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Encyclopedia > Puppet state

A puppet state is a country that is nominally independent, but in reality, under the control of another power.[1]


The term has two distinct but related meanings. First, it refers to a state whose government depends on a foreign power for its existence and which closely follows the will of that foreign power in key policy issues; sometimes economic, sometimes strategic. Such a government is also known as a puppet régime. In this respect, "puppet state" is one of many terms that describe the subordination of one state to another in the international system. Second, the term refers to a state that has been created by the intervention of an external power in territory under the sovereignty of another state. In this respect, a puppet state is a secessionist state enabled and supported by an external power.


Under these definitions, a puppet state either lacks democratic legitimacy (because its policies are determined elsewhere) or it lacks sovereign legality (because it was created in breach of the rules of sovereign succession). For these reason, the term "puppet state" can be useful if applied only in the modern world, that is, the world in which states are presumed to be a reflection of the will of their people, and in which war has been outlawed as means of formal territorial acquisition. For subordinate relations in pre-modern times, the terms vassal state and tributary state are preferable. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The term tributary state refers to one of the two main ways in which a pre-modern state might be subordinate to a more powerful neighbour. ...


The concept of a "puppet state" implies some deliberate attempt to deceive. Either the citizens of the alleged puppet state or the international community are assumed to be deceived into believing that the puppet state is really independent when it is not. This presumption of deception makes the term a partisan one, prone to semantic disputes. Each side believes that it sees a reality which the other side cannot, or refuses to, see. Look up Partisan (political) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In politics, a partisan is a person who supports a cause, party, or goal fervently, usually to the exclusion of all others. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


"Puppet state" is mostly a term of political criticism, used to denigrate a current government which is perceived as unduly dependent upon an outside power. It implies that government's lack of legitimacy, in the view of those using the term. The term is closely associated with the state of Manchukuo, established under Japanese auspices in Manchuria (now Northeast China) in 1932. Although the term might reasonably be used to describe a significant number of states in the past, only Manchukuo is routinely designated as a "puppet state". Legitimacy in political science, is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law as an authority. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ...


In fact many puppet states (notably Panama, Cuba (both created under US auspices), Croatia and Slovakia (under Nazi Germany domination) and even, in some ways, Manchukuo (under the Japanese), have depended on the mobilization of unrequited national aspirations. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The two main difficulties in deciding whether a particular regime constitutes a puppet state are (a) the difficulty of observing the process by which the external power transmits its will to the puppet and (b) the fact that those who act as puppets may see themselves sincerely as following their national interest.


See also client state, satellite state and protectorate. According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ...

Contents

The first puppet states

The first puppet state, in the sense of a state which claimed popular legitimacy but which was significantly dependent on an external power, was the Batavian Republic, established in the Netherlands under French revolutionary protection. From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ...


The first puppet states, in the sense of new states whose creation was made possible by the intervention of a foreign power, were the Italian republics created in the late 18th and early 19th centuries with the assistance and encouragement of Napoleonic France. See French client republics. During Napoleons invasions to Italy,many client (puppet) republics were established. ...


Cuba and Panama separated from the sovereign power (respectively Spain and Colombia) by United States intervention were examples of states which began as puppets doing the will of an intervening hegemon but which developed into truly independent states.


In 1895, Japan detached Korea from its tributary relationship with China, giving it formal independence which was in reality only a prelude to Japanese annexation. Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or 조선 in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


During the latter part of the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian Empire entered a largely subordinate relationship with Wilhelmine Germany. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Other entities sometimes considered puppet states are:

