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Encyclopedia > Purebred

Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. When the lineage of a purebred animal is recorded, that animal is said to be pedigreed. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... A pedigree chart is a chart which tells one all of the known phenotypes for an organism and its ancestors, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses. ...


The term purebred is occasionally confused with the proper noun Thoroughbred, which refers exclusively to a specific breed of horse, one of the first breeds for which a written national stud book was created, a purebred animal that has had meticulously documented pedigrees and a closed stud book since the 18th century. Thus a purebred animal should never be called a "thoroughbred" unless the animal actually is a registered Thoroughbred horse. For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... // Horse breeds (1). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ... A closed stud book is a stud book or breed registry that will no longer accept any outside blood for improvement of a particular breed of animal, and the registed animals are the foundation for the breed, with all subsequent offspring tracing back to the foundation stock. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

Contents

Breeding true

In the world of animal breeding, to "breed true" means that specimens of an animal breed will breed true-to-type when mated like-to like; that is, that the progeny of any two individuals in the same breed will show consistent, replicable and predictable characteristics. A puppy from two purebred dogs of the same breed, for example, will exhibit the traits of its parents, and not the traits of all breeds in the subject breed's ancestry. Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ...


However, over time, there are also concerns that breeding from too small a gene pool can lead to inbreeding and the development of negative characteristics or even a collapse of a breed population due to inbreeding depression. Hence, there is continuing tension within many purebred animal breeds over the question of when a breed may need to allow "outside" blood in for the purpose of improving the overall health and vigor of an animal breed. Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inbreeding. ...


Pedigrees

A pedigreed animal is one that has its ancestry recorded. Often this is tracked by a major registry. The number of generations required varies from breed to breed, but all pedigreed animals have papers from the registering body that attest to their ancestry. For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ...


Sometimes the word purebred is used synonymously with pedigreed, but not all purebred animals have their lineage formally recorded. For example, until the 20th century, the Bedouin people of the Arabian peninsula only recorded the ancestry of their Arabian horses via an oral tradition, supported by the swearing of religiously-based oaths as to the asil or "pure" breeding of the animal. Conversely, some animals may have a recorded pedigree or even a registry, but not be considered "purebred." Today the modern Anglo-Arabian horse, a cross of Thoroughbred and Arabian bloodlines, is considered such a case. Thus, not all pedigreed animals are purebred, nor are all purebreds pedigreed. A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Arabia redirects here. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Asil or Aseel in India, means a breed of cockerel used for cock fighting, It has a distinctive upright stance, drooping tail, and powerful musculature. ... The Anglo-Arabian horse is just what its name implies: a Thoroughbred (prefix Anglo) crossed with an Arabian horse. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ...


Purebred dogs

In the hobby of dog breeding, the word purebred causes controversy, largely because of unresolved differences of opinion over what constitutes a dog breed. Critics also point to the fact that closed registries ensure that only genetically similar dogs may be bred. Many of these organizations also permit inbreeding which may result in many of the genetic disorders found among purebred dogs such as canine hip dysplasia. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... This article covers Hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ...


In general, there are two types of purebred dog breeds: those recognized by a kennel club and those of independent breed clubs. A kennel club (known as a kennel council or canine council in some countries) is an organization for canine affairs that concerns itself with the breeding, showing and promotion of more than one breed of dog. ...


Kennel clubs, like breed registries for other animals, usually have strict sets of criteria for the recognition of a new or existing dog breed, normally with some period of developmental or provisional status. It cannot be assumed that the date of recognition of a breed indicates how long the breed has existed as a pure breed. A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ...


Independent purebred breeds are typically dogs of renown in their originating countries, usually with a long history of breeding true to type. They may remain independent due to any of the following reasons:

  • The lack of a national kennel club or low interest in dog fancy in smaller nations.
  • The dogs being so venerable in the eyes of their breeders and owners that there is no reason to seek outside affiliation.
  • The desire to preserve independent control over the attributes of the breed.
  • Concern over the decline of working breeds following kennel club recognition.

Recently, proposed breed-specific legislation has threatened the existence of independent dog clubs, as the fanciers of independent breeds are forced to seek alliance with kennel clubs to preserve their dogs' purebred status.[citation needed] Breed-specific legislation (BSL), is any law, ordinance or policy which pertains to a specific dog breed or breeds, but does not affect any others. ...


There is controversy over certain types of hybrid dogs, and whether these animals constitute a breed. Some hybrid breeders are trying to get kennel clubs to recognize breeds such as the "Pekapoo" and the "Cockapoo" which have been bred for more than 50 years and many have known lineage and pedigrees. Many were created using purebred dogs of different breeds, often registered animals. This article is about a biological term. ...


