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Encyclopedia > Puranas

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Shiksha · Chandas · Vyakarana · Nirukta · Jyotisha · Kalpa The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... For the Yiddish slang word, see Shiksa. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. ...

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Smriti · Śruti · Bhagavad Gita · Purana · Agama · Darshana · Pancharatra · Tantra · Sutra · Stotra · Dharmashastra · Divya Prabandha · Tevaram · Akhilathirattu · Ramacharitamanas · Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut · Ananda Sutram The following is a bibliography of Hindu scriptures and texts. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha is a divine [1] collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed sometime around the 8th and 12th century AD, by the 12 Alvars (also aazhvaars), the Tamil mystic poets, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thevaram (Verses). ... Akilathirattu Ammanai அகிலத்திரட்டு அம்மானை (Tamil: akilam (world) + thirattu (collection) + ammanai (ballad)), also called Thiru Edu (venerable book), is the main religious book of the Southern Indian Ayyavazhi faith, officially an offshoot of Hinduism. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcaritmānas (Hindi: रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


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Purana (Sanskrit: पुराण purāṇa), meaning "belonging to ancient or olden times", is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). They primarily are post-Vedic texts containing a narrative of the history of the Universe, from creation to destruction, genealogies of the kings, heroes and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy and geography.[1] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Puranas are called the Friendly Treatises or Suhrit-Sammitas, and are usually written in the form of stories related by one person to another. Vyasa Rishi is considered to be the compiler of the Puranas.[2]


An early reference to Purana in its present sense can be traced to the Chandogya Upanishad (7.1.2), in which the sage Narada refers to itihāsapurāṇaṃ pañcamaṃ vedānāṃ. Thus the Chandogya Upanishad ascribes to the Puranas, together with Itihas, the status of a fifth Veda, or Panchama Veda. The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. ...


There are many texts designated as 'Purana'. The most important are:

  • Mahāpurāṇas and Upapurāṇas, the main Puranic corpus
  • Sthala Purāṇas, scriptures usually extolling the virtues of a certain Hindu temple. They narrate stories of the temple's creation and spiritual history.
  • Kula Purāṇas - Scriptures that deal with the origin and legends of a particular caste.

The Mahāpurāṇas are dated philologically to between roughly the 3rd and the 12th centuries,[3] the bulk of the texts likely originating in the Gupta period (320-500 CE), with incremental additions well into medieval times.[4] According to Hindu tradition, the Puranas were composed by Vyasa at the end of Dvapara Yuga. The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455). ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Dvapara Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, in the religion of Hinduism. ...


In the opinion of Gavin Flood[4], the Puranic corpus is a complex body of materials that advance the views of various competing cults:

Although these texts are related to each other, and material in one is found in another, they nevertheless each present a view of ordering of the world from a particular perspective. They must not be seen as random collections of old tales, but as highly selective and crafted expositions and presentations of worldviews and soteriologies, compiled by particular groups of Brahmins to propagate a particular vision, whether it be focused on Viṣṇu, Śiva, or Devī, or, indeed, any number of deities. Soteriology is the study of salvation. ...

Contents

Classification and scope

The Puranas are classified into a Mahā- ("great") and a Upa- ("lower, additional") corpus. According to Matysa Purana, [5] they are said to narrate five subjects, called Pancha Lakshana pañcalakṣaṇa ("five distinguishing marks"):

  1. Sarga - The creation of the universe.
  2. Pratisarga - Secondary creations, mostly re-creations after dissolution.
  3. Vamśa - Genealogy of gods and sages.
  4. Manvañtara - The creation of the human race and the first human beings.
  5. Vamśānucaritam - Dynastic histories.

Manvantras is the period of Manu's rule consisting of 71 celestial Yugas or 308,448,000 years. Swami Sivananda Manu may refer to: In geography: Manu, a town in Sokoto State, Nigeria Manu, province in the Madre de Dios region of Peru Manu National Park Manu River In acting: Manu, member of the cast of a controversial film released in 2000 called Baise-moi Manu Intiraymi, American television and...


Most Mahapuranas and Upapuranas deal with these subject matters, although the bulk of their text consists of historical and religious narratives. Some scholars have suggested that these 'distinguishing marks' are shared by other traditional religious scriptures of the world (e.g. the Bible).[6] A Purana usually gives prominence to a certain deity (Shiva, Vishnu or Krishna, Durga) and depicts the other gods as subservient. Most use an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts in their narration, from Bhakti to Samkhya. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. ...


