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Encyclopedia > Punk rock
Punk rock
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
Typical instruments
Vocals - Guitar - Bass - Drums - occasional use of other instruments
Mainstream popularity Topped charts in UK during late 1970s. International commercial success for pop punk and ska punk, mid-1990s–2000s.
Derivative forms New Wave - Post-punk - Alternative rock - Emo
Subgenres
Anarcho-punk - Art punk - Garage punk - Gothic rock - Glam punk - Hardcore - Horror punk - Oi! - Riot Grrrl - Skate punk - Christian punk - Nazi punk
Fusion genres
Anti-folk - Celtic punk - Chicano punk - Cowpunk - Deathrock - Folk punk - Gypsy punk - Pop punk - Psychobilly - Punk blues - Ska punk - 2 Tone - Punk jazz
Regional scenes
Argentina - Australia - Belgium - Brazil - California - France - Germany - Uruguay - Yugoslavia
Local scenes
Brisbane - Toronto
Other topics
DIY ethic - First wave punk - Queercore - Punk fashion - Punk forerunners - Punk ideologies - Punk movies - Punk fanzines - Punk subculture - Punk timeline - Second wave punk - Straight Edge - List of punk bands - Punk rock subgenres

Punk rock is an anti-establishment rock music genre and movement that emerged in the mid-1970s. Preceded by a variety of protopunk music of the 1960s and early 1970s, punk rock developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Groups such as the Ramones, in New York City, and the Sex Pistols and The Clash, in London, were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. By 1977, punk was spreading around the world. Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. ... Frat rock was an early influential American subgenre of rock and roll / roots rock. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement, largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend on Sea. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a rock music style that developed in the UK in the post-hippie early 1970s which was performed by singers and musicians wearing outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. ... Protopunk is a term used to describe a number of performers who were important precursors of punk rock, or who have been cited by early punk rockers as influential. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Wave was a music genre that existed during the late 1970s and the early-to-mid 1980s. ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... Alternative music redirects here. ... Look up emo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The suffix -punk appears in the names of a number of genres of modern fiction and music. ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... Art punk is a music genre that is artistic, experimental and avant garde in nature. ... Garage punk is a subgenre of punk rock that is heavily influenced by garage rock. ... Gothic rock (sometimes called goth rock or simply goth) is a genre of alternative rock that originated during the late 1970s. ... Glam punk is glam rock and punk rock music. ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Horror punk is a music genre that was defined by the band The Misfits, blending horror movie lyrical themes and imagery with musical influences from early punk rock, doo-wop, and, to a lesser degree, rockabilly. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an indie/punk feminist movement that reached its height in the 1990s but continues to exert influence over alternative cultures. ... Skate punk (also known as skatepunk, skate-punk, skate-thrash, surf punk, or skate-core) was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands were themselves skaters. ... Christian punk is a form of Christian alternative music and a subgenre of punk rock with some degree of Christian lyrical content. ... Two Punk Front members (1978). ... Anti-folk (or antifolk) is a genre of music related to punk rock and American folk music that originated in the mid-1980s in New York City. ... Celtic punk (also known as Paddybeat, Celtcore, Jig punk, or Rock and Reel) is a music genre typically associated with Irish punks or punks from the Irish diaspora; although other Celtic nationalities, such as Scottish, Manx and Welsh people are also represented. ... Chicano Rock Music is rock music performed by Mexican American groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture. ... Cowpunk or Country Punk is a subgenre of punk rock that began in southern California in the 1980s, especially Los Angeles. ... Deathrock is a term used to identify a subgenre of punk rock and Goth which incorporates elements of horror and spooky atmospheres within a Goth-Punk style and first emerged most prominently in the West Coast of the United States and London during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... The Anarchy Heart, a symbol popular in the young radical community, particularly with Folk Punks and Anarchists. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... Psychobilly is a genre of rock music that mixes elements of punk rock, rockabilly, and other genres. ... Allmusic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The California punk scene is a regional punk music scene that started in the late 1970s and still exists today. ... Punk rock and punk subculture have created a popular scene in Germany since punk music became popular in the 1970s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Brisbane punk rock scene between 1975 and 1984 is generally regarded as producing “some of the most anarchistic bands of the Australian punk rock era”. [1] The development of Brisbane’s punk rock movement differed to other cities because of its isolation from the rest of Australia and because... The DIY ethic (do it yourself ethic) refers to the ethic of being self-reliant and doing things yourself as opposed to paying others to do it. ... Early punk rock musicians (1970s-1980) // 999 Acme Sewage Company Abrasive Wheels The Adicts The Adverts Alternative TV Amazorblades Angelic Upstarts Anti-Nowhere League Anti-Pasti The Angry Samoans The Au Pairs The Automatics The Avengers Bad Brains Bad Religion The Bags Big Balls and the Great White Idiot Big... Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid 1980s as an offshoot of punk. ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... This is a list of protopunk bands and individuals who were influential in the development of punk rock. ... Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the punk subculture. ... List of punk movies, i. ... A punk zine (or punkzine) is a fanzine devoted to punk rock music, bands, or the DIY punk philosophy. ... The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock. ... This is a timeline of punk rock, from its beginnings in the early 1960s to the present time. ... This is a list of bands that are considered part of the second wave of punk rock, beginning in the 1980s. ... For the drawing or cutting tool, see Straightedge. ... It has been suggested that this list be merged into a category entitled Category:Punk rock groups. ... A number of overlapping punk rock genres have developed since the emergence of punk rock (often shortened to punk) in the mid 1970s. ... Not to be confused with antidisestablishmentarianism. ... This article is about the genre. ... Protopunk is a term used to describe a number of performers who were important precursors of punk rock, or who have been cited by early punk rockers as influential. ... This article is about the band. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ...


Punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, and created fast, hard music, typically with short songs, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political or nihilistic lyrics. The associated punk subculture expresses youthful rebellion and is characterized by distinctive clothing styles, a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies, and a DIY (do it yourself) attitude. This article is about the philosophical position. ... The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock. ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the punk subculture. ... The DIY ethic (do it yourself ethic) refers to the ethic of being self-reliant and doing things yourself as opposed to paying others to do it. ...


Punk rock quickly, though briefly, became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. By the beginning of the 1980s, even faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations, giving rise to the alternative rock movement. By the turn of the century, new pop punk bands such as Green Day were bringing the genre widespread popularity decades after its inception. Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... This article is about the band Green Day. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Philosophy

The Ramones' 1976 debut album. "The band's first four albums set the blueprint for punk, especially American punk and hardcore, for the next two decades"
The Ramones' 1976 debut album. "The band's first four albums set the blueprint for punk, especially American punk and hardcore, for the next two decades"[1]

The first wave of punk rock aimed to be aggressively modern, distancing itself from the bombast and sentimentality of early 1970s rock.[2] According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of [1960s] stuff was innovative and exciting. Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock 'n' roll."[3] John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that [acts] like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans, rock and roll meant this wild and rebellious music."[4] In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was also a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth."[5] Patti Smith, in contrast, suggests in the documentary 25 Years of Punk that the hippies and the punk rockers were linked by a common anti-establishment mentality. This image is the cover of an album or single. ... This image is the cover of an album or single. ... This article is about the band. ... Ramones is the self-titled debut album by the Ramones. ... This article is about the band. ... Tommy Ramone (born Tamás Erdélyi, January 29, 1952 in Budapest, Hungary) is a Hungarian-American record producer and drummer. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... John Holmstrom is an artist/cartoonist and writer, as well as the co-founder of Punk Magazine with Legs McNeil at the age of 22 in late 1975. ... Punk cover, issue 3, 1976 Punk was a fanzine created by cartoonist John Holmstrom, publisher Ged Dunn and resident punk Legs McNeil. ... William Joseph Martin Billy Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American pianist and singer-songwriter. ... The duo of Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel are US-American popular musicians known collectively as Simon and Garfunkel. ... Robert Christgau (born April 18, 1942), is an American essayist, music journalist, and the self-declared Dean of American Rock Critics.[1] In print, his name is sometimes abbreviated as Xgau. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ...