The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire Hundred Years War Edwardian â€“ Breton Succession â€“ Castilian â€“ Two Peters â€“ Caroline â€“ Lancastrian The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337... John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford (20 June 1389–14 September 1435), also known as John Plantagenet, was the fourth son of King Henry IV of England by Mary de Bohun, and acted as Regent of England for his nephew, King Henry VI. He was created Earl of Kendal... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Syed Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan, or Mir Jafar (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765) was a monarchical ruler (Nawab) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ... Mir Qasim (d. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shirajuddaula. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European soldiers... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... During Napoleons invasions to Italy,many client (puppet) republics were established. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Map of Congress Poland. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... William Walker William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was a U.S. physician, lawyer, journalist, adventurer, and soldier of fortune who attempted to conquer several Latin American countries in the mid-19th century. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Cornelius Vanderbilt Cornelius Vanderbilt I (May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877), also known by the sobriquets The Commodore [1] [2] or Commodore Vanderbilt [3], was an American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México) (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family. ... Napoléon III, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Combatants Second Mexican Empire Second French Empire United Kingdom Spain Austria-Hungary Belgium Republic of Mexico Strength 38,493 French soldiers, 7000 Austro-Hungarian volunteers, 2000 Belgian volunteers ~80,000 Casualties 6,654 French killed and wounded 12,000 Mexican killed and wounded Emperor Maximilian Napoleon III of France Ju... Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii. ... Former advisor to Queen LiliÊ»uokalani and justice of the HawaiÊ»i judiciary, Sanford B. Dole assumed the role of President of the Republic of HawaiÊ»i. ... Her Majesty Lili‘uokalani, Queen of Hawai‘i Queen Lili‘uokalani of Hawai‘i (September 2, 1838 - November 11, 1917), given the Christian name Lydia Lili‘uokalani and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i. ... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Puppet states of Imperial Japan

During Japan's imperial period, and particularly during the Pacific War (parts of which are considered the Pacific theatre of World War II), Japan established a number of states that historians have come to consider puppet régimes. See also Axis powers of World War II Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... It has been suggested that Greater East Asia War in the Pacific be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ...


Nominally sovereign states

Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Provisional Government of China with its capital in Peiking in December 14, 1937, was a puppet government set up by the Japanese to govern their conquests in northern China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wang Jingwei Government was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... When the Japanese invaded Burma in 1942 they released Ba Maw from prison and convinced him to head a puppet government, the Burmese Executive Administration being set up in Rangoon on August 1, 1942. ... Ba Maw (February 8, 1893 – May 29, 1977) was a Burmese political leader. ... Flag Anthem: Himno Nacional Filipino Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila Baguio Tokyo, Japan Language(s) Japanese/Nihonggo (official), Filipino Government Unitary Republic President  - 1943-1945 Jose P. Laurel Historical era World War II  - Establishment October 14 1943  - Disestablishment August 17 1945 Area  - 1945 300,000 km2 115... José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Flag of the Empire of Vietnam The Empire of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Đế quốc Việt Nam, 越南帝國) was a short-lived puppet state of the Empire of Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (October 22, 1913 – July 30, 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Time in office: Apr. ... Son Ngoc Thanh (December 7, 1908–1977) was a Cambodian nationalist with a longtime history as a rebel and (for brief periods) a government minister. ... The Lao Peoples Democratic Republic is a landlocked country in southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (commonly known in the west as Burma) and the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Subordinate (puppet) governments

  • Chahar Political Council October 1935 - April 1937
  • Autonomous Government of Eastern Hopei November 1935 - July 1937, under Yin Ju-keng.
  • Mengjiang (April,1937–1945), in Inner Mongolia. This name was given by outsiders to a series of local administrations headed by the Mongol prince Demchugdongrub (Prince De). They had some degree of internal autonomy but were not granted independence, partly because the Japanese wanted to avoid offending their Chinese allies.
  • Dadao government Shanghai 1937-1940

On November 15, 1935 the Chinese administrator of the eastern district of the demilitarized zone in Hopei, Yin Ju-keng, asked autonomy for North China, as part of a Japanese inspired autonomy movement. ... Yin Ju-keng (1888 - 1946) Born in 1888, graduated from Waseda University, he served in Warlord governments before 1926 and then the Nationalists. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of a Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. ... The Dadao puppet municipal government of Shanghai (1937-1940):was one of a series Japanese-made countries and political entities set up in occupied China. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ...

Other plans

Japan had plans for other puppet states. The projected White Russian state in Outer Manchuria was a Japanese puppet régime that never got beyond the planning stages. In 1945, as the Second World War drew to a close, Japan planned to grant puppet independence to Indonesia, but these plans were forestalled by the Japanese surrender on 15 August 1945. A White Russian state had a short potential or virtual existence during the Pacific War, in Outer Manchuria. ...


Puppet states of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy

Several European governments under the domination of Nazi Germany and Italy during World War II have been described as puppet régimes. The formal means of control in occupied Europe varied greatly. These régimes fall into several categories. See also Axis powers of World War II Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis powers, also interpreted as Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those countries opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ...