The Puranas are available in vernacular translations and are disseminated by Brahmin scholars, who read from them and tell their stories, usually in Katha sessions (in which a travelling brahmin settles for a few weeks in a temple and narrates parts of a Purana, usually with a Bhakti perspective). Bhakti (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion and also the path of devotion itself, as in Bhakti-Yoga. ...


Mahapuranas

Traditionally it is said that there are 18 Mahapuranas and 18 Upapuranas. Each Mahapurana lists eighteen canonical puranas, but the contents of each list vary reflecting differences in time and place. Combining the lists, Dimmitt and van Buitenen [7] have collated twenty names:

The Goddess Ambika or Durga Leading the Eight Matrikas in Battle Against the Demon Raktabija, Folio from Devi Mahatmya, Markandeya Purana.
The Goddess Ambika or Durga Leading the Eight Matrikas in Battle Against the Demon Raktabija, Folio from Devi Mahatmya, Markandeya Purana.
  1. Agni (15,400 verses)
  2. Bhagavata (18,000 verses). The most celebrated and popular of the Puranas.[8] It is concerned with Vishnu Bhakti, telling of the exploits and deeds of Vishnu's Avataras. Its tenth canto (its longest) narrates the deeds of Krishna and, probably for the first time in Sanskrit, tells of his exploits as a child, a theme later elaborated by many Bhakti movements.[9]
  3. Bhavishya (14,500 verses)
  4. Brahma (24,000 verses)
  5. Brahmanda (12,000 verses; includes Lalita Sahasranamam, a text some Hindus recite as prayer)
  6. Brahmavaivarta (18,000 verses)
  7. Garuda (19,000 verses)
  8. Harivamsa (16,000 verses; more often considered itihāsa)
  9. Kurma (17,000 verses)
  10. Linga (11,000 verses)
  11. Markandeya (9,000 verses; includes Devi Mahatmyam, an important text for Shaktas)
  12. Matsya (14,000 verses)
  13. Narada (25,000 verses)
  14. Padma (55,000 verses)
  15. Shiva (24,000 verses)
  16. Skanda (81,100 verses), probably the longest of all, containing parables, legends and stories, with multiple versions and recensions. Many untraced quotes from a Purana are conveniently attributed to this Purana.[10]
  17. Vamana (10,000 verses)
  18. Varaha (10,000 verses)
  19. Vayu (24,000 verses)
  20. Vishnu (23,000 verses)

In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Matrikas, that is, the mothers, are a band of divinities, which always appear in a group. ... Raktavīja was an asura (loosely translated as demon) who fought together with Shumbha and Nishumbha against Durga and Kali or Chamunda. ... THE PRIMEVAL ENERGY One of the unique features of Hinduism is the fact that it conceives Divinity also as Mother Goddess. ... Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient Sanskrit text authored by Rishi Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedic texts. ... Brahma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, is a Hindu religious text. ... Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ... The Harivamsa (Skt. ... Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास - itihāsa in IAST notation, literally meaning that which happened) is the word for History. ... Kurma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Linga Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into two parts. ... Markandeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is in the style of a dialogue between the sage Jaimini, and the sage Markandeya. ... Devi Mahatmyam is to be pronounced as Devi Māhātmyama. ... Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, the Divine Mother, in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity. ... It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... Naradeya Purana, or Narada Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Padma Purana (Devanagari: पद्म पुराण), one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into five parts. ... The Shiva Purana has twenty-four thousand shlokas. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Vamana Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is devoted to the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. ... Varaha Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ...

Classification by Trimurti

The Mahapuranas are also classified by the three aspects of Trimurti, This article is about the Hindu gods. ...

[11] Brahma is a very important Hindu God. ... Brahma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, is a Hindu religious text. ... Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Markandeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is in the style of a dialogue between the sage Jaimini, and the sage Markandeya. ... The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient Sanskrit text authored by Rishi Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedic texts. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Naradeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ... Padma Purana (Devanagari: पद्म पुराण), one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into five parts. ... Varaha Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Vamana Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is devoted to the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. ... Kurma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... The Shiva Purana has twenty-four thousand shlokas. ... Linga Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into two parts. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu. ... The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ...