Throughout punk rock history, technical accessibility and a DIY spirit have been prized. In the early days of punk rock, this ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.[6] Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have very much skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music".[4] In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns famously published an illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band."[7] The title of a 1980 single by New York punk band The Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach.[8] See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ...


Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared The Clash song "1977".[9] The previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero".[10] Even as nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".[2] Others found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."[11] Elvis redirects here. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... This article is about the rock band. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... John Graham Mellor (August 21, 1952 – December 22, 2002), better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the English punk rock band The Clash. ...


Musical and lyrical elements

Punk rock bands often emulate the bare musical structures and arrangements of 1960s garage rock.[12] Typical punk rock instrumentation includes one or two electric guitars, an electric bass, and a drum kit, along with vocals. Punk rock songs tend to be shorter than those of other popular genres—on the Ramones' debut album, for instance, half of the fourteen tracks are under two minutes long. Most early punk rock songs retained a traditional rock 'n' roll verse-chorus form and 4/4 time signature. However, punk rock bands in the movement's second wave and afterward have often broken from this format. In critic Steven Blush's description, "The Sex Pistols were still rock'n'roll...like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Hardcore was a radical departure from that. It wasn't verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. It's its own form."[13] Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. ... Ramones is the self-titled debut album by the Ramones. ... Verse-chorus form is a musical form common in popular music and predominant in rock since the 1960s. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born 18 October 1926, St. ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ...


Punk rock vocals sometimes sound nasal,[14] and lyrics are often shouted instead of sung in a conventional sense, particularly in hardcore styles.[15] The vocal approach is characterized by a lack of variety; shifts in pitch, volume, or intonational style are relatively infrequent—the Sex Pistols' Johnny Rotten constituting a significant exception.[16] Complicated guitar solos are considered self-indulgent and unnecessary, although basic guitar breaks are common.[17] Guitar parts tend to include highly distorted power chords or barre chords, creating a characteristic sound described by Christgau as a "buzzsaw drone".[18] Some punk rock bands take a surf rock approach with a lighter, twangier guitar tone. A wild, "gonzo" attack is sometimes employed, a style that stretches from Robert Quine, lead guitarist of seminal punk rock band The Voidoids, back through The Velvet Underground to the 1950s recordings of Ike Turner.[19] Bass guitar lines are often uncomplicated; the quintessential approach is a relentless, repetitive "forced rhythm".[20] Some punk rock bass players such as Mike Watt emphasize more technical bass lines. Bassists often use a plectrum rather than fingerpicking due to the rapid succession of notes, which makes fingerpicking impractical. Drums typically sound heavy and dry, and often have a minimal set-up. Compared to other forms of rock, syncopation is much less the rule.[21] Hardcore drumming tends to be especially fast.[15] Production tends to be minimalistic, with tracks sometimes laid down on home tape recorders.[22] The typical objective is to have the recording sound unmanipulated, "real", reflecting the commitment and "authenticity" of a live performance.[23] John Lydon John Joseph Lydon (born January 31, 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten (a nickname derived from the state of his teeth) was the iconoclastic lead singer of the Sex Pistols and Public Image Ltd (PiL) and an Irish individualist anarchist. ... In music, a power chord is an interval which serves the diatonic function of a major or minor chord. ... Barre chords are a type of guitar chord where one or more fingers are used to fret (press down) several or all of the strings across the guitar fingerboard in order to play a chord not restricted by the tones of the guitars open strings. ... In the early 1960s, one of the most popular forms of rock and roll was surf rock. ... This article is about the word Twang. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gonzo journalism. ... Robert Quine (December 30, 1942 - May 31, 2004), a native of Akron, Ohio, was a guitarist known for his innovative guitar solos. ... The Voidoids, also known as Richard Hell and the Voidoids, were a New York City punk rock band of the late 1970s, fronted by Richard Hell, a former member of Television. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Ike Turner (born Ike Wister Turner, November 5, 1931 – December 12, 2007) was an two-time Grammy Award-winning American musician, bandleader, talent scout, and record producer, best known for his work with his then wife Tina Turner as one half of the Ike & Tina Turner duo. ... Michael David Watt (born December 20, 1957 in Portsmouth, Virginia) is a bass guitarist, singer and songwriter, best-known for co-founding the punk rock bands The Minutemen and fIREHOSE; as of 2003, he is also the bassist for the reunited Iggy Pop & The Stooges. ... Various guitar picks A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fingerstyle guitar. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ...

The Clash, performing in 1980
The Clash, performing in 1980

Punk rock lyrics are typically frank and confrontational; compared to other popular music genres, they frequently comment on social and political issues.[24] Trend-setting songs such as The Clash's "Career Opportunities" and Chelsea's "Right to Work" deal with unemployment and the grim realities of urban life.[25] Especially in early British punk, a central goal was to outrage and shock the mainstream.[26] The Sex Pistols classics "Anarchy in the U.K." and "God Save the Queen" openly disparage the British political system and social mores. There is also a characteristic strain of anti-sentimental depictions of relationships and sex, exemplified by "Love Comes in Spurts", written by Richard Hell and recorded by him with The Voidoids. Anomie, variously expressed in the poetic terms of Hell's "Blank Generation" and the bluntness of the Ramones' "Now I Wanna Sniff Some Glue", is a common theme. Identifying punk with such topics aligns with the view expressed by Search and Destroy founder V. Vale: "Punk was a total cultural revolt. It was a hardcore confrontation with the black side of history and culture, right-wing imagery, sexual taboos, a delving into it that had never been done before by any generation in such a thorough way."[27] However, many punk rock lyrics deal in more traditional rock 'n' roll themes of courtship, heartbreak, and hanging out; the approach ranges from the deadpan, aggressive simplicity of Ramones standards such as "I Wanna Be Your Boyfriend"[28] to the more unambiguously sincere style of many later pop punk groups. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... See Career Opportunities (film) for the movie of this same title. ... Chelsea was an early punk band, formed in London in 1977. ... Anarchy in the U.K. is the title track of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26, 1976. ... God Save the Queen (B-side Did You No Wrong) was the second single released by the punk rock band Sex Pistols. ... Richard Hell (born October 2, 1949) is the stage name of Richard Meyers, an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. ... Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. ... RE/Search Publications is a United States magazine and book publisher, based in San Francisco, founded and edited by V. Vale in 1980. ... V. Vale is the publisher and primary contributor to books and magazines published by his company, RE/Search Publications. ...


