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Encyclopedia > Purgatory
Illustration for Dante's Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory.
Illustration for Dante's Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory.

Purgatory, or "the final purification of the elect", is the process by which, according to Catholic doctrine, "all who die in God's grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven."[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (580 × 834 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio 18 by Gustave Doré +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (580 × 834 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio 18 by Gustave Doré +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... The Divine Comedy (Italian: , later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ...


All the ancient Christian Churches pray for the dead in the belief that they are thereby assisted.[2] But the way the final purification of the dead is pictured developed distinctive features in the Latin-speaking West and the Greek-speaking East. In the West, the term purgatorium (cleansing) was used to name this process of purification, and purgatory was often described as a place of purging fire.[3] Differences on these non-dogmatic elements were discussed at the Council of Florence.[4] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ...


Eastern Orthodox theology does not generally describe the process of purification after death as involving suffering, resulting in a distinctly Eastern understanding of the final purification, which nevertheless describes it as a "direful condition" from which, through the prayers and good works of the living, souls are delivered before the common resurrection and judgment, [5]. Naturally, Greek theology does not employ the Latin term "purgatory", and the doctrine is often seen by Orthodox theologians as a doctrinal difference. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... Last Judgment. ...


During the Protestant Reformation, certain Protestant theologians developed a view of salvation (soteriology) that excluded Purgatory. Today, Protestants, with few exceptions, do not believe in a process of purification after death. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ...


Apart from this strict sense of the word "Purgatory", the term is sometimes, though rarely, used of the temporary purification or punishment for wrong-doing that people other than Catholics believe takes place after death. In this sense, the word is used in connection with the belief of, for instance, Buddhists.[6] A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...

Contents

Catholic Church

The teaching of the Catholic Church on Purgatory is stated succinctly in the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church as follows:

Purgatory is the state of those who die in God’s friendship, assured of their eternal salvation, but who still have need of purification to enter into the happiness of heaven. Because of the communion of saints, the faithful who are still pilgrims on earth are able to help the souls in purgatory by offering prayers in suffrage for them, especially the Eucharistic sacrifice. They also help them by almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance.[7] As the full Catechism further explains, "The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned. The Church formulated her doctrine of faith on Purgatory especially at the Councils of Florence and Trent. The tradition of the Church, by reference to certain texts of Scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire.[8] This teaching is also based on the practice of prayer for the dead, already mentioned in Sacred Scripture: "Therefore [Judas Maccabeus] made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin" (2 Macc 12:45). From the beginning the Church has honoured the memory of the dead and offered prayers in suffrage for them, above all the Eucharistic sacrifice, so that, thus purified, they may attain the beatific vision of God. The Church also commends almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance undertaken on behalf of the dead.[9]

The nature of this final purification from the attachment to creatures which precedes entrance into full union with God in heaven is expressed as follows: In theology, salvation can mean three related things: being saved from something, such as suffering or the punishment of sin - also called deliverance; being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God - also called redemption Salvation can also be understood in terms of social... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Communion of Saints is the doctrine that the saints (i. ... Faithful is a Roman Catholic terminology which refers to those who are those who, inasmuch as they have been incorporated in Christ through Baptism, have been constituted as the people of God; for this reason, since they have become sharers in Christs priestly, prophetic, and royal office in their... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of mans personality through and after death, religion naturally concerns itself with the relations between the living and the dead. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... In Roman Catholic theology, the beatific vision is the direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme happiness or blessedness. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ...

Grave sin deprives us of communion with God and therefore makes us incapable of eternal life, the privation of which is called the "eternal punishment" of sin. On the other hand every sin, even venial, entails an unhealthy attachment to creatures, which must be purified either here on earth, or after death in the state called Purgatory. This purification frees one from what is called the "temporal punishment" of sin. These two punishments must not be conceived of as a kind of vengeance inflicted by God from without, but as following from the very nature of sin. A conversion which proceeds from a fervent charity can attain the complete purification of the sinner in such a way that no punishment would remain. … While patiently bearing sufferings and trials of all kinds and, when the day comes, serenely facing death, the Christian must strive to accept this temporal punishment of sin as a grace. He should strive by works of mercy and charity, as well as by prayer and the various practices of penance, to put off completely the "old man" and to put on the "new man" (cf. Ephesians 4:24).[10]

Purgatory is imagined as a place, in the same way as Heaven and Hell are pictured as places. This picture has been and is used as a way of speaking about these after-life states. The idea that they are places within physical space is no part of the Church's teaching. Pope John Paul II explicitly excluded such an idea with regard to Purgatory, stating that "the term does not indicate a place, but a condition of existence".[11] According to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapÄ“), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Inferno” redirects here. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as...


As the Catechism of the Catholic Church states, the pain of purification has traditionally been likened to fire. The image of fire has been common in the West from at least the time of Saint Augustine, "the fire will be worse than anything a human being can suffer in this life", (In Ps. 37 n. 3 (PL, col. 397)[12], and Saint Gregory the Great, who speaks of those who after this life "will expiate their faults by purgatorial flames," and adds that "the pain will be more intolerable than any one can suffer in this life.", (Ps. 3 poenit., n. 1).[12] The image of fire appears in many other texts, including the Catechism of the Council of Trent, which under the heading "What we pray for" includes the following: "that we be not sentenced to endure the fire of purgatory, from which we piously and devoutly implore that others may be liberated." [13] However, at the Council of Florence, the Greek participants "were assured that the Roman Church had never issued any dogmatic decree on this subject" of fire.[12] “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ... The Catechism of the Council of Trent (or Roman Catechism) differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoyed an authority within the Catholic Church equalled by no... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ...