Classification by guna

A reference from the Puranas themselves classifies the various Puranic texts in accordance with the three gunas (qualities of material nature) -- goodness, passion and ignorance. Of the Mahapuranas it is said that six are more effective for readers in the guna of goodness, six for those in the guna of passion, and six to people in the guna of ignorance. According to the Padma Purana,[12] these are the Mahapuranas and their corresponding qualities: The Sanskrit word guna () has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. // In Classical literature (e. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ...

An illustration of Varaha avatar based on the Bhagavata Purana
An illustration of Varaha avatar based on the Bhagavata Purana

The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Naradeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ... Padma Purana (Devanagari: पद्म पुराण), one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into five parts. ... Varaha Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Markandeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is in the style of a dialogue between the sage Jaimini, and the sage Markandeya. ... The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient Sanskrit text authored by Rishi Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedic texts. ... Vamana Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is devoted to the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. ... Brahma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, is a Hindu religious text. ... The Sanskrit word guna (guṇa) has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. In Classical literature In Classical literature (e. ... It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... Kurma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Linga Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into two parts. ... The Shiva Purana has twenty-four thousand shlokas. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu. ... Image File history File links Bhagavatapurana. ... Image File history File links Bhagavatapurana. ... Varaha is the third avatar of Vishnu, a boar sent to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth (prthivi) and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ...

Authorship, name and chronology

Traditionally, the Puranas are said to have been composed by the sage Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata epic. Vyasa in Sanskrit means 'Divider,' and some scholars therefore take this simply as a term meaning 'Editor'.[13] The texts, these scholars say, were probably written all over India and are being rewritten and reedited to the present day all over the world. Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (Devanāgarī: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound for presentation through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications. ...


The term purana, which means "belonging to ancient times" or "an ancient tale or legend", appears in the Vedas (e.g. Atharvaveda 11.7.24[14] [15]). And the term itihasa purana, "account of ancient times", occurs in the Chandogya Upanishad[16], Nirukta[17], Maitrayana Brahmana Upanisad[18] and the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, where the text thus referred to is considered the "fifth Veda."[19] Veda redirects here. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास - itihāsa in IAST notation, literally meaning that which happened) is the word for History. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... The prime Upanishad among the many Upanishads written in ancient India, known very widely for its profound philosophical statements. ...


The specific corpus of the Mahapuranas, as opposed to generic purana "ancient tale", is sometimes estimated by Western scholars to date to the Early Middle Ages, or to roughly between the fifth and tenth centuries, but to contain older material; according to Pargiter, an "original Purana" may date to the time of the final redaction of the Vedas.[14] Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


Puranic genealogies

The Puranas also lay emphasis on keeping a record of genealogies. Thus the Vayu Purana says: "As seen by good people in the ancient times the suta's duty was to preserve the genealogies of gods, rsis and glorious kings and the traditions of great men." (Vayu P. 1. 31-2)


The Puranic genealogies add up to fantastic time depths see e.g. F.E. Pargiter (1922)[14] and Pargiter (1979) [20] [21] Pargiter has argued that in the Puranas the Puranic Krta Yuga[22] "ended with the destruction of the Haihayas [by Rama Jamadagnya]; the Treta began approximately with Sagara and ended with Rama Dasarathi's destruction of the Raksasas; and the Dvapara began with his reinstatement at Ayodhya and ended with the Bharata battle".[23] The Puranas themselves state that these lists are incomplete.[14] [24] In Arrian's Indica, Megasthenes is quoted as stating that the Indians counted from Shiva (Dionysos) to Chandragupta Maurya (Sandracottus) "a hundred and fifty-three kings over six thousand and forty-three years."[25] The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (4.6.), ca. 8th century BCE, mentions 57 links in the Guru-Parampara ("succession of teachers"). This would mean that this Guru-Parampara would go back about 1400 years, although the accuracy of this list is disputed.[26] The list of kings in Kalhana's Rajatarangini goes back to the 19th century BCE.[27] Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Indica is the name of an ancient book about India written by Arrian, one of the main ancient historians of Alexander the Great. ... Megasthenes (c. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Bacchus by Caravaggio Dionysus, the name of a god, is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Parampara (Sanskrit: परम्परा) denotes a long succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture. ... Kalhana (c. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ...