Visual and other elements

UK punks, circa 1986
UK punks, circa 1986

The classic punk rock look among male U.S. musicians harkens back to the T-shirt, motorcycle jacket, and jeans ensemble favored by American greasers of the 1950s associated with the rockabilly scene and by British rockers of the 1960s. The cover of the Ramones' 1976 debut album, featuring a shot of the band by Punk photographer Roberta Bayley, set forth the basic elements of a style that was soon widely emulated by rock musicians both punk and nonpunk.[29] Richard Hell's more androgynous, ragamuffin look—and reputed invention of the safety-pin aesthetic—was a major influence on Sex Pistols impresario Malcolm McLaren and, in turn, British punk style.[30][31] Early female punk musicians displayed styles ranging from Siouxsie Sioux's bondage gear to Patti Smith's "straight-from-the-gutter androgyny".[32] The former proved much more influential on female fan styles.[33] Over time, tattoos, piercings, and metal-studded and -spiked accessories became increasingly common elements of punk fashion among both musicians and fans. The typical male punk haircut was originally short and choppy; the Mohawk later emerged as a characteristic style.[34] Those in hardcore scenes often adopt a skinhead look. Image File history File links Punks. ... Image File history File links Punks. ... For other uses of the term, see Greaser This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... The definitive Wild One. ... Malcolm McLaren (born Malcolm Robert Andrew Edwards, 22 January 1946, in London) is an English impresario and musician who is best known as being the manager of the punk rock band Sex Pistols. ... Susan Janet Ballion (born May 27, 1957 in Bromley, London), better known by her stage name, Siouxsie Sioux (IPA: , pronounced the same way as Susie Sue), is the lead singer of both the influential rock band Siouxsie & the Banshees and of its splinter group The Creatures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... The famous Mohawk leader Joseph Brant wearing a scalp lock. ... Skinheads, named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, are a working-class subculture that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. ...


The characteristic stage performance style of male punk musicians does not deviate significantly from the macho postures classically associated with rock music.[35] Female punk musicians broke more clearly from earlier styles. Scholar John Strohm suggests that they did so by creating personas of a type conventionally seen as masculine: "They adopted a tough, unladylike pose that borrowed more from the macho swagger of sixties garage bands than from the calculated bad-girl image of bands like The Runaways."[32] Scholar Dave Laing describes how bassist Gaye Advert adopted fashion elements associated with male musicians only to generate a stage persona readily consumed as "sexy".[36] Laing focuses on more innovative and challenging performance styles, seen in the various erotically destabilizing approaches of Siouxsie Sioux, The Slits' Ari Up, and X-Ray Spex's Poly Styrene.[37] This article is about the 1970s band. ... Gaye Advert (born Gaye Balsden on 29 August 1956) is an English punk rock musician who played bass guitar in the band, The Adverts, in the late 1970s. ... The Slits are an all female punk rock band. ... Ari Up Ari Up is the stage name for the lead vocalist of the influential UK punk group the Slits. ... This article is about the punk band. ... Poly Styrene (born Marianne Elliot) is an English musician. ...


The lack of emphatic syncopation led punk dance to "deviant" forms: The characteristic style was originally the pogo.[38] Sid Vicious, before he became the Sex Pistols' bassist, is credited as initiating the pogo in Britain as an attendee at one of their concerts.[39] Moshing is typical at hardcore shows. The lack of conventional dance rhythms was a central factor in limiting punk's mainstream commercial impact.[40] Punk dance is the variety of dance popular among fans of punk rock and related styles. ... The pogo is a dance where the dancers jump up and down to an eight-count rhythm, similar to the dances of the Pentecostal faith and various African tribes. ... For the professional wrestler, see Sid Eudy. ... This article or section should include material from mosh pit. ...


Breaking down the distance, and even the distinction, between performer and audience is central to the punk ethic.[41] Fan participation at concerts is thus important; during the movement's first heyday, it was often provoked in an adversarial manner—apparently perverse, but appropriately "punk". First-wave British punk bands such as the Pistols and The Damned insulted and otherwise goaded the audience into intense reactions. Laing has identified three primary forms of audience physical response to goading: can throwing, stage invasion, and spitting or "gobbing".[42] In the hardcore realm, stage invasion is often a prelude to stage diving. In addition to the numerous fans who have started or joined punk bands, audience members also become important participants via the scene's many amateur periodicals—in England, according to Laing, punk "was the first musical genre to spawn fanzines in any significant numbers."[43] This article is about the music group. ... Stage diving is the act of leaping from a concert stage into the crowd below. ... A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ...


Pre-history

Garage rock and mod

For more details on these topics, see Garage rock and Mod (lifestyle).

In the early and mid-1960s, garage rock bands that came to be recognized as punk rock's progenitors began springing up in many different locations around North America. The Kingsmen, a garage band from Portland, Oregon, had a breakout hit with their 1963 cover of "Louie, Louie," cited as "punk rock's defining ur-text."[44] The minimalist sound of many garage rock bands was influenced by the harder-edged wing of the British Invasion. The Kinks' hit singles of 1964, "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night," have been described as "predecessors of the whole three-chord genre—the Ramones' 1978 'I Don't Want You,' for instance, was pure Kinks-by-proxy."[45] In 1965, The Who quickly progressed from its debut single, "I Can't Explain", a virtual Kinks clone, to "My Generation". Though it had little impact on the American charts, The Who's mod anthem presaged a more cerebral mix of musical ferocity and rebellious posture that characterized much early British punk rock: John Reed describes The Clash's emergence as a "tight ball of energy with both an image and rhetoric reminiscent of a young Pete Townshend—speed obsession, pop-art clothing, art school ambition."[46] The Who and fellow mods The Small Faces were among the few rock elders acknowledged by the Sex Pistols.[47] By 1966, mod was already in decline. U.S. garage rock began to lose steam within a couple of years, but the aggressive musical approach and outsider attitude of "garage psych" bands like The Seeds were picked up and emphasized by groups that were later seen as the crucial figures of protopunk. Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kingsmen were a rock band from Portland, Oregon who rose suddenly to fame with their recording of Richard Berrys Louie, Louie. ... Louie, Louie is an American rock n roll song written by Richard Berry in 1955. ... An urtext edition of a work of classical music is a printed version intended to reproduce the original intention of the composer as exactly as possible, without any added or changed material. ... For other uses, see British Invasion (disambiguation). ... The Kinks were an English rock group formed in 1963 by lead singer-songwriter Ray Davies, his brother, lead guitarist and vocalist Dave Davies, and bassist Pete Quaife. ... You Really Got Me is a rock song written by Ray Davies and performed by his band, The Kinks. ... All Day and All of the Night was a hit 1964 rock song by the British Invasion band The Kinks. ... The Who are an English rock band that formed in 1964. ... I Cant Explain is a song released by English rock band The Who in 1965, written by Pete Townshend and produced by Shel Talmy. ... Music sample My Generation Problems? See media help. ... Pete Townshend (born Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend on 19 May 1945 in Chiswick, London), is an award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, composer, and writer. ... Small Faces were a British mod group formed in 1965[1] by Steve Marriott, Ronnie Lane, Kenney Jones, and Jimmy Winston (who was soon replaced by Ian McLagan). ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... The Seeds were a 1960s rock and roll band whose raw and abrasive energy and simple, repetitive lyrics came to exemplify the garage rock style. ...


Protopunk

For more details on this topic, see Protopunk.