In fact, it has been concluded that the only differences enunciated by the Greek participants between their belief and the Western teaching were the two images of place and fire.[14] Accordingly, Eastern Catholic Churches of Greek tradition generally avoid the image of fire, as well as the name "Purgatory", which is popularly associated with the idea of a place within space, while fully agreeing on the substance of the teaching about purification after death of Christians for final union with God.[15] For the process of preparation for union with God, these Catholic Churches of Greek tradition may use, instead of the term "purgatory", the term "theosis",[16] a concept accepted throughout the Catholic Church (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 460), though usually not explicitly linked with final purification. A Father of the Church, who belonged to the Greek tradition, seems to have linked theosis with the idea of an after-death process of purification by fire, writing that a person "... may afterward in a quite different manner be very much interested in what is better, when, after his departure out of the body, he gains knowledge of the difference between virtue and vice and finds that he is not able to partake of divinity until he has been purged of the filthy contagion in his soul by the purifying fire" (emphases added).[17] Eastern Catholic Churches of other traditions freely use the name "Purgatory".[18] The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and...


With regard to other secondary questions and theological hypotheses connected with Purgatory, the Catholic Encyclopedia advises: "It is well to heed the warning of the Council of Trent when it commands the bishops 'to exclude from their preaching difficult and subtle questions which tend not to edification', and from the discussion of which there is no increase either in piety or devotion" (Sess. XXV, De Purgatorio)."[12]


Eastern Catholic Churches

See also: Eastern Catholic Churches

The Eastern Catholic Churches are a set of particular Churches which, together with the Latin Church, form the One Catholic Church. Some of them initially split during the East-West Schism or much earlier, but were later "reunited". Others never left full communion with the Church in Rome. At present, Eastern Catholic Churches are said to make up about 2% of the Catholic Church. They are "in full communion" with the Pope, subscribing, like the Latin Church, to the same basic beliefs and teachings, including that on Purgatory, while differing in liturgy, tradition, and in various other ways. The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ...


The term "purgatory" is particular to the Latin tradition. Like the Latin Church, members of the Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate a Liturgy for the Dead, and its members practice prayer for the dead. Regarding the doctrinal nuances between the traditions, the Treaty of Brest (which effected full communion between the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the see of Rome) stated, "We shall not debate about purgatory", suggesting that the two sides will agree to disagree on the specifics of what the West calls 'Purgatory'", while all Eastern Catholic Churches (and, it is claimed, the Eastern Orthodox Church – see below) "agree with the Latin Church fully on both of ... (the) only two points (that) are necessary dogma concerning 'purgatory': 1) There is a place of transition/transformation for those en-route to Heaven, and 2) prayer is efficacious for the dead who are in this state." [19] Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ...


Eastern Orthodox Churches

See also: Eastern Orthodox Church
The Fedorovskaya icon of the Theotokos (Blessed Virgin Mary). She is understood as instrumental to man's theosis.[20]

Many Eastern Orthodox reject the concept of Purgatory, at least as they interpret its description by Catholics.[21] Regarding punishment, one view within the Eastern Orthodox Churches "sin is a sickness to be healed and not a crime to be punished".[22] This in contrast to Eastern Orthodox Church declarations, such as that of the Synod of Jerusalem, that there is indeed afterlife punishment for sin and that some are released from that punishment some time before the Last Judgment.[23] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... The 10th-century Fedorovskaya icon from Kostroma. ... The 10th-century Fedorovskaya icon from Kostroma. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... The Blessed Virgin Mary, sometimes shortened to The Blessed Virgin or The Virgin Mary, is a traditional title specifically used by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics, and others to describe Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... Last Judgment. ...



Greek tradition, however, rejects any notion of "temporal punishment" [24] The souls of the righteous are in light and rest, with a foretaste of eternal happiness; but the souls of the wicked are in a state the reverse of this. Among the latter, such souls as have departed with faith, but without having had time to bring forth fruits worthy of repentance may be aided by the living towards the attainment of a blessed resurrection.[25] The legalistic terminology present in the Latin tradition is not employed in the Greek,[citation needed] and the notion of redemption through "satisfaction" of sins is, according to John Meyondorff, not an articulation found in traditional Greek theology, which instead interprets sin as a spiritual disease that must be healed by divine love.[26] The state in which souls undergo this experience is often referred to as "Hades",[27] since Greek tradition, without denying the particular judgment of each soul at death, but instead explicitly affirming it, holds that neither the just nor the wicked attain the final state of bliss or punishment before the last day,[28] with some exceptions for righteous souls like the Theotokos (Blessed Virgin Mary).[29] The souls of those who died with faith, but "without having had time to bring forth fruits worthy of repentance..., may be aided towards the attainment of a blessed resurrection [at the end of time] by prayers offered in their behalf, especially those offered in union with the oblation of the bloodless sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ, and by works of mercy done in faith for their memory."[30] Sometimes Eastern Orthodox, like other Christians, speak of the dead as "asleep in the Lord" (cf. 1 Thessalonians 4:14), though "sleep" here does not refer to the soul, but to the body,[31] and, as other Christians, apart from those of Protestant tradition, also believe, the saints are understood to be able to intercede on behalf of the living (see Intercession of saints). In some Christian traditions, hades is the abode of the dead where the righteous and unrighteous alike await resurrection and judgment. ... In Christian eschatology, particular judgment is the doctrine that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... The Blessed Virgin Mary, sometimes shortened to The Blessed Virgin or The Virgin Mary, is a traditional title specifically used by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics, and others to describe Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. ... Intercession of the saints is a Christian doctrine common to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. ...