Purebred horses

According to the "Four Foundations" theory, the evolution of the horse ultimately produced horses of four basic body types, adapted to different environments. Beginning with the may have been bred true to original type by humans, though emphasizing certain inherent traits (such as a good temperament, suitable to training by humans) to a greater degree than others. In other cases, horses of different body types were cross bred until a desired characteristic was achieved and bred true. Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Crossbreeding is the process of creating hybrids (also known as crossbreeds, or a description of the lineage of that which has undergone hybridization. ...


Written and oral histories of various animals or pedigrees of certain types of horses have been kept throughout history, though breed registry stud books trace only to about the 13th century, at least in Europe, when pedigrees were tracked in writing, and the practice of declaring a type of horse to be a breed or a purebred became more widespread. A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Certain horse breeds, such as the Andalusian horse and the Arabian horse, are claimed by aficionados of the respective breeds to be ancient, near-pure descendants from one or the other of the original four wild prototypes, though absent a full mapping of the horse genome and other DNA research, such claims are difficult to prove or disprove. // Horse breeds (1). ... The Andalusian horse or Spanish horse is one of the oldest breeds of horses in the world today. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Purebred cats

Many cat breeds are also recognized as breeding true to type and have registries to preserve their breeding records. A cat breed is an infrasubspecific rank for the classification of domestic cats. ...


Purebred livestock

Most domesticated farm animals also have true-breeding breeds and breed registries, particularly cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits, and pigs. While animals bred strictly for market sale are not always purebreds, or if purebred may not be registered, most livestock producers value the presence of purebred genetic stock for the consistency of traits such animals provide. It is common for a farm's male breeding stock in particular to be of purebred, pedigreed lines. For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ...


Wild species, Landraces, and Purebred species

See also: Genetic pollution and Landrace

Breeders of purebred domesticated species discourage crossbreeding with wild species, unless a deliberate decision is made to incorporate a trait of a wild ancestor back into a given breed or strain. Wild populations of animals and plants have evolved naturally over millions of years through a process of Natural selection in contrast to human controlled Selective breeding or Artificial selection for desirable traits from the human point of view. Normally, these two methods of reproduction operate independently of one another. However, an intermediate form of selective breeding, wherein animals or plants are bred by humans, but with an eye to adaption to natural region-specific conditions and an acceptance of natural selection to weed out undesirable traits, created many ancient domesticated breeds or types now known as landraces. Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... Landrace refers to a race of animals or plants ideally suited for the land (environment) in which they live and, in some cases, work; they often develop naturally with minimal assistance or guidance from humans (or from humans using traditional rather than modern breeding methods), hence are usually older, less... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... Crossbreeding is the process of creating hybrids (also known as crossbreeds, or a description of the lineage of that which has undergone hybridization. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Landrace refers to a race of animals or plants ideally suited for the land (environment) in which they live and, in some cases, work; they often develop naturally with minimal assistance or guidance from humans (or from humans using traditional rather than modern breeding methods), hence are usually older, less...


Many times, domesticated species live in or near areas which also still hold naturally evolved, region-specific wild ancestor species and subspecies. In some cases, a domesticated species of plant or animal may become feral, living wild. Other times, a wild species will come into an area inhabited by a domesticated species. Some of these situations lead to the creation of hybridized plants or animals, a cross between the native species and a domesticated one. This type of crossbreeding, termed genetic pollution by those who are concerned about preserving the genetic base of the wild species, has become a major concern. Hybridization is also a concern to the breeders of purebred species as well, particularly if the gene pool is small and if such crossbreeding or hybridization threatens the genetic base of the domesticated purebred population. Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Hybridisation or Hybridization may refer to: In genetics, hybridisation is the process of mixing different species or varieties of organisms to create a hybrid. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ...


The concern with genetic pollution of a wild populaton is that hybridized animals and plants may not be as genetically strong as naturally evolved region specific wild ancestors wildlife which can survive without human husbandry and have high immunity to natural diseases. The concern of purebred breeders with wildlife hybridizing a domesticated species is that it can coarsen or degrade the specific qualities of a breed developed for a specific purpose, sometimes over many generations. Thus, both purebred breeders and wildlife biologists share a common interest in preventing accidental hybridization. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Purebred Dog Breeds in Alphabetical Order, List of Dog Breeds (286 words)
The definition of a "purebred" in the dictionary is the following - "bred for many generations from a member of a recognized breed or strain n : a pedigreed animal of unmixed lineage".
According to the AKC a purebred dog means, "the sire and dam of a dog are members of a recognized breed and that the ancestry of a dog consists of the same breed over many generations"
The following list consists of purebred dogs and a few dogs which are in the latter development stages of becoming a purebred.
FBRL: Resources: Is my cat a purebred? (873 words)
While this is possible you found a "shelter purebred", there are many reasons why this is very unlikely.
Another common trait that is mistaken for a purebred is the so-called Manx trait, or complete to partial taillessness.
This dominant trait is found in the random-bred population as well as the purebred Manx population (My sister's mother-in-law has a colony of tailless barn cats at her Northern New York dairy farm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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