In 1969, debut albums by two Michigan-based bands appeared that are commonly regarded as the central protopunk records. In January, Detroit's MC5 released Kick Out the Jams. "Musically the group is intentionally crude and aggressively raw", wrote critic Lester Bangs in Rolling Stone: Protopunk is a term used to describe a number of performers who were important precursors of punk rock, or who have been cited by early punk rockers as influential. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... MC5 (short for Motor City Five) was a hard rock band formed in Detroit, Michigan, USA in 1964 and active until 1972. ... Kick Out the Jams was the first album by Detroit protopunkers MC5, released in 1969. ... Lester Bangs during an interview Leslie Conway Bangs (December 14, 1948 – April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician. ... This article is about the magazine. ...

Most of the songs are barely distinguishable from each other in their primitive two-chord structures. You've heard all this before from such notables as the Seeds, Blue Cheer, Question Mark and the Mysterians, and the Kingsmen. The difference here...is in the hype, the thick overlay of teenage-revolution and total-energy-thing which conceals these scrapyard vistas of clichés and ugly noise.... "I Want You Right Now" sounds exactly (down to the lyrics) like a song called "I Want You" by the Troggs, a British group who came on with a similar sex-and-raw-sound image a couple of years ago (remember "Wild Thing"?)[48] Blue Cheer is a San Francisco-based rock group of the late 1960s and early 1970s, who helped to pioneer heavy metal music. ... ? & the Mysterians were an American rock and roll band formed in Flint, Michigan in 1962. ... The Troggs were a successful English rock band of the 1960s, who had a number of hits in Britain and America, including their most famous song, Wild Thing. The Troggs were from the town of Andover in southern England. ... Wild Thing is a hit song from 1966 originally performed by the English band The Troggs, and written by New York-born songwriter Chip Taylor. ...

Iggy Pop, the "godfather of punk"
Iggy Pop, the "godfather of punk"

That August, The Stooges, from Ann Arbor, premiered with a self-titled album. According to critic Greil Marcus, the band, led by singer Iggy Pop, created "the sound of Chuck Berry's Airmobile—after thieves stripped it for parts".[49] The album was produced by John Cale, a former member of New York's experimental rock group The Velvet Underground. Having earned a "reputation as the first underground rock band", VU inspired, directly or indirectly, many of those involved in the creation of punk rock.[50] Image File history File linksMetadata Iggy_pop_davis_b&w_1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Iggy_pop_davis_b&w_1. ... James Newell Osterberg, Jr. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... The Stooges is the self-titled debut of the rock band The Stooges. ... Greil Marcus (2006) Greil Marcus (born 1945) is an American author, music journalist and cultural critic. ... James Newell Osterberg, Jr. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born 18 October 1926, St. ... Not to be confused with J. J. Cale. ... This article is about the rock band. ...


In the early 1970s, the New York Dolls updated the original wildness of 1950s rock 'n' roll in a fashion that later became known as glam punk.[51] The New York duo Suicide played spare, experimental music with a confrontational stage act inspired by that of The Stooges. At the Coventry club in the New York borough of Queens, The Dictators used rock as a vehicle for wise-ass attitude and humor.[52] In Boston, The Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with a minimalistic style. In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the newly opened Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square. Among the leading acts were the Real Kids, founded by former Modern Lover John Felice; Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band, whose frontman had been a member of the Velvet Underground for a few months in 1971; and Mickey Clean and the Mezz.[53] In Ohio, a small but very influential underground rock scene emerged, led by Devo in Akron and Kent and Cleveland's The Electric Eels, Mirrors, and Rocket from the Tombs. In 1975, Rocket from the Tombs split into Pere Ubu and Frankenstein. The Electric Eels and Mirrors both broke up, and The Styrenes emerged from the fallout.[54] For the self-titled debut album, visit New York Dolls (album) The New York Dolls are a rock band formed in New York City in 1971. ... Glam punk is glam rock and punk rock music. ... Suicide is an American rock music group intermittently active since 1971 and composed of Alan Vega (vocals) and Martin Rev (synthesizers and drum machines). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The Dictators are a proto-punk band from New York City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jonathan Richman (born 16 May 1951) is an American proto-punk musician. ... The Rathskellar (known as The Rat for short) was a Kenmore Square live music venue in Boston, Massachusetts that opened in 1974. ... View of the Citgo sign in Kenmore Square Kenmore Square is a square in Boston, Massachusetts near Fenway Park, consisting of the intersection of several main avenues, (including Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue) as well as several other cross streets, and Kenmore Station, a T stop. ... John Felice (b. ... Willie Alexander & The Confessiones, LP, Somor Music 1982. ... Devo (pronounced DEE-vo or dee-VO, often spelled DEVO or DEV-O) is an American New Wave group formed in Akron, Ohio in 1972. ... Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ... Nickname: The Tree City Location within the state of Ohio County Portage Mayor John Fender Area    - City 22. ... The Electric Eels were a punk band in the 1970s - 1980s. ... Rocket From The Tombs was an American rock band that formed in the summer of 1974. ... Pere Ubu (or Père Ubu) is the enigmatic central figure of Ubu Roi, a play by Alfred Jarry an experimental Cleveland rock music group named for the above; see Pere Ubu (band) Category: ... The Dead Boys were a punk band that formed in Cleveland, Ohio about 1975, evolving out of the band Rocket From The Tombs. ...


Britain's Deviants, in the late 1960s, played in a range of psychedelic styles with a satiric, anarchic edge and a penchant for situationist-style spectacle presaging the Sex Pistols by almost a decade.[55] In 1970, the act evolved into the Pink Fairies, which carried on in a similar vein.[56] With his Ziggy Stardust persona, David Bowie made artifice and exaggeration central—elements, again, that were picked up by the Pistols and certain other punk acts.[57] Bands in London's pub rock scene stripped the music back to its basics, playing hard, R&B-influenced rock 'n' roll. By 1974, the scene's top act, Dr. Feelgood, was paving the way for others such as The Stranglers and Cock Sparrer that would play a role in the punk explosion. Among the pub rock bands that formed that year was The 101'ers, with lead singer Joe Strummer.[58] Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far afield as Düsseldorf, West Germany, where "punk before punk" band NEU! formed in 1971, building on the Krautrock tradition of groups such as Can.[59] In Japan, the anti-establishment Zunō Keisatsu (Brain Police) mixed garage psych and folk. The combo regularly faced censorship challenges, their live act at least once including onstage masturbation.[60] The Deviants (formally the Social Deviants) were a musical group in the United Kingdom. ... The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ... The Pink Fairies were a British heavy/progressive/alternative rock group active in the London (Ladbroke Grove) underground and psychedelic scene of the early 1970s . ... Ziggy Stardust redirects here. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement, largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend on Sea. ... Dr. Feelgood is a British pub rock band, which was formed in mid 1971. ... The Stranglers are an English rock music group, formed on September 11, 1974 in Guildford, Surrey. ... Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) is a punk rock band from East London. ... The 101ers were a pub rock band from the 1970s, notable only as being the band that gave Joe Strummer (later of The Clash) his initial start as a musician. ... John Graham Mellor (August 21, 1952 – December 22, 2002), better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the English punk rock band The Clash. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Neu! (the German word for new, pronounced noy) were a German band, probably the archetypal example of what the UK music press at the time dubbed Krautrock. ... Krautrock, also known as Kosmische Musik, is a generic name for the experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s. ... Can was a musical group formed in West Germany in 1968. ...