The Eastern Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem, held in 1672, declared that "the souls of those that have fallen asleep are either at rest or in torment, according to what each hath wrought" (an enjoyment or condemnation that will be complete only after the resurrection of the dead); but the souls of some "depart into Hades, and there endure the punishment due to the sins they have committed. But they are aware of their future release from there, and are delivered by the Supreme Goodness, through the prayers of the Priests, and the good works which the relatives of each do for their Departed; especially the unbloody Sacrifice benefiting the most; which each offers particularly for his relatives that have fallen asleep, and which the Catholic and Apostolic Church offers daily for all alike. Of course, it is understood that we do not know the time of their release. We know and believe that there is deliverance for such from their direful condition, and that before the common resurrection and judgment, but when we know not."[32] By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... Last Judgment. ...


The Orthodox Confession of Peter Mogila, adopted, in a Greek translation by Meletius Syrigos, by the 1642 Council of Jassy, in Romania, professes that "many are freed from the prison of hell ... through the good works of the living and the Church's prayers for them, most of all through the unbloody sacrifice, which is offered on certain days for all the living and the dead" (question 64); and (under the heading "How must one consider the purgatorial fire?") "the Church rightly performs for them the unbloody sacrifice and prayers, but they do not cleanse themselves by suffering something. But, the Church never maintained that which pertains to the fanciful stories of some concerning the souls of their dead, who have not done penance and are punished, as it were, in streams, springs and swamps" (question 66).".[33] Peter Mogila Peter Mogila (Ukrainian: Петро Могила, Petro Mohyla; Romanian: Petru Movilă; Russian: Pyotr Mogila; December 21 1596 â€“ December 22, 1646) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia from 1633 until his death. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


Catholic spirituality

Monastic Liturgy of the Hours in German, with a rosary and attached crucifix
Monastic Liturgy of the Hours in German, with a rosary and attached crucifix

Prayer for the dead was customary throughout the early Church, continues today in all the ancient Churches. Inscriptions in the catacombs are in the form of prayers for those buried there. Other funeral monuments, such as the inscription of Abercius of Hieropolis in Phrygia (latter part of the 2nd century), beg the prayers of the living. Catholics and Orthodox, in harmony with Jewish custom, consider it "a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from sins" (2 Maccabees 12:39-46). They therefore pray frequently for the dead. One particular short Latin prayer, "May the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace", which has been adopted by other traditions also,[34] is often added to other prayers, such as grace after meals. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of mans personality through and after death, religion naturally concerns itself with the relations between the living and the dead. ... Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) Catacombs Lima. ... A Greek hagiographical text, which has, however, undergone alterations, and a Greek inscription of the 2nd century have made known to us a certain Abercius, Bishop of Hieropolis, in Phrygia, who, about the middle of the century in question, left his episcopal city and visited Rome. ... The theatre Hierapolis Bambyce or Mabug (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is not to be confused with the better known Hierapolis on top of the Pamukkale hot springs in western Turkey near Denizli, listed as a World Heritage Site. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ...


Latin, Greek (including Greek Orthodox),[35] Coptic, Syrian, Chaldaean, and the other traditions represented in the Catholic Church offer the sacrifice of the Eucharist on behalf of the dead. When St Augustine's mother Monica was dying she told her two sons: "Lay this body anywhere, and do not let the care of it be a trouble to you at all. Only this I ask: that you will remember me at the Lord's altar, wherever you are."[36] “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Catholics believe they can assist the dead by gaining indulgences for them, by giving alms on their behalf, and through fasting and other penitential acts, in accordance with the exhortation of Saint John Chrysostom: "Let us then give them aid and perform commemoration for them. For if the children of Job were purged by the sacrifice of their father, why do you doubt that when we too offer for the departed, some consolation arises to them? since God is wont to grant the petitions of those who ask for others. ... Let us not then be weary in giving aid to the departed, both by offering on their behalf and obtaining prayers for them: for the common Expiation of the world is even before us. ... and it is possible from every source to gather pardon for them, from our prayers, from our gifts in their behalf, from those whose names are named with theirs. Why therefore do you grieve? Why mourn, when it is in your power to gather so much pardon for the departed?"[37] In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. ... Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ...


Protestantism

In general, Protestant churches do not accept the doctrine of Purgatory. One of Protestantism's central tenets is Sola scriptura, a Latin phrase which translates to "Scripture alone". Protestants believe that the Bible alone is the basis for valid Christian Doctrine and, since the Protestant Bible contains no overt, explicit discussion of Purgatory (Protestants dismiss the second book of Maccabees, which advocates prayer for the dead, as un-canonical), Protestants reject it as an "unbiblical" belief despite verses quoted by Catholics as supporting the existence of Purgatory. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ...


Another tenet of Protestantism is Sola fide-- "By faith alone". While Catholicism regards both good works and faith as being essential to salvation, Protestants believe faith alone is sufficient to achieve salvation and that good works are evidence of that faith. Instead of distinquishing between mortal and venial sins, Protestants believe that one's faith dictates one's place in the afterlife. Those who have been "saved" by God are destined for heaven, while those have not been saved will be excluded from Heaven. Accordingly, they reject the notion of any "third state" or "third place" such as Purgatory. Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ...