The Puranic genealogies indicate that Manu Vaivasvata lived 95 generations before the Bharata War.[28]


Upapuranas

Upapuranas are eighteen in number, namely: Sanat-kumara, Narasimha, Brihan-naradiya, Siva-rahasya, Durvasa, Kapila, Vamana, Bhargava, Varuna, Kalika, Samba, Nandi, Surya, Parasara, Vasishtha, Devi-Bhagavata, Ganesha, Mudgala, and Hamsa.[29] The Ganesha and Mudgala Puranas are sectarian Upapuranas devoted to Ganesha.[30] [31] The Kalika Purana is one of the eighteen Upapuranas. ... The Ganesha Purana (Sanskrit:; ; also spelled Ganeshpoorana) is a Hindu religious text dedicated to the Hindu deity Ganesha (). It is an upapurāṇa that includes many stories and ritualistic elements relating to Ganesha. ... The Mudgala Purana (Sanskrit:; ) is a Hindu religious text dedicated to the Hindu deity Ganesha (). It is an upapurāṇa that includes many stories and ritualistic elements relating to Ganesha. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ...


Most of these have not been critically edited yet and are available mostly through devotional publications, in multiple versions and recensions.


The Devi-Bhagavata Purana extols the virtues of the goddess Durga as the supreme being. It has become (along with the Devi Mahatmya of the Mārkandeya Purana) a basic text for Devi worshipers.[32] Devi-Bhagavata Purana popularly known as Shrimad Devi Bhagvatam, is a Hindu scripture in Sanskrit, dedicated to Devi, the Hindu name for the Divine Mother or the Divine feminine. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ...


Other Hindu Puranas

Sthala Puranas

This corpus of texts narrates the virtues and stories connected with a certain temple or shrine (the word 'Sthala' means 'Place' in Sanskrit). There are numerous Sthala Puranas, most written in vernaculars, some with Sanskrit versions as well. Most claim to have a Sanskrit origin, and some of the Sanskrit versions also appear in a Mahapurana or an Upapurana. Some Tamil Sthala Puranas have been researched by David Dean Shulman.[33] Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Kula Puranas

These are mostly caste-focused Puranas (the word 'Kula' means 'Family' or 'Tribe' in Sanskrit). They deal with a caste's origin myth, stories and legends. The caste purana is an important source for caste identity and is usually contested by other, rival, castes. This subgenre is usually in the vernacular and might at times be oral.[34]


This subgenre has been little researched. But it is rather well documented in the caste section of the British Census of India Report and the various Gazzeteers.[35] Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Map showing the population density of each state in India Although India occupies only 2. ... A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information about places and place-names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with an atlas. ...


Other

There are many other narratives that go by the name of Purana. Most are written in vernaculars and are usually concerned with mythical and historical narrations. These texts, such as the Padma Purana of Bengal and Assam (narrating the story of the goddess Manasā), are vast in number and scattered all over the Indian subcontinent.[36] In Hinduism, Manasa is a naga and goddess of fertility. ...


Jain and Buddhist Puranas

There are many Jain Puranas, dealing with Jain myths, history and legends.[37] [38] Studies and English translations of this particular genre are meagre. The best known of them is the Mahapurana of Acharya Jinasena. The Jain Puranas form a major part of the early Kannada literature. For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ... Jinasena is the name of two famous Jain Acharyas. ... Kannada literature refers to the literature in Kannada language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


Swayambhu Purana, a Buddhist Purana, is major source of the history of the Kathmandu valley. Arguably, some Buddhist Mahāyāna Sūtras seem to have some characteristics of Puranas. Swayambhu Purana (Devnagari: स्वयम्भू पूराण) is a Buddhist scripture about the origin and development of Kathmandu valley. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Mahayana Sutras Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of...