A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired mainly by The Stooges and MC5, was coming even closer to the sound that would soon be called "punk": In Brisbane, The Saints also recalled the raw live sound of the British Pretty Things, who had made a notorious tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1965.[61] Radio Birdman, cofounded by Detroit expatriate Deniz Tek in 1974, was playing gigs to a small but fanatical following in Sydney. For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... {{Infobox_band | band_name = The Saints | image = | years_active = 1974–present | origin = Brisbane, Queensland, Australia | status = On tour, promoting their new album Imperious Delirium music_genre = Punk Alternative rock | record_label = Harvest Records Sire Mushroom Records | current_members = Chris Bailey Caspar Wijnberg Peter Wilkinson<br The Saints are an influential Australian punk band, formed in Brisbane... The Pretty Things is a 1960s and 1970s rock and roll band from London. ... Radio Birdman was one of the first punk bands in Australia. ... Deniz Tek Deniz Tek is a guitarist/songwriter who is currently a member of Australian group Radio Birdman. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Origin of the term punk

Preceding the mid-1970s, punk, a centuries-old word of obscure etymology, was commonly used to describe "a young male hustler, a gangster, a hoodlum, or a ruffian".[62] As Legs McNeil explains, "On TV, if you watched cop shows, Kojak, Baretta, when the cops finally catch the mass murderer, they'd say, 'you dirty Punk.' It was what your teachers would call you. It meant that you were the lowest."[63] The first known use of the phrase "punk rock" appeared in the Chicago Tribune on March 22, 1970, attributed to Ed Sanders, cofounder of New York's anarcho-prankster band The Fugs. Sanders was quoted describing a solo album of his as "punk rock—redneck sentimentality."[64] In the December 1970 issue of Creem, Lester Bangs, mocking more mainstream rock musicians, made ironic reference to Iggy Pop as "that Stooge punk".[65] Suicide's Alan Vega credits this usage with inspiring his duo to bill its gigs as a "punk mass" for the next couple of years.[66] Etymologies redirects here. ... Co-Founder and writer of Punk Magazine, Legs McNeil was also a features editor at Spin magazine and editor in chief of Nerve. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cover of the Baretta Season 1 DVD set. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ed Sanders born August 17, 1939 in Kansas City,Missouri is a poet, singer, social activist, environmentalist, novelist and publisher. ... The Fugs second album (1966) The Fugs was a band formed in New York City in 1965 by Ed Sanders and Tuli Kupferberg, with Ken Weaver on drums. ... CREEM, Americas Only Rock n Roll Magazine, was a monthly rock n roll publication started in 1969 by Barry Kramer and founding editor Tony Reay. ... Alan Vega (born 1948) is the vocalist for 1970s and 80s punk/post punk duo Suicide. ...

Patti Smith, performing in 1976
Patti Smith, performing in 1976

Dave Marsh was the first music critic to employ the term "punk rock"—in the May 1971 issue of Creem, he described ? and the Mysterians as giving a "landmark exposition of punk rock."[67] In June 1972, the fanzine Flash included a "Punk Top Ten" of 1960s albums.[68] That year, Lenny Kaye used the term in the liner notes of the anthology album Nuggets to refer to 1960s garage rock bands such as The Standells, The Sonics, and The Seeds.[69] Bomp! maintained this usage through the early 1970s, also applying it to some of the darker, more primitive practitioners of 1960s psychedelic rock.[70] In May 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine.[71] Bassist Jeff Jensen of Boston's Real Kids reports of a 1974 show, "A reviewer for one of the free entertainment magazines of the time caught the act and gave us a great review, calling us a 'punk band.'... [W]e all sort of looked at each other and said, 'What's punk?'"[72] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1238x2000, 483 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Patti Smith ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1238x2000, 483 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Patti Smith ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Dave Marsh (born 1950) is an American music critic. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, a free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Guitarist, composer and writer Lenny Kaye was a member of the Patti Smith Group and has been Smiths most frequent collaborator. ... Nuggets: Original Artyfacts From the First Psychedelic Era is a compilation album of garage rock from the mid- to late 1960s, assembled by Jac Holzman, founder of Elektra Records. ... The Standells were a 1960s rock and roll band from Los Angeles, California who, like the The Seeds, exemplified the garage rock style. ... The Sonics were a member of the wave of Pacific Northwest American garage rock groups in the early and mid-1960s, pioneered by The Kingsmen and The Wailers . ... Who Put The Bomp was a rock music fanzine edited and published by Greg Shaw from 1970-79. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ...


By 1975, punk was being used to describe acts as diverse as the Patti Smith Group—with lead guitarist Lenny Kaye—the Bay City Rollers, and Bruce Springsteen.[70] As the scene at New York's CBGB club (popularly referred to as "CBGB's") attracted notice, a name was sought for the developing sound. Club owner Hilly Kristal called the movement "street rock"; John Holmstrom credits Aquarian magazine with using punk "to describe what was going on at CBGBs".[73] Holmstrom, McNeil, and Ged Dunn's magazine Punk, which debuted at the end of 1975, was crucial in codifying the term.[74] "It was pretty obvious that the word was getting very popular," Holmstrom later remarked. "We figured we'd take the name before anyone else claimed it. We wanted to get rid of the bullshit, strip it down to rock 'n' roll. We wanted the fun and liveliness back."[70] Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish Pop/rock band of the 1970s. ... Springsteen redirects here. ... CBGB (Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Hilly Kristal (September 23, 1931 – August 28, 2007) was a club owner and musician who was the owner of the iconic New York City club, CBGB, which opened in 1973 and closed in 2006 over a rent dispute. ... Punk cover, issue 3, 1976 Punk was a fanzine created by cartoonist John Holmstrom, publisher Ged Dunn and resident punk Legs McNeil. ...


Early history

New York City

Music samples:

The origins of New York's punk rock scene can be traced back to such sources as late 1960s trash culture and an early 1970s underground rock movement centered around the Mercer Arts Center in Greenwich Village, where the New York Dolls performed.[75] In early 1974, a new scene began to develop around the CBGB club, also in lower Manhattan. At its core was Television, described by critic John Walker as "the ultimate garage band with pretensions".[76] Their influences ranged from garage psych pioneer Roky Erickson to jazz innovator John Coltrane. The band's bassist/singer, Richard Hell, created a look with cropped, ragged hair, ripped T-shirts, and black leather jackets credited as the basis for punk rock visual style.[77] In April 1974, Patti Smith, a member of the Mercer Arts Center crowd and a friend of Hell's, came to CBGB for the first time to see the band perform.[78] A veteran of independent theater and performance poetry, Smith was developing an intellectual, feminist take on rock 'n' roll. On June 5, she recorded the single "Hey Joe"/"Piss Factory", featuring Television guitarist Tom Verlaine; released on her own Mer Records label, it heralded the scene's do it yourself (DIY) ethic and has often been cited as the first punk rock record.[79] By August, Smith and Television were gigging together at another downtown New York club, Max's Kansas City.[77] Richard Hell (born October 2, 1949) is the stage name of Richard Meyers, an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. ... Image File history File links Gloria. ... Gloria is a rock song written by Van Morrison and originally recorded by Morrisons band Them in 1964 as the B-side of Baby Please Dont Go, which reached #10 on the UK charts. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Horses is the debut album by Patti Smith released in November 1975, produced by John Cale. ... This article is about the song by American punk rock group The Ramones, for the English punk band, see Blitzkrieg Bop (band). ... This article is about the band. ... Ramones is the self-titled debut album by the Ramones. ... Trash Culture is a derogatory term for modern culture in the UK and USA. The term is used for labeling the cultural by-products of modernism. ... Underground rock is a term sometimes used to describe forms of rock and roll music which have little or no mainstream appeal, visibility or commercial presence. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... CBGB (Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... Roky Erickson (born Roger Kynard Erickson on July 15, 1947) is an American singer, songwriter, harmonica player and guitarist from Texas. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... Richard Hell (born October 2, 1949) is the stage name of Richard Meyers, an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hey Joe is an American popular song from the 1960s that has become a rock standard, and as such has been performed in a multitude of musical styles. ... Tom Verlaine (born Thomas Miller, December 13, 1949, in Morristown, New Jersey)[1] is a singer, songwriter and guitarist, best-known as the frontman for the New York rock band, Television. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ... Maxs Kansas City was a nightclub (upstairs) and restaurant (downstairs) between 17th and 18th Streets, on Park Avenue South in New York City. ...