History

As formulated in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church, the doctrine of purgatory, also termed the "final purification", is articulated as a purification after death prior to entrance into heaven, and explained as "based on the practice of prayer for the dead."[38] Catholics consider purgatory part of the apostolic deposit of faith, finding its origins in the revelation of Jesus Christ.


Christian Antiquity

A procession in the Catacombs of St. Callistus, Rome. The catacombs contain inscriptions that are often prayers for the dead.
A procession in the Catacombs of St. Callistus, Rome. The catacombs contain inscriptions that are often prayers for the dead.[39]

Offerings to the dead were known to ancient Jewish practice, and it has been speculated that Christianity may have taken its similar practice from its Jewish heritage.[40] In Christianity, prayer for the dead is attested to since at least the second century,[41] evidenced in part by the tomb inscription of Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia (d. c. 200).[42] Celebration of the Eucharist for the dead is attested to since at least the third century.[43] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (698x1194, 139 KB) A Procession in the Catacomb of Callistus Source: Malleson, Hope & Tuker, M.A.R.: “Rome” (1905) [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Catacombs... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (698x1194, 139 KB) A Procession in the Catacomb of Callistus Source: Malleson, Hope & Tuker, M.A.R.: “Rome” (1905) [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Catacombs... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ... Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope from about 217 to 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ... Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) Catacombs Lima. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The theatre Hierapolis (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is an ancient Syrian town occupying one of the finest sites in Northern Syria, in a fertile district about 16 miles southwest of the confluence of the Sajur and Euphrates. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Specific examples of belief in purification after death and of the communion of the living with the dead through prayer are found in many of the Church Fathers.[44] The patristic authors often understood those undergoing purification to be awaiting the universal judgment before receiving final blessedness, and they also often described this purification as a journey which entailed hardships but also powerful glimpses of joy.[45] Irenaeus (c. 130-202) mentioned an abode where the souls of the dead remained until the universal judgment, a process that has been described as one which "contains the concept of... purgatory."[46] Both St. Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-215) and his pupil, Origen (c. 185-254), developed a view of purification after death;[47] this view drew upon the notion that fire is a divine instrument from the Old Testament, and understood this in the context of New Testament teachings such as baptism by fire, from the Gospels, and a purificatory trial after death, from St. Paul.[48] Origen, in arguing against soul sleep, stated that the souls of the elect immediately entered paradise unless not yet purified, in which case they passed into a state of punishment, a penal fire, which is to be conceived as a place of purification.[49] For both Clement and Origen, the fire was neither a material thing nor a metaphor, but a "spiritual fire".[50] An early Latin author, Tertullian (c. 160-225), also articulated a view of purification after death.[51] In Tertullian's understanding of the afterlife, the souls of martyrs entered directly into eternal blessedness,[52] whereas the rest entered a generic realm of the dead. There the wicked suffered a foretaste of their eternal punishments,[53] whilst the good experienced various stages and places of bliss wherein "the idea of a kind of purgatory… is quite plainly found," an idea that is representative of a view widely dispersed in antiquity.[54] Later examples, wherein further elaborations are articulated, include St. Cyprian (d. 258),[55] St. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407),[56] and St. Augustine (354-430),[57] among others. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Last Judgment. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Soul sleep is a belief held by some Christians claiming that between death and the resurrection of the dead, the body and soul rest together in unconsciousness. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... This page does not concern Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Early Middle Ages

Gregory the Great with a dove alighting on his shoulder while the pontiff writes his homilies, an ancient tradition about the saint.
Gregory the Great with a dove alighting on his shoulder while the pontiff writes his homilies, an ancient tradition about the saint.[58]

During the Early Middle Ages, the doctrine of final purification developed distinctive features in the Latin-speaking West differing from its development in the Greek-speaking East. Pope Gregory the Great's Dialogues, written in the late sixth century, evidence a development in the understanding of the afterlife distinctive of the direction that Latin Christendom would take: Saraceni painting of Pope Gregory I, also known as Pope Gregory the Great. ... Saraceni painting of Pope Gregory I, also known as Pope Gregory the Great. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ...

As for certain lesser faults, we must believe that, before the Final Judgment, there is a purifying fire. He who is truth says that whoever utters blasphemy against the Holy Spirit will be pardoned neither in this age nor in the age to come. From this sentence we understand that certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come.[59]

For Gregory, God was further illuminating the nature of the afterlife, sending visions and the like, whereby, more fully than before, the outlines of the fate of the soul immediately beyond the grave were becoming visible, like the half-light that precedes the dawn.[60] Visions of purgatory abounded; Bede mentioned a vision of a beautiful Heaven and a lurid Hell with adjacent temporary abodes,[61] as did St. Boniface.[62] In the seventh century, the Irish abbot St. Fursa described his foretaste of the afterlife, where, though protected by angels, he was pursued by demons who said, "It is not fitting that he should enjoy the blessed life unscathed..., for every transgression that is not purged on earth must be avenged in heaven," and on his return he was engulfed in a billowing fire that threatened to burn him, "for it stretches out each one according to their merits... For just as the body burns through unlawful desire, so the soul will burn, as the lawful, due penalty for every sin."[63] Already in the early fifth century, St. Augustine had described the role of fire in the process of purgation, writing that the pains of purgatorial fire "will be more severe than anything man is able to suffer in this life".[12] In the ninth century, Haymo stated that prayers and lamentations of the living, supported by almsgiving and masses, would shorten the period of purgatorial suffering.[64] Others who expounded upon on the doctrine include Rabanus Maurus and Walafrid Strabo,[65] to name just two. Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Saint Fursey (also known as Fursa, Fursy, Forseus, Furseus) (d. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Haymo, or Haimo, was a ninth century Benedictine monk who served as bishop of Halberstadt, and was a noted author. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... Rabanus Maurus (left) presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (c. ... Walafrid (also Walahfrid), surnamed Strabo (or Strabus, i. ...