Existing states in (forced) alliance with Germany and Italy

Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth Piteşti, Romania Date of death June 1... Horia Sima (July 3, 1907-1993) was the second and last leader of Romanias Iron Guard in the Second World War. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Dobri Bozhilov Dobri Bozhilov (June 13, 1884-February 1, 1945) was Prime Minister of Bulgaria during World War II. Born in Kotel, Bulgaria, Bozhilov attended the Higher Commercial School in Svishtov before starting work as a bookkeeper at the Bulgarian National Bank for the Kyustendil Banking Agency in 1902. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... “Horthy” redirects here. ...

Existing states under German or Italian rule

  • Albania (1939–1943) - The Kingdom of Albania under was an Italian puppet régime. Italy invaded Albania in 1939 and ended the rule of King Zog I. Zog was exiled and King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy added King of Albania to his title. He and Prime Minister and Head of State Shefqet Bej Verlaci controlled the Italian protectorate. Shefqet Bej Verlaci was replaced as Prime Minister and Head of State by Mustafa Merlika Kruja on December 3, 1941. The Germans occupied Albania when Italy quit the war in 1943.
  • France (1940–1944) - The Vichy French régime of Philippe Pétain had limited autonomy from 1940 to 1942. The Vichy government controlled many of France's colonies and enjoyed limited international recognition. For example, the United States of America granted Vichy France full diplomatic recognition. In 1942, the Germans occupied the portion of France administered by the Vichy government and ended much of the international legitimacy the government had.

Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... Shefqet Bej Verlaci (December 15, 1877, Elbasan, Albania – July 21, 1946, Zürich, Switzerland) was Prime Minister of Albania in 1924 and during the Italian occupation from 1939 to 1941. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ...

New states formed to reflect national aspirations

  • Slovak Republic under the Slovak People's Party (1939–1945) - The Slovak Republic was a German puppet régime. The Slovak People's Party was a quasi-fascist nationalist movement associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Monsignor Jozef Tiso became the Nazis' quisling in a nominally independent Slovakia.
  • Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945) - The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska or NDH) was a German and Italian puppet régime. On paper, the NDH was a kingdom under King Tomislav II of the House of Savoy (The Duke of Split). But Tomislav II was only a figurehead in Croatia who never exercised any real power. In reality, "Greater Croatia" was ruled by Leader (Poglavnik) Ante Pavelić and the Ustasha, who ran their own programme of ethnic cleansing of Serbs (independent of the Nazis) , Jews and Gypsies.

The Slovak Peoples Party (Slovak: Slovenská ľudová strana, SĽS, after 1925 Hlinkas Slovak Peoples Party / Hlinkova slovenská ľudová strana/ HSĽS, after 1938 Hlinkas Slovak Peoples Party - Party of Slovak National Unity/Hlinkova. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Josef Tiso in photo Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Independent Slovak Republic from 1939-1945, allied with Nazi Germany. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... Prince Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino (1900-1948), 4th Duke of Aosta, was born on 9 March 1900 in Turin. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... This is the history of Croatia. ... Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ...

Protectorates

  • The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945) - This was an ethnic-Czech protectorate which Nazi Germany established in the central parts of Bohemia and Moravia. The former President of Czechoslovakia, Dr. Emil Hácha, was the only President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. He watched helplessly as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia slowly became a German puppet régime. Ultimately, the protectorate provided anti-Partisan and occupation troops to the German war effort.
  • Denmark (1940–1943) - On 9 April 1940, Germany's occupation of Denmark began with Operation Weserübung and lasted until the German forces withdrew at the end of World War II. Initially the Danish government operated as a protectorate of Nazi Germany. On 29 August 1943, the Germans officially dissolved the Danish government and instituted martial law.

Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Emil Hácha (July 12, 1872 – June 26, 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia, taking office in 1938, and the first and only State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

States under military occupation but not annexed to Germany or Italy

  • Belgium (1939–1945) - The violent Rexist movement was a German puppet régime. The Rexist had achieved some electoral success in the 1930s and many of its members assisted the Nazi occupation in 1940 during World War II.
  • The Netherlands (1939–1945) - The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (in Dutch: Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, NSB) was a pro-Nazi German puppet régime. The NSB was headed by Anton Mussert and assisted the German occupation of the Netherlands in 1940.
  • Greece (1941–1944) - The régimes of Georgios Tsolakoglou, Konstantinos Logothetopoulos, and Ioannis Rallis were "collaborationist" governments during the Occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany. Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria occupied different portions of Greece at different times during these régimes.
  • Serbia (1941–1944) - The régime of General Milan Nedić and popularly known as Nedić's Serbia was a German puppet régime.
  • Independent State of Montenegro (1941–1944) - The régime founded by Sekule Drljević was an Italian puppet régime from 1941 to 1943 and a German puppet régime from 1943 to 1944. Drljevićwas was the leader of the Montenegrin Federalists and formed the Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro.
  • Principality of Pindus and Moglena (1941–1944) - The Pindus-Moglena Principality (Principatu di la Pind) was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian and Bulgarian control in northwest Greece and southern Yugoslavia. Alchiviad Diamandi di Samarina and Gyula von Milványi-Csesznegi were the princes.
  • Lokot Republic, Russia (1941–1943) - The Lokot Republic under Konstantin Voskoboinik and Bronislaw Kaminski was a semi-autonomous region in Nazi-occupied Russia under an all-Russian administration (see Reichskommissariat Ukraine). The "republic" covered the area of several raions of Oryol and Kursk oblasts. It was directly associated with the Kaminski Brigade and the Russian Liberation Army (Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya or RONA).
  • Belarusian Central Rada (1943–1944) - The Belarusian Central Council (Biełaruskaja Centralnaja Rada) was nominally the government of Belarus from 1943-1944. It was a collaborationist government established by Nazi Germany (see Reichskommissariat Ostland).
  • Norway (1943–1945) - The occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany started with all authority held by German Commissioner (Reichskommissar) Josef Terboven. Norweigian Vidkun Quisling had attempted a coup d'état during the German invasion on 9 April 1940. But he was not appointed by the Germans to head the Norwegian government until 1 February 1943.
  • Banat (1941–1944) - A semi-independent territory that was de jure part of German-occupied Nedić's Serbia, but was de facto administered by its ethnic German minority.

Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (in Dutch: Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland, NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party. ... Anton Mussert Anton Adriaan Mussert (May 11, 1894-May 7, 1946) was a successful civil engineer who worked for the Dutch government. ... Georgios Tsolakoglou (Greek: , Agrafa, April 1886 - Athens, May 1948) was a Greek military officer who became the countrys first quisling Prime Minister during the Axis Occupation in 1941-1942. ... Konstantinos Logothetopoulos was a distinguished Greek medical doctor who became Prime Minister of a quisling government during the Axis occupation of Greece. ... Ioannis Rallis (1878-1946) was the third Nazi collaborator prime minister of Greece, from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-held puppet government in Athens. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate... Sekule Drljević (born 1884 in the village of Ravni, Kingdom of Montenegro - died late 1945 in Judenburg, Austria) was a Montenegrin politician, lawyer, and author. ... The Principality of Pindus and Moglena (also Pindo or Pindos; Meglen or Karacova; Aromanian: Principatu di la Pind) was an autonomous state set up under fascist Italian and Bulgarian control in northwest Greece and southern Yugoslavia during World War II; the Pindus region also spans southern parts of present-day... Alchiviad Diamandi di Samarina or Alkiviadis Diamandi or Alcibiade Diamandi (sometimes spelled Diamanti, Diamandis, Diamanthis or Diamantis) (Samarina, Greece, August 13. ... The young Baron Gyula Milványi de Cseszneg Baron Gyula Milványi de Cseszneg (Gyula von Milványi-Csesznegi) (1914, Csorvás—?) was a Hungarian poet, translator, politician, and, as Julius I, prince of Pindus and Moglena. ... The Lokot Republic (Russian: Локотская Республика) was a semi-autonomous region in Nazi occupied Russia under an all-Russian administration from 1941 to 1943. ... . Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski (Russian: Бронислав Каминский) (1899-1944) was the commander of the RONA (Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya) unit, a Russian armed force that fought against the Soviet forces in alliance with Nazi Germany and was later incorporated into the Waffen SS. Birth and early life Engineer Bronislaw (also spelled Bronislav) Kaminski... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ... Sleeve patch worn by men of the RONA. Kaminski Brigade RONA, Russian National Liberation Army (Russian:Русская Освободительная Народная Армия) Volksheer-Brigade Kaminski Waffen-Sturm-Brigade RONA 29. ... A soldier of the Russian Liberation Army Russian Liberation Army or ROA (Русская Освободительная Армия, Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Armiya), also known as the Vlasov army, was a group of volunteer Russian forces allied with Nazi Germany during World War II. The ROA was organized by former Red Army general Andrey Vlasov, who tried... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ... Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Josef Terboven Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader most known for his brutal leadership during the Nazi occupation of Norway. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Banat region, 1941-1944 The Banat was an autonomous region within German-occupied Serbia between 1941 and 1944. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