Out in Forest Hills, Queens, several miles from lower Manhattan, the members of a newly formed band adopted a common surname. Drawing on sources ranging from the Stooges to The Beatles and The Beach Boys to Herman's Hermits and 1960s girl groups, the Ramones condensed rock 'n' roll to its primal level: "'1-2-3-4!' bass-player Dee Dee Ramone shouted at the start of every song, as if the group could barely master the rudiments of rhythm."[80] The band played its first gig at CBGB on August 16, 1974. Another new act, Blondie, also debuted at the club that month. By the end of the year, the Ramones had performed seventy-four shows, each about seventeen minutes long.[81] "When I first saw the Ramones," critic Mary Harron later remembered, "I couldn't believe people were doing this. The dumb brattiness."[82] The Dictators, with a similar "playing dumb" concept, were recording their debut album. The Dictators Go Girl Crazy! came out in March 1975, mixing absurdist originals such as "Master Race Rock" and loud, straight-faced covers of cheese pop like Sonny & Cher's "I Got You Babe".[83] Austin Street, the main shopping area in Forest Hills, Queens, New York. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... The Beach Boys is an American rock and roll band. ... Hermans Hermits were an English rock band in the 1960s, formed in Manchester in 1963. ... The Supremes A Go-Go (1966) was the first album by a female group to reach the top position of the Billboard magazine pop albums chart in the United States. ... This article is about the band. ... Dee Dee Ramone, 1979 Dee Dee Ramone (Douglas Glenn Colvin) (September 18, 1951 - June 5, 2002) was a German American songwriter and bassist, best remembered as a founding member of punk rock band The Ramones. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Blondie is the name of an American rock band that first gained fame in the late 1970s, and which has sold over 140 million records. ... The Dictators Go Girl Crazy! was the influential 1975 debut album of the New York-based proto-punk band The Dictators. ... Sonny & Cher were an American pop music duo, made up of husband and wife team Sonny Bono and Cher in the 1960s and 1970s. ... I Got You Babe is a 1965 number-one hit single by American rock music duo Sonny & Cher. ...


That spring, Smith and Television shared a two-month-long weekend residency at CBGB that brought major attention to the club.[84] During this time, Richard Hell wrote "Blank Generation", which would become the scene's emblematic anthem of escape.[85] Soon after, Hell left Television and founded a band featuring a more stripped-down sound, The Heartbreakers, with former New York Dolls Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. The pairing of Hell and Thunders, in one critical assessment, "inject[ed] a poetic intelligence into mindless self-destruction".[30] In August, Television—with Fred Smith, former Blondie bassist, replacing Hell—recorded a single, "Little Johnny Jewel", for the tiny Ork label. In the words of John Walker, the record was "a turning point for the whole New York scene" if not quite for the punk rock sound itself—Hell's departure had left the band "significantly reduced in fringe aggression".[76] The Heartbreakers was a punk rock group formed in New York in May 1975 by Johnny Thunders (vocals/guitar) and Jerry Nolan (drums) who had just quit the New York Dolls and Richard Hell (vocals/bass) who was forced out of Television, the band he had founded with Tom Verlaine... Johnny Thunders, born John Anthony Genzale, Jr (July 15, 1952 - April 23, 1991), was a rock and roll guitarist and singer, first with the New York Dolls, the proto-punk glam rockers of the early 1970s. ... Jerry Nolan (May 7, 1946 – January 14, 1992) was a U.S. rock and roll drummer, who played with The New York Dolls and The Heartbreakers. ...

Facade of legendary music club CBGB, New York
Facade of legendary music club CBGB, New York

Other bands were becoming regulars at CBGB like Mink DeVille and Talking Heads, which moved down from Rhode Island. More closely associated with Max's Kansas City were Suicide and the band led by drag queen Wayne County, another Mercer Arts Center alumna. The first album to come out of this downtown scene was released in November 1975: Smith's debut, Horses, produced by John Cale for the major Arista label.[86] The inaugural issue of Punk appeared in December.[87] The new magazine tied together earlier artists such as Velvet Underground lead singer Lou Reed, the Stooges, and the New York Dolls with the editors' favorite band, The Dictators, and the array of new acts centered around CBGB and Max's.[88] That winter, Pere Ubu came in from Cleveland and played at both spots.[89] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 526 KB) Summary CBGB club facade, Bowery St, New York City. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 526 KB) Summary CBGB club facade, Bowery St, New York City. ... CBGB (Country, Blue Grass, and Blues) was a music club at 315 Bowery at Bleecker Street in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Willy DeVille on his 2001 album Horse of a Different Color Willy DeVille, singer and songwriter, was born William Borsay in Stamford, Connecticut on August 25, 1950. ... The Talking Heads was an American rock band formed in 1974 in New York City and active until 1991. ... Jayne County, formerly known as Wayne County, is an influential transsexual performer, musician and actress whose career has spanned several decades. ... Horses is the debut album by Patti Smith released in November 1975, produced by John Cale. ... Arista redirects here. ... Lou Reed (born March 2, 1942) is an influential American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ...


Early in 1976, Hell left The Heartbreakers; he soon formed a new group that would become known as The Voidoids, "one of the most harshly uncompromising bands" on the scene.[90] That April, the Ramones' debut album was released by Sire Records; the first single was "Blitzkrieg Bop", opening with the rally cry "Hey! Ho! Let's go!" According to a later description, "Like all cultural watersheds, Ramones was embraced by a discerning few and slagged off as a bad joke by the uncomprehending majority."[91] At the instigation of Ramones lead singer Joey Ramone, the members of Cleveland's Frankenstein moved east to join the New York scene. Reconstituted as the Dead Boys, they played their first CBGB gig in late July.[92] In August, Ork put out an EP recorded by Hell with his new band that included the first released version of "Blank Generation".[93] The Voidoids, also known as Richard Hell and the Voidoids, were a New York City punk rock band of the late 1970s, fronted by Richard Hell, a former member of Television. ... Sire Records Company is an American record label, owned by Warner Music Group and distributed through Warner Bros. ... This article is about the song by American punk rock group The Ramones, for the English punk band, see Blitzkrieg Bop (band). ... Ramones is the self-titled debut album by the Ramones. ... Joey Ramone (May 19, 1951 – April 15, 2001), born as Jeffry Ross Hyman, was a vocalist and songwriter best known for his work in the punk rock group the Ramones. ... The Dead Boys were a early punk band that formed in Cleveland, Ohio about 1975, evolving out of the band Rocket From The Tombs. ... // Extended play (EP) is the name typically given to vinyl records or CDs which contain more than one single but are too short to qualify as albums. ...


