lahore. Despite the bitterly cold weather, Pattabhi Sitaramayya records that: Dr Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya was born on 24th November 1880 in Gundugolanu village, West Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh, India. ...

"The heat of passion and excitement, the resentment at the failure of negotiation, the flushing of faces on hearing the war drums - oh, it was all in marked contrast to the weather."[4]

Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President and veteran leaders like Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel returned to the Congress Working Committee. Gandhi drafted the Indian declaration of independence, which stated: Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; IPA: ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... The executive committee of the Congress Party in India, typically consisting of fifteen members elected from the All India Congress Committee or AICC, is known as the Congress Working Committee or CWC. It is headed by the Working President. ...

"The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually....Therefore...India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or complete independence."[5]

At midnight on New Year's Eve, President Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the tricolour flag of India upon the banks of the Ravi in Lahore. A pledge of independence was read out, which included a readiness to withhold taxes. The massive gathering of public attending the ceremony were asked if they agreed with it, and the vast majority of people were witnessed to raise their hands in approval. 172 Indian members of central and provincial legislatures resigned in support of the resolution and in accordance with Indian public sentiment. For other uses, see Midnight (disambiguation) Midnight, literally the middle of the night, is a time arbitrarily designated to determine the end of a day and the beginning of the next in some, mainly Western, cultures. ... New Years Eve is December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year, and the day before New Years Day. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ...


The Declaration of Independence was officially promulgated on January 26, 1930. Gandhi and other Indian leaders would immediately begin the planning of a massive national revolt that would encourage the common people to participate and also help involve revolutionaries into a struggle committed to non-violence.[3] The Dandi March and the Salt Satyagraha were iniatied by Mohandas Gandhi and the Congress as the first struggle for complete independence. Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Scenes during Gandhis famous march, on foot to the sea coast at Dandi, on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, 1930 The Salt Satyagraha, also known as the Salt March To Dandi, was an act of protest against the British salt tax in colonial India. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ...


Legacy

The Congress regularly observed January 26th as the Independence Day of India - commemorating the sacrifices of Indians during the struggle. In 1947, the British agreed to transfer power and political independence to India, and August 15 became the official Independence Day. However, the new Constitution of India, as drafted and approved by the Constituent Assembly of India, was mandated to take effect on January 26, 1950, to commemorate the 1930 declaration. On that day in 1950, India became a republic. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India, and served as its first Parliament as an independent nation. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on consent of the governed...


References

  1. ^ Rajmohan Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 171, ASIN: B0006EYQ0A
  2. ^ D. G. Tendulkar, Mahatma, pp. 441, Bombay - 1951
  3. ^ a b c R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 185
  4. ^ Pattabhi Sitaramayya, The History of the Congress, pp. 600, Allahabad - 1935
  5. ^ Declaration of independence
 v  d  e            Indian Independence Movement             
History: Colonisation - British East India Company - Plassey - Buxar - British India - French India - Portuguese India - More...
Philosophies: Indian nationalism - Swaraj - Gandhism - Satyagraha - Hindu nationalism - Indian Muslim nationalism - Swadeshi - Socialism
Events and movements: Rebellion of 1857 - Partition of Bengal - Revolutionaries - Champaran and Kheda - Jallianwala Bagh Massacre - Non-Cooperation - Flag Satyagraha - Bardoli - 1928 Protests - Nehru Report - Purna Swaraj - Salt Satyagraha - Act of 1935 - Legion Freies Indien - Cripps' mission - Quit India - Indian National Army - Bombay Mutiny
Organisations: Indian National Congress - Ghadar - Home Rule - Khudai Khidmatgar - Swaraj Party - Anushilan Samiti - Azad Hind - More...
Indian leaders: Mangal Pandey - Rani of Jhansi - Bal Gangadhar Tilak - Gopal Krishna Gokhale - Lala Lajpat Rai - Bipin Chandra Pal - Mahatma Gandhi - M. Ali Jinnah - Sardar Patel - Subhash Chandra Bose - Badshah Khan - Jawaharlal Nehru - Maulana Azad - Chandrasekhar Azad - Rajaji - Bhagat Singh - Sarojini Naidu - Purushottam Das Tandon - Tanguturi Prakasam - Alluri Sitaramaraju - More...
British Raj: Robert Clive - James Outram - Dalhousie - Irwin - Linlithgow - Wavell - Stafford Cripps - Mountbatten - More...
Independence: Cabinet Mission - Indian Independence Act - Partition of India - Political integration - Constitution - Republic of India

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m