German military administrations

In 1941, Alfred Rosenberg presented German dictator Adolf Hitler with a plan for the organization of the conquered Eastern territories. Rosenberg suggested the establishment of new administrative districts. These districts would replace the Soviet-controlled territories with new Reichskommissariats. While Rosenberg's plan was never fully implemented, the following were to have been the Nazi German-controlled Reichskommissariats: For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

The General Government set up by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II was primarily administered by Germans and hardly qualifies as a puppet regime. The German Chief of Administration, Hans Frank, did not bother to share power with a Polish figure head. Polish participation in the General Government was at the lowest levels only. Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Lokot Republic (Russian: Локотская Республика) was a semi-autonomous region in Nazi occupied Russia under an all-Russian administration from 1941 to 1943. ... Reichskommissar (Commissionary of the Empire) was an official title of authorized representative of the Deutsches Reich (after 1871) who was appointed to a special task, e. ... Erich Koch (June 19, 1896, Elberfeld - November 12, 1986, Barczewo) was a Gauleiter of the NSDAP in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945, and Reichskomissar in Ukraine from 1941 until 1944. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ...


The Italian Social Republic

  • Italian Social Republic (1943–1945, known also as the Republic of Salò) - General Pietro Badoglio and King Victor Emmanuel III withdrew Italy from the Axis Powers and set up a Royalist government in southern Italy. In response, the Germans occupied northern Italy and founded the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) with Benito Mussolini as its "Head of State" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs". While the RSI government had some trappings of an independent state, it was completely dependent on Germany. When directed to do so, Mussolini provided Germany with Italian citizens to work as forced laborers.

Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ...

Puppet states of the Soviet Union before 1939

The Soviet Union had several puppet states in the 1920s.

  • Tuvinian People's Republic, also Tannu Tuva (1921-1944) Achieved independence from China by means of local nationalist revolutions only to come under the domination of the Soviet Union in the 1920s. In 1944, Tannu Tuva was made an integral part of the Soviet Union.
  • The Far Eastern Republic (1920-1922) Was sometimes described as a puppet state of the Soviet Union but its identity as a "state" was ambiguous at best.

The Tuvinian Peoples Republic (Peoples Republic Tannu Tuva) (1921-1944) was a state in the territory of the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia, also known as Uryankhaisky Krai (Урянхайский край). Tuvinian People’s Republic State Flag, 1933-1941. ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

Puppet states of the Soviet Union after 1939

As Soviet forces prevailed over the German Army on the Eastern Front during the Second World War, the Soviet Union supported the creation of communist governments in Eastern Europe. Specifically, the People's Republics in Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland were dominated by the Soviet Union. While all of these People's Republics did not "officially" take power until after World War II ended, they all have roots in pro-Communist war-time governments. For example, Bulgaria's pro-Communist Fatherland Front seized power in Bulgaria on September 9, 1944. The Fatherland Front government was Soviet dominated and the direct predecessor of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1990). On the other hand, keeping with the Bulgarian example, it could be argued that the People's Republic of Bulgaria under Prime Minister Georgi Dimitrov (1946–1949) was far from being a Soviet puppet. On yet another hand, an argument for co-belligerence status could also be made for these states. The Finnish Democratic Republic (Finnish: Suomen Kansanvaltainen Tasavalta) was a short-lived Communist regime in those minor parts of Finland that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Lithuanian, Russian (de facto). ... The Second Eastern Turkistan Republic, usually known simply as the East Turkistan Republic, was a short-lived Soviet-backed separatist republic in what is now the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fatherland Front (FF) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II. The Zveno movement, the communist Bulgarian Workers Party, a wing of the Agrarian Union and the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party where part of the FF. It was soon dominated by the Bulgarian Communist Party. ... The history of Bulgaria began in the 7th century CE with the arrival of the Bulgars in the Balkans. ... The history of Bulgaria began in the 7th century CE with the arrival of the Bulgars in the Balkans. ... Georgi Dimitrov Georgi Mikhailov Dimitrov (Георги Михайлов Димитров, also known as Георгий Михайлович Димитров- Georgiy Mikhailovich Dimitrov) (June 18, 1882, Kovachevtsi, Pernik Province - July 2, 1949, Moscow) was a Bulgarian Communist leader. ... Co-belligerence is waging the war in cooperation against a common enemy without the formal treaty of military alliance. ...