The term punk initially referred to the scene in general, more than the sound itself—the early New York punk bands represented a broad variety of influences. Among them, the Ramones, The Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and The Voidoids, and the Dead Boys were establishing a distinct musical style; even where they diverged most clearly, in lyrical approach—the Ramones' apparent guilelessness at one extreme, Hell's conscious craft at the other—there was an abrasive attitude in common. Their shared attributes of minimalism and speed, however, had not yet come to define punk rock.[94]


Australia

At the same time, a similar music-based subculture was beginning to take shape in various parts of Australia. A scene was developing around Radio Birdman and its main performance venue, the Oxford Tavern (later the Oxford Funhouse), located in Sydney's Darlinghurst suburb. In December 1975, the group won the RAM (Rock Australia Magazine)/Levi's Punk Band Thriller competition.[95] By 1976, The Saints were hiring Brisbane local halls to use as venues, or playing in "Club 76", their shared house in the inner suburb of Petrie Terrace. The band soon discovered that musicians were exploring similar paths in other parts of the world. Ed Kuepper, coleader of The Saints, later recalled: Darlinghurst is an inner eastern suburb of Sydney, Australia. ... Look up Hall, hall in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A map of the Brisbane central business district located on a peninsula on the northern bank of the Brisbane River. ... Ed Kuepper is an Australian guitarist, singer and songwriter. ...

One thing I remember having had a really depressing effect on me was the first Ramones album. When I heard it [in 1976], I mean it was a great record...but I hated it because I knew we’d been doing this sort of stuff for years. There was even a chord progression on that album that we used...and I thought, "Fuck. We’re going to be labeled as influenced by the Ramones," when nothing could have been further from the truth.[96] A chord progression (also chord sequence and harmonic progression or sequence), as its name implies, is a series of chords played in order. ...

On the other side of Australia, in Perth, germinal punk rock act the Cheap Nasties, featuring singer-guitarist Kim Salmon, formed in August.[97] In September, The Saints became the first punk rock band outside the U.S. to release a recording, the single "(I'm) Stranded". As with Patti Smith's debut, the band self-financed, packaged, and distributed the single.[98] "(I'm) Stranded" had limited impact at home, but the British music press recognized it as a groundbreaking record.[99] At the insistence of their superiors in the UK, EMI Australia signed The Saints. Meanwhile, Radio Birdman came out with a self-financed EP, Burn My Eye, in October.[100] Trouser Press critic Ian McCaleb later described the record as the "archetype for the musical explosion that was about to occur."[101] Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... The Manikins were a protopunk and new wave band from Perth, Australia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... (I’m) Stranded is the first song released by pioneering Australian punk rock band The Saints. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... Burn My Eye was the debut EP recorded by Sydney punk rock band Radio Birdman. ... Cover of the April 1983 issue of Trouser Press magazine (#84) Trouser Press was a rock and roll magazine started in 1974 by editor/publisher Ira Robbins. ...


The UK

Music sample:

"Anarchy in the U.K." Image File history File links Anarchy_in_the_UK.ogg‎ Anarchy in the UK was the first single realesed by the Sex Pistols. ...

Sample of "Anarchy in the U.K." (single, 1976) by the Sex Pistols, later issued on Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols (1977)
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

After a brief period unofficially managing the New York Dolls, Englishman Malcolm McLaren returned to London in May 1975, inspired by the new scene he had witnessed at CBGB. He opened Sex, a clothing store specializing in outrageous "anti-fashion".[102] Among those who frequented the shop were members of a band called The Swankers. In August, the group was seeking a new lead singer. Another Sex habitué, Johnny Rotten, auditioned for and won the job; McLaren became the band's manager. Adopting a new name, the group played its first gig as the Sex Pistols on November 5, 1975, at St. Martin's School of Art[103] and soon attracted a small but ardent following.[104] In February 1976, the band received its first significant press coverage; guitarist Steve Jones declared that the Pistols were not so much into music as they were "chaos."[105] The band often provoked its crowds into near-riots. Rotten announced to one audience, "Bet you don't hate us as much as we hate you!"[106] McClaren envisioned the Pistols as central players in a new youth movement, "hard and tough".[107] As described by critic Jon Savage, the band members "embodied an attitude into which McClaren fed a new set of references: late-sixties radical politics, sexual fetish material, pop history,...youth sociology."[108] Anarchy in the U.K. is the title track of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26, 1976. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... Singles from Never Mind the Bollocks, Heres the Sex Pistols Released: November 26, 1976 Released: May 27, 1977 Released: July 2, 1977 Released: October 15, 1977 Released: May 27, 2002 Never Mind the Bollocks, Heres the Sex Pistols is the only album recorded by the English punk rock... Malcolm McLaren (born Malcolm Robert Andrew Edwards, 22 January 1946, in London) is an English impresario and musician who is best known as being the manager of the punk rock band Sex Pistols. ... SEX was a boutique run by Malcolm McLaren & Vivienne Westwood at 430 Kings Road in London. ... John Lydon John Joseph Lydon (born January 31, 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten (a nickname derived from the state of his teeth) was the iconoclastic lead singer of the Sex Pistols and Public Image Ltd (PiL) and an Irish individualist anarchist. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Central Saint Martins - Southampton Row, Holborn Central Saint Martins (ex-St Martins) in Charing Cross Road. ... Stephen Phillip Jones (b. ...


Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of McLaren's and friend of the Pistols', was similarly trying to make stars of the band London SS. In spring 1976, the group broke up, spinning off two new bands: The Damned and The Clash, which was joined by Joe Strummer, The 101'ers former lead singer.[109] On June 4, 1976, the Sex Pistols played Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall in what came to be regarded as one of the most influential rock shows ever. Among the approximately forty audience members were the three locals who had organized the gig—they soon began performing as the Buzzcocks. Others in the small crowd went on to form Joy Division, The Fall, and—in the 1980s—The Smiths.[110] London SS was Mick Jones and Paul Simonons band prior to joining up with Joe Strummer and Terry Chimes to form The Clash. ... This article is about the music group. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... John Graham Mellor (August 21, 1952 – December 22, 2002), better known as Joe Strummer, was the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead singer of the English punk rock band The Clash. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free Trade Hall in Manchester, England, was for many years a focal point for public debate and cultural activity in the city. ... For the panel game, see Never Mind the Buzzcocks. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the band. ... The Smiths were an English rock band active from 1982 to 1987. ...