Notes

  1. ^ Puranas at Sacred Texts
  2. ^ The Puranas by Swami Sivananda
  3. ^ Nagendra Kumar Singh (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, (1997) ISBN 8174881689, p. 2324
  4. ^ a b [Gavin] (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism (Book) (in English), Cambridge University Press, 359. ISBN 0521433045. 
  5. ^ Matsya Purana 53.65
  6. ^ Rao, Velcheru Narayana (1993). "Purana as Brahminic Ideology", in Doniger Wendy: Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts (Book) (in English), Albany: State University of New York Press, 85-100. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0. 
  7. ^ Dimmitt, Cornelia; J. A. B. van Buitenen (1978). Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskirt Puranas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 373. ISBN 8170305969. 
  8. ^ A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Sir Monier Monier-Williams. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1899. Page 752, column 3, under the entry Bhagavata.
  9. ^ Viraha-Bhakti - The Early History of Krsna Devotion in South India - Friedhelm Hardy. ISBN 0-19-564916-8
  10. ^ (1993) "The Scrapbook of Undeserved Salvation: The Kedara Khanda of the Skanda Purana", in Doniger Wendy: Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts (Book) (in English), Albany: State University of New York Press, 59-83. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0. 
  11. ^ The Puranic Encyclopedia
  12. ^ Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda, 236.18-21
  13. ^ (1993) in Doniger Wendy: Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts (Book) (in English), Albany: State University of New York Press, 59-83. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0. 
  14. ^ a b c d Pargiter, F E [1922] (1962). Ancient Indian historical tradition (Book), Original publisher Oxford University Press, London (in English), Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass, 30-54. OCLC 1068416. 
  15. ^ ; Moghe 1997:249 and the Satapatha Brahmana 11.5.6.8. and 13.4.3.13. SBE Vol. 44, pp. 98, 369
  16. ^ 3.4.1-2, 7.1.2-4, 7.2.1, 7.7.1 Moghe 1997:160,249
  17. ^ Nirukta 1.16, 12.10. See Moghe 1997:161
  18. ^ 6.32 SBE Vol. 15, p. 300
  19. ^ Brhadaranyaka Upanisad 2.4.10, 4.1.2, 4.5.11. Satapatha Brahmana (SBE, Vol. 44, pp. 98, 369). Moghe 1997:160,249
  20. ^ Pargiter 1979
  21. ^ P.L. Bhargava 1971, India in the Vedic Age, Lucknow: Upper India Publishing; Talageri 1993, 2000; Subhash Kak, 1994, The astronomical code of the Rgveda
  22. ^ In Vayu Purana 32, the four Yugas are divided into 4800, 3600, 2400 and 1200 years.
  23. ^ Pargiter 1922:177
  24. ^ Matsya Purana 49.72; Kak 1994 The astronomical code of the Rgveda, p.51
  25. ^ Pliny: Naturalis Historia 6:59; Arrian: Indica 9:9
  26. ^ (see Klaus Klostermaier 1989 and Arvind Sharma 1995)
  27. ^ Elst 1999, with reference to Bernard Sergent
  28. ^ R. C. Majumdar and A. D. Pusalker (editors): The history and culture of the Indian people. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951, p.273
  29. ^ These have been studied by the Bengali scholar R. C. Hazra. See his Studies in the Upapuranas, vol. I, Calcutta, Sanskrit College, 1958. Studies in the Upapuranas, vol. II, Calcutta, Sanskrit College, 1979. Studies in Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Delhi, Banarsidass, 1975. More recently they have been studied by Ludo Rocher in The Puranas - A History of Indian Literature. Vol. II, fasc. 3, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986.
  30. ^ Thapan, Anita Raina (1997). Understanding Gaṇapati: Insights into the dynamics of a cult. Manohar Publishers, 304. ISBN 81-7304-195-4. 
  31. ^ Purana at Gurjari
  32. ^ The Triumph of the Goddess - The Canonical Models and Theological Visions of the DevI-BhAgavata PuraNa, Brwon Mackenzie. ISBN 0-7914-0363-7
  33. ^ Tamil Temple Myths - Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition - David Dean Shulman. ISBN 0-691-06415-6
  34. ^ 'Kulapuranas' - Pulikonda Subbachary in Folklore in Modern India, edited by Jawaharlal Handoo, p. 125-142. ISBN 81-7342-055-6
  35. ^ See for example Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vols I-V, Thurston Edgar. Cosmo Publication, Delhi.
  36. ^ `Verbal Narratives: Performance and Gender of the Padma Purana', by T.N. Sankaranarayana in Chanted Narratives - The Katha Vachana Tradition, Edited by Molly Kaushal, p. 225-234. ISBN 81-246-0182-8
  37. ^ Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1993). "Jaina Puranas: A Puranic Counter Tradition", in Doniger Wendy: Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts (Book) (in English), Albany: State University of New York Press, 207-249. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0. 
  38. ^ Cort, John E. (1993). "An Overview of the Jaina Puranas", in Doniger Wendy: Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts (Book) (in English), Albany: State University of New York Press, 185-206. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental, 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910. ... The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental, 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910. ... Klaus Klostermaier (born 1933 in Munich, Germany) is a researcher on Hinduism and Indian history and culture. ... R.C. Majumdar (1888-1980) was an Indian historian and Vice-Chancellor of Dacca University. ...