High Middle Ages

In 1054, the Bishop of Rome and the four Greek-speaking patriarchs of the East excommunicated each other, triggering the East-West Schism. The schism split the church basically into the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. In the West, the understanding of purgatory continued to develop. For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


By the twelfth century, the process of purification had acquired the Latin name, "purgatorium", from the verb purgare: to purge.[66] Dogmatic definition of purgatory was given in 1254 . Against those who denied purgatory the Catholic Church asserted: "[W]e, since they say a place of purgation of this kind has not been indicated to them with a certain and proper name by their teachers, we indeed, calling it purgatory according to the traditions and authority of the Holy Fathers, wish that in the future it be called by that name...".[67] By this time, Latin theology had developed a sophisticated understanding of the afterlife articulated in legalistic terminology, and the understanding of purgatory had become fully integrated with indulgences and other penitential practices. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ...


Subsequent history

Latin-Greek relations

In the 15th century, at the Council of Florence authorities of the Eastern Orthodox Church identified purgatory as a point on which there were principal differences between Greek and Latin doctrine.[68] The decrees of the Council, however, formed the basis on which certain Eastern Communities were later received into full communion with the Roman Catholic Church.[69] At the Council, the Roman Catholic Church assured the Greeks that no dogmatic decree on the exact details of the process of purification had been issued, and Bessarion (Latin Patriarch of Constantinople) argued against the existence of real purgatorial fire. In effecting full communion between the Roman Catholic Church and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church by the Union of Brest (1585), the two agreed, "We shall not debate about purgatory, but we entrust ourselves to the teaching of the Holy Church,"[70] implying that both sides need not dispute over the details.[71] Furthermore, the Council of Trent, in its discussion of purgatory, instructed the bishops not to preach on such "difficult and subtle questions".[72] Today, the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches understand the Greek articulation of a "final theosis", or process of deification whereby the soul is transformed into perfect union with God,[73] and the Latin articulation of "purgatory" to be essentially equivalent — a final purification.[74] However, some Eastern Orthodox Churches continue to see "purgatory" as a matter of contention.[75] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Johannes Bessarion, or Basilius (c. ... The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was an office established as a result of Crusader activity in the Middle East. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... Johannes Bessarion, or Basilius (c. ... The Latin Patriarch of Constantinople was an office established as a result of Crusader activity in the Middle East. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of the newly... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Protestant Reformation

During the Protestant Reformation, certain Protestant theologians developed a view of salvation (soteriology) that excluded purgatory. This was in part a resulted from a doctrinal change concerning justification and sanctification on the part of the reformers. In Catholic theology, one is made righteous by a progressive infusion of divine grace accepted through faith and cooperated with through good works; however, in Martin Luther's doctrine, justification rather meant "the declaring of one to be righteous", where God imputes the merits of Christ upon one who remains without inherent merit.[76] In this process, good works done in faith (i.e. penances) are more of an unessential byproduct that contribute nothing to one's own state of righteousness; hence, in Protestant theology, "becoming perfect" came to be understood as an instantaneous act of God and not a process or journey of purification that continues in the afterlife. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... Justification can mean: justification (jurisprudence) justification (typesetting) justification (theology) In epistemology, justification of a belief is what renders it worth believing in terms of its probable truth. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...

Oil painting of a young John Calvin.
Oil painting of a young John Calvin.

Thus, Protestant soteriology developed the view that each one of the elect (saved) experienced instantaneous glorification upon death. As such, there was little reason to pray for the dead. Luther wrote in Question No. 211 in his expanded Small Catechism: "We should pray for ourselves and for all other people, even for our enemies, but not for the souls of the dead." Luther, after he stopped believing in purgatory around 1530,[77] openly affirmed the doctrine of soul sleep.[78] Purgatory came to be seen as one of the "unbiblical corruptions" that had entered Church teachings sometime subsequent to the apostolic age. Hence, the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England produced during the English Reformation stated: "The Romish doctrine concerning Purgatory...is a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture; but rather repugnant to the word of God" (article 22). Likewise, John Calvin, central theologian of Reformed Protestantism, considered purgatory a superstition, writing in his Institutes (5.10): "The doctrine of purgatory ancient, but refuted by a more ancient Apostle. Not supported by ancient writers, by Scripture, or solid argument. Introduced by custom and a zeal not duly regulated by the word of God… we must hold by the word of God, which rejects this fiction." In general, this position remains indicative of Protestant belief today, with the notable exception of certain Anglo-Catholics, such as the Guild of All Souls, which describe themselves as Reformed and Catholic (and specifically not Protestant) and believe in purgatory. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (955x1174, 375 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (955x1174, 375 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Soul sleep is a belief held by some Christians claiming that between death and the resurrection of the dead, the body and soul rest together in unconsciousness. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... -1... ... The Guild of All Souls is an Anglican devotional society dedicated to prayer for faithful departed Christians. ...