A propaganda photo of a citizen reading the PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was the provisional Polish government. ... Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej or RTRP) was created by Krajowa Rada Narodowa on the night of 31 December 1944. ... Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej (Provisional Government of National Unity, TRJN) - was a government formed by the decree of Krajowa Rada Narodowa on 28 June 1945. ... Fatherland Front (FF) was originally a Bulgarian political resistance movement during World War II. The Zveno movement, the communist Bulgarian Workers Party, a wing of the Agrarian Union and the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party where part of the FF. It was soon dominated by the Bulgarian Communist Party. ... Kimon Georgiev (Stoyanov) (1882-1969) was a Bulgarian prime minister. ... Béla Miklós de Dálnok (1890–1948) was a Hungarian politician who served as acting Prime Minister of Hungary, at first in opposition, and then officially, from 1944 to 1945. ... Petru Groza, (December 7, 1884 - January 7, 1958), nicknamed The Red Bourgeois by his political adversaries, was a leading political figure in interwar Romania who eventually became Premier of the states coalition government from 1945 to 1952. ... PCR hammer and sickle symbol The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a Communist political party in Romania. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azarbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ...

Iraq and Iran during World War II

The Axis demand for oil and the concern of the Allies that Germany would look to the oil-rich Middle East for a solution, caused the invasion of Iraq by the United Kingdom and the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Pro-Axis governments in both Iraq and Iran were removed and replaced with Allied-dominated governments.

  • Kingdom of Iraq (1941–1947) - Iraq was important to the UK because of its position on the route to India. Iraq also could provide strategic oil reserves. But, due to the UK's weakness early in the war, Iraq backed away from the pre-war Anglo-Iraqi Alliance. In April 1941, the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq was over-thrown and there was a pro-German coup under Rashid Ali. The Rashid Ali regime began negotiations with the Axis powers and military aid was quickly sent to Mosul via Vichy French-controlled Syria. The Germans provided a squadron of twin engine fighters and a squadron of medium bombers. The Italians provided a squadron of biplane fighters. In mid-April 1941, the Anglo-Iraqi War began and troops of the 10th Indian Infantry Division invaded Iraq. By May, they and other Commonwealth forces in Iraq forced the pro-German government to capitualate and caused Rashid Ali to flee the country. The Hashemite monarchy (King Ghazi and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said) was restored. The UK then forced Iraq to declare war on the Axis in 1942. Commonwealth forces remained in Iraq until October 26, 1947.
  • Iran (1941–1946) - German workers in Iran caused the United Kingdom (UK) and the Soviet Union to question Iran's neutrality. In addition, Iran's geographical position was important to the Allies. So, in August 1941, the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was launched (Operation Countenance). In September 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced to abdicate his throne. He was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was willing to declare war on the Axis powers. By January of 1942, the UK and the Soviet Union agreed to end their occupation of Iran six months after the end of the war.

National motto: Allahu Akbar (English: God is Great) Official languages Arabic, Kurdish1 Spoken languages Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Turkmen, Armenian Capital Baghdad2 President Jalal Talabani Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari Area - Total - % water Ranked 57th 437,072 km2 1. ... El-Gaylani Rashid Ali was the Pro-Axis leader of Iraq who fled to Iran when the Allies invaded Iraq. ... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... The Indian 10th Infantry Division was a war formed Indian division during the Second World War . ... Nuri al-Said (1888 – July 14, 1958) (نوري السعيد) was a prominent Iraqi politician, who served in various key cabinet positions, including fourteen times as prime minister: March 23, 1930 – October 19, 1932 October 20, 1930 – October 27, 1932... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until...