References

  • Bhargava, P.L. 1971. India in the Vedic Age. Lucknow: Upper India Publishing.
  • Dimmitt, Cornelia, and J.A.B. van Buitenen. Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978. Pages 4 to 5.
  • Doniger, Wendy (editor) (1993). Purāṇa Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts. Albany, New York: State University of New York. ISBN 0-7914-1382-9. 
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Handoo, Jawaharlal (editor). Folklore in Modern India. ISBN 81-7342-055-6
  • Hardy, Friedhelm. Viraha-Bhakti - The Early History of Krsna Devotion in South India. ISBN 0-19-564916-8
  • Kaushal, Molly (editor). Chanted Narratives - The Katha Vachana Tradition. ISBN 81-246-0182-8
  • Mackenzie, Brwon. The Triumph of the Goddess - The Canonical Models and Theological Visions of the DevI-BhAgavata PuraNa. ISBN 0-7914-0363-7 .Sri Satguru Publications.Delhi.India
  • Majumdar, R. C. and Pusalker, A. D. (editors): The history and culture of the Indian people. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951 (esp. ch. XIV - XV by A. D. Pusalker)
  • Moghe, S. G. (editor). Professor Kane's contribution to Dharmasastra literature. 1997, New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Ltd. ISBN 81-246-0075-9
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. .Sri Satguru Publications.Delhi
  • Pargiter, F.E. 1922. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. London. Oxford University Press.
  • Shulman, David Dean. Tamil Temple Myths - Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition. ISBN 0-691-06415-6
  • Thapan, Anita Raina (1997). Understanding Gaņapati: Insights into the Dynamics of a Cult. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers. ISBN 81-7304-195-4. 
  • Thurston Edgar. Castes and Tribes of Southern India (Vols I-V). Cosmo Publication, Delhi.

Wendy Doniger (born November 20, 1940) is an American professor of religion, active in international religious studies since 1973. ... R.C. Majumdar (1888-1980) was an Indian historian and Vice-Chancellor of Dacca University. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819–1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...

External links

Texts

Translations

  • Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam Full text of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, with the original Sanskrit, word-for-word meanings, translation, and commentary.
  • The Vishnu Purana Full text of the H.H. Wilson translation at sacred-texts.com

Synopses

Brahma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, is a Hindu religious text. ... Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ... Markandeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is in the style of a dialogue between the sage Jaimini, and the sage Markandeya. ... The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient Sanskrit text authored by Rishi Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedic texts. ... Vamana Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is devoted to the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. ... The Vishnu Purana is one of the oldest of the Puranas (dating to maybe the 5th century), containing some 23,000 shlokas, presented as a dialogue between Parasara with his disciple Maitreya. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... Naradeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ... Padma Purana (Devanagari: पद्म पुराण), one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into five parts. ... Varaha Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ... Linga Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into two parts. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu. ... It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... Kurma Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text. ... The Shiva Purana has twenty-four thousand shlokas. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vishnu Purana Index (649 words)
The Vishnu Purana is a primary sacred text of the Vaishnava branch of Hinduism, which today probably has more adherents than any other.
It is one of the canonical Puranas, a branch of post-Vedic sacred literature which was first committed to writing during the first millennium of the common era.
Like most of the other Puranas, this is a complete narrative from the creation of the current universe to its destruction.
Evolution in the Vishnu Purana by Rudi Jansma (2049 words)
Traditionally, a Purana covers five distinct topics: 1) the creation of the universe; 2) its destruction and renovation; 3) the genealogy of gods and patriarchs; 4) the reigns of the manus, forming the periods called manvantaras; and 5) the history of the solar and lunar races of kings.
All eighteen Puranas are written in verse, in the form of a dialogue between teacher and pupil.
In this Purana, Vishnu is the pervader, present in everything, cause of everything, from which all comes and to which all returns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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