Interpretations

Catholic scholar John Henry Cardinal Newman, aged 23.

The historical development of the doctrine of purgatory has been the subject of many interpretations, especially concerning its origins. Part of the divergence of views has resulted from different definitions as to what constitutes the essence of the doctrine. Image File history File links John Henry Newman, when he preached his first sermon in Over Worton Church on 23 June 1824. ... Image File history File links John Henry Newman, when he preached his first sermon in Over Worton Church on 23 June 1824. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ...


Catholic scholar and apologist John Henry Newman, in his Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, argued that doctrines such as purgatory should be expected to develop over the course of the history of the Church. In this view, the essence of the doctrine is locatable in ancient tradition, and remains consistent throughout doctrinal development, but that "large accretions" are to be understood as "true and legitimate results" — indeed, Newman considered this evidence that Christianity was "originally given to us from heaven".[79] Newman wrote: J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ...

Moreover, the very scale on which [the developments] have been made, their high antiquity yet present promise, their gradual formation yet precision, their harmonious order, dispose the imagination most forcibly towards the belief that a teaching so consistent with itself, so well balanced, so young and so old, not obsolete after so many centuries, but vigorous and progressive still, is the very development contemplated in the Divine Scheme.[80]

Protestant theology generally does not articulate such a view on doctrinal development, and certain Protestant scholars consider purgatory to be an "unbiblical" belief not derived from revelation. Hence, Adolf Harnack, a nineteenth century Protestant historian, argued that purgatory entered the Church via Hellenistic philosophy and thus represented an infusion of "unrealistic" and "unbiblical" ideas into Christianity.[81] Notable exceptions include Anglican apologist C. S. Lewis, who suggested that, during the Reformation, the Church of England rejected purgatory only as it was then understood by the Roman church, distinguishing this from the idea of purgatory in general and believing in the latter.[82] Jacques Le Goff, medievalist and self-professed agnostic, argued that purgatory was "born" between 1170 and 1200, when purification after death was first said to be carried out in a specific place.[83] Le Goff acknowledged the notion of purification after death in antiquity, arguing specifically that Clement of Alexandria, and his pupil Origen, derived their view from a combination of biblical teachings, though he considered vague concepts of purifying and punishing fire to predate Christianity.[84] Le Goff also considered Peter the Lombard (d. 1160), in expounding on the teachings of St. Augustine and Gregory the Great, to have contributed significantly to the "birth" of purgatory. Le Goff’s view, however, has been criticized by fellow historians and scholars. Historian Alan E. Bernstein held that, "the insistence that there was no purgatory until it was conceived as a place represented by a noun seems unnecessarily strict",[85] and stated that, "Le Goff leaves us with a tangle of abstractions."[86] Historian Richard Trexler considered Le Goff’s "so-called birth of purgatory" to have been arrived at in part by "a priori" criteria and even occasional "tautological reasoning",[87] writing that, "From Christianity’s earliest records, the faithful are found performing suffrages to and for their dead, as if both were able to influence each other's death."[88] Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... A French medievalist, representative of the Annales School of historiography. ... A medievalist is a person who specializes in medieval studies. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... Within the study of logic, a tautology is a statement containing more than one sub-statement, that is true regardless of the truth values of its parts. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church,1030-1031 (section entitled, "The Final Purification, or Purgatory)
  2. ^ Why do we pray for the deceased? (Armenian Apostolic Church); Honoring the Ancestors (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria); Catechism of St. Philaret of Moscow, 376] (Eastern Orthodox Church); East Syrian Rite (Assyrian Church of the East); Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1032 (Roman Catholic Church).
  3. ^ "In the West the belief in the existence of real fire is common" (Catholic Encyclopedia). The image of fire was also used in the East, but less commonly (cf. Gregory of Nyssa, Sermon on the Dead, quoted in The Roots of Purgatory
  4. ^ For an Orthodox view of the debate, see The Orthodox Response to the Latin Doctrine of Purgatory, and for a Catholic view, see Cleansed after Death
  5. ^ Confession of Dositheus, Decree 18
  6. ^ Online Encyclopaedia Britannica
  7. ^ Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 210-211
  8. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1030-1031 (section entitled, "The Final Purification, or Purgatory); cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1304; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820; (1547): 1580; see also Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1000.
  9. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1032; cf. Council of Trent 6.30, 22.2-3.
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1472-1473
  11. ^ Audience of 4 August 1999
  12. ^ a b c d e
  13. ^ [http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/EN2/ben.htm The Catechism of Trent]
  14. ^ Cleansed after Death
  15. ^ "In the Catholic understanding, only two points are necessary dogma concerning 'purgatory': 1) There is a place of transition/transformation for those en-route to Heaven, and 2) prayer is efficacious for the dead who are in this state. The Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches agree with the Latin Church fully on both of these points" (From East to West). This statement of the doctrine of Purgatory (abstracting from imagery that may be used to embellish and enliven expression of the doctrine) corresponds exactly with that in the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 210-211.
  16. ^ From East to West
  17. ^ Gregory of Nyssa, Sermon on the Dead, A.D. 382, quoted in The Roots of Purgatory
  18. ^ "Purgatory" is used by, for instance, Maronite and Syro-Malabar Catholics.
  19. ^ From East to West
  20. ^ Archimandrite George, Theosis - Deification as the purpose of man's life
  21. ^ "Today most if not all Orthodox theologians reject the idea of Purgatory, at least in [Roman Catholic] form.' " [1]
  22. ^ "This is because Orthodoxy teaches that sin is a sickness to be healed and not a crime to be punished. Along the same lines, we don't talk in terms of venial or mortal sin." ("Herman", at Experts: Eastern Orthodox
  23. ^ "The souls of those that have fallen asleep are either at rest or in torment, according to what each hath wrought;" but the souls of some "depart into Hades, and there endure the punishment due to the sins they have committed. But they are aware of their future release from there ... We know and believe that there is deliverance for such from their direful condition, and that before the common resurrection and judgment" (Confession of Dositheus, Decree 18
  24. ^ Michael Azkoul What Are the Differences Between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism? does not say that the waiting is a punishment. On the contrary, it says: "Because some have a prevision of the glory to come and others foretaste their suffering, the state of waiting is called 'Particular Judgment'."
  25. ^ Catechism of St. Philaret of Moscow, 372 and 376
  26. ^ John Meyondorff, Byzantine Theology (London: Mowbrays, 1974) pp. 9 and 220-221. The Orthodox Confession of Faith of Peter Mogila speaks of satisfaction as a part of the sacrament of holy Penance that the dead are incapable of performing (Orthodox Confession of Faith, question 66).