"Satellite states"

Main article: Satellite state

At the conclusion of the Second World War, there was an understanding between the Allied powers that each state would temporarily occupy the territories they captured during the war before ultimately re-establishing the nations of occupied Europe. For the most part, the territories occupied by the United States and United Kingdom became democracies with market economies aligned with the United States, while the territories occupied by the Soviet Union became communist states aligned with the Soviet Union. This extended so far as to lead to the division of Germany, in which the Soviet occupation sector became East Germany while the United States, United Kingdom, and French occupation sectors became West Germany. Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A map of countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, Communist states) at some point in their history. ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... GDR redirects here. ...


Eastern European members of the Warsaw Pact, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and East Germany, were Soviet satellite states centrally controlled by Moscow. While Soviet leaders claimed that the Warsaw Pact nations were equals entering into a mutual alliance, the reality was different and decisions were often enforced by Soviet Union with threats of or use of force. For example when Polish communist leaders tried to elect Władysław Gomułka as First Secretary they were issued an ultimatum by Soviet military that occupied Poland ordering them to withdraw election of Gomulka for the First Secretary or be crushed by Soviet tanks[1]. Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... GDR redirects here. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ...


Prague Spring in 1968 led to an invasion of Czechoslovakia by the other Warsaw Pact states. As a rationale for this action, the Soviet Union expressed the Brezhnev Doctrine, which stated that it was the duty of all socialist states to protect any socialist state from falling to capitalism. The Western bloc interpreted the Brezhnev Doctrine as an expression of Moscow's authority over other communist states. People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it...


American political analysts and the American public believed so strongly that Eastern Europe's communist states were Soviet puppet states that Gerald Ford's insistence during a debate in the 1976 U.S. presidential election campaign that Eastern Europe was not dominated by the Soviet Union was considered a major gaffe, leading his opponent, Jimmy Carter, to reply that he would like to see Ford convince Czech-Americans and Polish-Americans that their countries did not live under Soviet domination. Similarly, in 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, in a speech at the Berlin Wall, challenged not the East German leader, but rather Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to "Tear down this wall". Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... A gaffe is a verbal mistake made by a company or individual, usually in a social environment. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Polish-American refers to American citizens of Polish descent. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ...


Gorbachev ultimately renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, jokingly calling his policy the "Sinatra Doctrine" after the song "My Way" because of its explicit allowance of Eastern European countries to decide their own internal affairs. Within only a couple years of Gorbachev's abandonment of the Brezhnev Doctrine, Eastern Europe's communist regimes all fell and their states sought better relations and integration with the West, abandoning ties to Soviet Union. The Sinatra Doctrine was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. ... This article is about the song made famous by Frank Sinatra. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


South Korea and Vietnam

During the 1950–1953 Korean War, South Korea was accused of being an American puppet state by North Korea and its allies. At the same time, the United States alleged that North Korea was a Soviet puppet state. The de facto end of the war and decades of intervening time have distanced these allegations to most, but to this date, North Korea's government reiterates the accusation about South Korea, citing law that places the South Korean army under American command in time of war. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders...


In 1955, the Vietnamese Catholic leader Ngo Dinh Diem, encouraged by the United States, declared the creation of the South Vietnam (RVN) in the southern part of Vietnam. The northern part of the country was then largely under control of the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). This declaration involved a breach of the 1954 Geneva Accords which had provided for elections to re-unite the country, but the RVN claimed a right to exist on the basis of sovereign succession from the previous, French sponsored State of Vietnam. The creation of the RVN reflected fears that the elections would deliver a communist victory, perhaps because of electoral manipulation or intimidation in the north.   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine. ... Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The...