  27. ^ What Are the Differences Between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism?; e.g. Constas H. Demetry, Catechism of the Eastern Orthodox Church p. 37
  28. ^ John Meyondorff, Byzantine Theology (London: Mowbrays, 1974) pp. 220-221
  29. ^ What Are the Differences Between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism?
  30. ^ Catechism of St. Philaret of Moscow, 376
  31. ^ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, Death, the Threshold to Eternal Life
  32. ^ Confession of Dositheus, Decree 18
  33. ^ Orthodox Confession of Faith, questions 64-66.
  34. ^ http://www.kcmgeorgia.org/mainprayers.html
  35. ^ Constas H. Demetry, Catechism of the Eastern Orthodox Church p. 37
  36. ^ Confessions, Book Six, Chapter XI
  37. ^ Homily 41 on 1 Corinthians, 8
  38. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church § 1030 - 1032
  39. ^ Cabrol and Leclercq, Monumenta Ecclesiæ Liturgica. Volume I: Reliquiæ Liturgicæ Vetustissimæ (Paris, 1900-2) pp. ci-cvi, cxxxix.
  40. ^ George Cross, "The Differentiation of the Roman and Greek Catholic Views of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 106
  41. ^ Gerald O' Collins and Mario Farrugia, Catholicism: the story of Catholic Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) p. 36; George Cross, "The Differentiation of the Roman and Greek Catholic Views of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 106; cf. Pastor I, iii. 7, also Ambrose, De Excessu fratris Satyri 80
  42. ^ Gerald O' Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 217
  43. ^ Gerald O' Collins and Mario Farrugia, Catholicism: the story of Catholic Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) p. 36; George Cross, "The Differentiation of the Roman and Greek Catholic Views of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 106
  44. ^ Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27.
  45. ^ Anthony Dragani, From East to West
  46. ^ Christian Dogmatics vol. 2 (Philadelphia : Fortress Press, 1984) p. 503; cf. Irenaeus, Against Heresies 5.31.2, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979) 1:560 cf. 5.36.2 / 1:567; cf. George Cross, "The Differentiation of the Roman and Greek Catholic Views of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 107
  47. ^ Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27; cf. Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma vol. 2, trans. Neil Buchanan (London, Williams & Norgate, 1995) p. 337; Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 6:14
  48. ^ Jacques Le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory (University of Chicago Press, 1984) p. 53; cf. Leviticus 10:1-2, Deuteronomy 32:22, 1Corinthians 3:10-15
  49. ^ Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma vol. 2, trans. Neil Buchanan (London: Williams & Norgate, 1905) p. 377. read online.
  50. ^ Jacques Le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory (University of Chicago Press, 1984) pp. 55-57; cf. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 7:6 and 5:14
  51. ^ Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27; cf. Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma vol. 2, trans. Neil Buchanan (London, Williams & Norgate, 1995) p. 296 n. 1; George Cross, "The Differentiation of the Roman and Greek Catholic Views of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912); Tertullian De Anima
  52. ^ A. J. Visser, "A Bird's-Eye View of Ancient Christian Eschatology", in Numen (1967) p. 13
  53. ^ A. J. Visser, "A Bird's-Eye View of Ancient Christian Eschatology", in Numen (1967) p. 13
  54. ^ Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma vol. 2, trans. Neil Buchanan (London: Williams & Norgate, 1905) p. 296 n. 1. read online; cf. Jacques Le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory (University of Chicago Press, 1984) pp. 58-59
  55. ^ Cyprian, Letters 51:20; Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27
  56. ^ John Chrysostom, Homily on First Corinthians 41:5; Homily on Philippians 3:9-10; Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27
  57. ^ Augustine, Sermons 159:1, 172:2; City of God 21:13; Handbook on Faith, Hope, and Charity 18:69, 29:109; Confessions 2.27; Gerald O' Collins and Mario Farrugia, Catholicism: the story of Catholic Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) p. 36; Gerald O'Collins and Edward G. Farrugia, A Concise Dictionary of Theology (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000) p. 27
  58. ^ Vita Gregorii, ed. B. Colgrave, chapter 26 (see also Colgrave's introduction p. 51); John the Deacon, Life of Saint Gregory, IV, 70.
  59. ^ Gregory the Great, Dialogues 4, 39: PL 77, 396; cf. Matthew 12:31
  60. ^ Peter Brown, Rise of Western Christendom" (Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2003) p. 258; cf. Gregory the Great, Dialogues 4.42.3
  61. ^ George Cross, "The Medieval Catholic Doctrine of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 192; cf. Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica 4.19
  62. ^ George Cross, "The Medieval Catholic Doctrine of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 192; cf. Epistula ad Eadburgham 20
  63. ^ Brown, Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003) p. 259; cf. Vision of Fursa 8.16, 16.5
  64. ^ George Cross, "The Medieval Catholic Doctrine of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) pp. 192-193
  65. ^ George Cross, "The Medieval Catholic Doctrine of the Future Life", in The Biblical World (1912) p. 192
  66. ^ For a useful discussion, see C. S. Watkins, "Sin, penance and purgatory in the Anglo-Norman realm: the evidence of visions and ghost stories", in Past and Present 175 (May 2002) pp. 3-33.
  67. ^ see Denziger §456
  68. ^ The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999) p. 201; cf. Orthodoxinfo.com, The Orthodox Response to the Latin Doctrine of Purgatory
  69. ^ The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999) p. 202
  70. ^ Union of Brest (1585) Article 5
  71. ^ Anthony Dragani, From East to West
  72. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia (1913), entry on Purgatory; cf. Council of Trent, Session XXV, "De Purgatorio"
  73. ^ Daniel B. Clendenin ed., Eastern Orthodox Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1995) p. 184
  74. ^ Anthony Dragani, From East to West
  75. ^ What Are the Differences Between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism?
  76. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation: A History (New York: Penguin Books, 2004) p. 119
  77. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation: A History (New York: Penguin Books, 2004) p. 580; cf. Koslofsky, Reformation of the Dead pp. 34-39
  78. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation: A History (New York: Penguin Books, 2004) pp. 580-581; cf. Koslofsky, Reformation of the Dead p. 48
  79. ^ John Henry Cardinal Newman, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, chapter 2, section 3, paragraph 2.
  80. ^ John Henry Cardinal Newman, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, chapter 2, section 3, paragraph 2.
  81. ^ Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma, trans. Neil Buchanan (London: Williams & Norgate, 1905) e.g. vol. 2 p. 296 n. 1. read online
  82. ^ Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer, chapter 20
  83. ^ Jacques Le Goff, La naissance du purgatoire. (Bibliothèque des Histoires) Paris: Gallimard, 1981; an English translation is available under the title The Birth of Purgatory, published by the University of Chicago Press (the English is referenced here).
  84. ^ Jacques Le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory (University of Chicago Press, 1984) pp. 55-57.
  85. ^ Alan E. Bernstein, "Review of La naissance du purgatoire", in "Speculum" (1984), p. 181.
  86. ^ Alan E. Bernstein, "Review of La naissance du purgatoire", in "Speculum" (1984), p. 182.
  87. ^ Richard Trexler, "Review of the Birth of Purgatory", in American Ethnologist (1986), p. 160.
  88. ^ Richard Trexler, "Review of the Birth of Purgatory", in American Ethnologist (1986) pp. 160-161

Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... // Main article: Jewish eschatology Orthodox Judaism holds that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. ... Last Judgment. ... Peter Mogila Peter Mogila (Ukrainian: Петро Могила, Petro Mohyla; Romanian: Petru Movilă; Russian: Pyotr Mogila; December 21 1596 â€“ December 22, 1646) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia from 1633 until his death. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... The restored abbey at Monte Cassino Johannes Hymonides, known as John, deacon of Rome (d. ... Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ...

Sources

Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... Diarmaid MacCulloch is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of Oxford (at St Cross College, Oxford. ...

See also

The afterlife, or life after death, is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual, experiential, or ghost-like, beyond this world (eg. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... The Divine Comedy (Italian: , later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Inferno” redirects here. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... According to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ... Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. ... A Purgatorial Society is any of numerous pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to assist in every possible way the poor souls in purgatory. ... Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... St. ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Purgatory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2409 words)
Purgatory commonly refers to a doctrine in the Roman Catholic Church, which posits that those who die in a state of grace undergo a purification in order to achieve the holiness necessary to enter heaven.
Hence central to the Catholic doctrine of purgatory is prayer for the dead.
Some Eastern Orthodox sources, including the Ecumenical Patriarchate, consider Purgatory to be among "inter-correlated theories, unwitnessed in the Bible or in the Ancient Church" that are not acceptable within Orthodox doctrine,[7] and hold to a "condition of waiting"[8] as a more apt description of the period after death for those not borne directly to heaven.
Purgatory - LoveToKnow 1911 (455 words)
Thenceforth it became part of the theology of the Western Church, and was definitely affirmed at the councils of Lyons (1274), Florence (1439)(1439) and Trent.
Purgatory, for example, is usually thought of as having some position in space, and as being distinct from heaven and hell; but any theory as to its exact latitude and longitude, such as underlies Dante's description, must be regarded as imaginative.
Most theologians since Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventura have taught that the souls in purgatory are tormented by material fire, but the Greeks have never accepted this opinion.
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