Many people in the south were afraid of the likely consequences of communist rule, but the RVN was also a tool of the United States in its struggle to 'contain' communism. The RVN hosted vast numbers of US troops and its governments were closely aligned with United States policy. The Vietnam War, better called the Second Indochina War, is sometimes described as a proxy war in which both sides were puppets of the competing great powers in the Cold War. Many observers, however, see one side as the puppet and the other side as genuinely nationalist. Some observers describe both sides as representing nationalist alternatives. The Paris Peace Accords were preceded by months of intensive negotiations over whether the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam (which was a part of what the Americans called the Viet Cong) should be treated as an independent party or as a puppet of North Vietnam. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Vietnam War was a war fought between 1957 and 1975 on the ground in South Vietnam and bordering areas of Cambodia and Laos (See Secret War) and in bombing runs (Rolling Thunder) over North Vietnam. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... Viet Cong (NLF) flag The Viet Cong, also known as the National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tộc Giải Phóng Miền Nam), VC, or the National Liberation Front (NLF), was an insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Decolonization

In some cases, the process of decolonization has been managed by the decolonizing power to create a neo-colony, that is a nominally independent state whose economy and politics permits continued foreign domination. Neo-colonies are not normally considered puppet states. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... Neo-colony The term neo-colony normally refers to former colony which remains in practice under the economic and political domination of the former colonial power. ...


South Africa's 'Bantustans'

During the 1970s and 1980s, four ethnic bantustans, some of which were extremely fragmented, were carved out of South Africa and given nominal sovereignty. Two (Ciskei and Transkei) were for the Xhosa people; and one each for the Tswana people (Bophuthatswana) and for the Venda people (Venda Republic). Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... The Xhosa people are a group of peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa. ... Tswana (Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people. ... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on consent of the governed...


The principal purpose of these states was to remove the Xhosa, Tswana and Venda peoples from South African citizenship (and so to provide grounds for denying them democratic rights). All four were reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.


After the Cold War

The War on Terrorism

In more recent times, the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and 2003 invasion of Iraq have led to largely U.S.-led regime change efforts in these two nations, fostering accusations among critics of the administration that the governments established under U.S. occupation, particularly the Iraqi Interim Government, were American puppet states. Some Russians also accused Georgia of being a US puppet regime, while Hezbollah is accusing Lebanon of being a puppet at the hands of the Bush administration. Combatants Participants in operations  United States  United Kingdom  Israel  Canada  Australia  Poland  Iraq  Afghanistan  India  Pakistan  Philippines  Somalia  Ethiopia  Lebanon Fatah et al. ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations NATO ISAF Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum William J. Fallon Bantz J. Craddock Egon Ramms Dan... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about the act of overthrowing a government. ... The Iraqi Interim matt chokes on cock Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the Iraqi Transitional Government was installed following the Iraqi National Assembly election conducted on January 30th, 2005. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Separatist entities as puppet states

Some smaller unrecognized states owe the continuation of their existence to the patronage of larger states nearby, such as Northern Cyprus (to Turkey) and Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR (to Algeria.) The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus(TRNC) {NOTE: the name is not accepted by UN} , in Turkish Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti, is a self-proclaimed state occupying the northern third of the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. ... Sadr can refer to: The common name for the star Gamma Cygni. ...


References

  1. ^ Concise Oxford English Dictionary ISBN-10: 0198610475
  2. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter ISBN-10: 0415285801
  3. ^ Estonia: Identity and Independence: Translated into English (On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics) Jean-Jacques Subrenat, David Cousins, Alexander Harding, Richard C. Waterhouse on Page 246. ISBN-10: 9042008903
  4. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter ISBN-10: 0415285801
  5. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter ISBN-10: 0415285801

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Puppet state - Simple English Wikipedia (252 words)
A Puppet state is a country that is officially independent, but isn't really.
Most puppet states are controlled by foreign countries, but some are controlled by corporations (like Guatemala, once controlled by the United Fruit Company) or even by terrorist groups (like Taliban Afghanistan after 1998, which was controlled by Al-Qaida).
Puppet governments are usually kept in power by soldiers kept within their territory by the controlling power.
Satellite state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (360 words)
The term "satellite state" is often seen as close in meaning, or even synonymous, with other terms such as "puppet state", which typically have a much more pejorative connotation.
In some contexts, though, "puppet state" denotes a government completely dependent on a larger power, in contrast to a satellite state which, in various aspects, including economics, has a slightly greater degree of formal independence.
The phrase "puppet state" is used frequently to connote the dependence of small nations to a larger power, especially implying that without necessary support of the larger power the "puppet state" would simply collapse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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