In July, the Ramones crossed the Atlantic for two London shows that helped spark the nascent UK punk scene, an impact that was later exaggerated by the band's members.[111] On July 4, they played with the Flamin' Groovies and The Stranglers before a crowd of 2,000 at the Roundhouse.[112] That same night, The Clash debuted, opening for the Sex Pistols in Sheffield. On July 5, members of both bands attended a Ramones club gig.[113] The following night, The Damned played their first show, as a Pistols opening act in London. In critic Kurt Loder's description, the Pistols purveyed a "calculated, arty nihilism, [while] the Clash were unabashed idealists, proponents of a radical left-wing social critique of a sort that reached back at least to...Woody Guthrie in the 1940s."[114] The Damned built a reputation as "punk's party boys."[115] This London scene's first fanzine appeared a week later. Its title, Sniffin' Glue, derived from a Ramones song. Its subtitle affirmed the connection with what was happening in New York: "+ Other Rock 'n' Roll Habits for Punks!"[116] is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Flamin Groovies were an American rock music band of the 1960s and 70s. ... The Stranglers are an English rock music group, formed on September 11, 1974 in Guildford, Surrey. ... The Roundhouse (under construction in 2005) The Roundhouse is an arts venue in London, England. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Promotional photo of Kurt Loder Kurt Loder (born May 5, 1945) is a film critic, author, and television personality. ... Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912–October 3, 1967) was a prolific American songwriter and folk musician. ... A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ... Sniffin Glue is the name of a famous and pioneering monthly punk fanzine started by Mark Perry in July 1976 and released for about a year. ...


Another Sex Pistols gig in Manchester on July 20, with the Buzzcocks debuting in support, gave further impetus to the scene there.[117] In August, the self-described "First European Punk Rock Festival" was held in Mont de Marsan in the southwest of France. Eddie and the Hot Rods, a London pub rock group, headlined, while the Sex Pistols were excluded for "going too far" and The Clash backed out in solidarity. The only band from the new punk movement to appear was The Damned.[118] ...


Over the next several months, many new punk rock bands formed, often directly inspired by the Pistols.[119] In London, women were at the center of the scene—among the initial wave of bands were the female-fronted Siouxsie & the Banshees and X-Ray Spex and the all-female The Slits. The Adverts had a female bassist. Other groups included Subway Sect, Eater, The Subversives, the aptly named London, and Chelsea, which soon spun off Generation X. Farther afield, Sham 69 began practicing in the southeastern town of Hersham. In Durham, there was Penetration, with lead singer Pauline Murray. On September 20–21, the 100 Club Punk Festival in London featured the four primary British groups (London's big three and the Buzzcocks), as well as Paris's female-fronted Stinky Toys, arguably the first punk rock band from a non-Anglophone country. Siouxsie & the Banshees and Subway Sect debuted on the festival's first night; that same evening, Eater debuted in Manchester.[120] Siouxsie and the Banshees were a British rock band that formed in 1976. ... This article is about the punk band. ... The Slits are an all female punk rock band. ... The Adverts were an English punk rock band who formed in 1976 and broke up in 1979. ... One of the original (and best) British punk bands, Subway Sects posthumous reputation has suffered because of their comparatively small output. ... Eater were a British (English) punk band with a youthful - 14 year old drummer named Dee Generate. ... The UK Subs are an English punk band, the mainstay of which is vocalist Charlie Harper (born David Charles Perez, 25 April 1944), originally a singer in Britains R & B scene. ... This article is about the English band London. ... Chelsea was an early punk band, formed in London in 1977. ... Generation X were a pop-influenced punk rock band, formed on 21 November 1976 by Billy Idol, Tony James and John Towe. ... Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. ... , Hersham is a village in Surrey, England, lying on the A244 between Esher and Weybridge. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ... Penetration were a punk rock band originally formed in 1976. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 100 Club Punk Festival was a two day event held at the 100 Club, a (usually) jazz-oriented venue in Oxford Street, London, England on the 20th and 21st of September 1976. ... The Stinky Toys were a Parisian rock band featuring Eli Medeiros, Herve Zenouda and Jacno, from 1979 to 1981. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some new bands, such as London's Alternative TV and Edinburgh's Rezillos, identified with the scene even as they pursued more experimental music. Others of a comparatively traditional rock 'n' roll bent were also swept up by the movement: The Vibrators, formed as a pub rock–style act in February 1976, soon adopted a punk look and sound.[121] A few even longer-active bands including Surrey neo-mods The Jam and pub rockers The Stranglers and Cock Sparrer also became associated with the punk rock scene. Alongside the musical roots shared with their American counterparts and the calculated confrontationalism of the early Who, journalist Clinton Heylin describes how the British punks also reflected the influence of the "glam bands who gave noise back to teenagers in the early Seventies—T.Rex, Slade and Roxy Music."[122] One of the groups openly acknowledging that influence were The Undertones, from Derry in Northern Ireland.[123] Another punk band formed to the south, Dublin's The Radiators From Space. Alternative TV was an influential British punk rock band. ... The Rezillos were a British Punk/New Wave band of the late 1970s consisting of Eugene Reynolds, Fay Fife, Jo Callis, the enigmatically-named Mysterious and Angel patterson. ... The Vibrators are a British punk rock band, formed in 1976. ... This article is about the English county. ... The Jam were an English punk rock/mod revival band active during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) is a punk rock band from East London. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a rock music style that developed in the UK in the post-hippie early 1970s which was performed by singers and musicians wearing outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. ... T.Rex (originally known as Tyrannosaurus Rex, also occasionally spelt T Rex or T-Rex), were an English rock band fronted by Marc Bolan. ... For other uses, see Slade (disambiguation). ... Roxy Music are an English art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry (vocals and keyboards). ... The picture cover of The Undertones 1979 Youve Got My Number (Why Dont You Use It!) single The Undertones are a Northern Irish rock band formed in Derry, Northern Ireland in 1975. ... The Radiators From Space are an Irish band. ...

The Sex Pistols' "Anarchy in the U.K." poster—a ripped and safety-pinned Union Jack
The Sex Pistols' "Anarchy in the U.K." poster—a ripped and safety-pinned Union Jack[124]

In October, The Damned became the first UK punk rock band to release a single, the romance-themed "New Rose".[125] The Sex Pistols followed the next month with "Anarchy in the U.K."—with its debut single the band succeeded in its goal of becoming a "national scandal".[126] Jamie Reid's "anarchy flag" poster and his other design work for the Pistols helped establish a distinctive punk visual aesthetic.[127] On December 1, an incident took place that sealed punk rock's notorious reputation: On Thames Today, an early evening London TV show, Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones was goaded into a verbal altercation by the host, Bill Grundy. Jones called Grundy a "dirty fucker" on live television, triggering a media controversy.[128] Two days later, the Pistols, The Clash, The Damned, and The Heartbreakers set out on the Anarchy Tour, a series of gigs throughout the UK. Many of the shows were cancelled by venue owners in response to the media outrage following the Grundy confrontation.[129] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... Anarchy in the U.K. is the title track of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26, 1976. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... New Rose was the first single by The Damned. ... Anarchy in the U.K. is the title track of the first single by Sex Pistols, released on November 26, 1976. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cover of the God Save the Queen single designed by Jamie Reid. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Grundy (February 20, 1923 - February 9, 1993), commonly called Bill, was a British television presenter and was the host of Thames Televisions Today show in the 1970s. ...


Other U.S. cities

Music sample:

"Hot Wire My Heart"

Sample of "Hot Wire My Heart" (1976) by Crime, an alternate take of the first single by a West Coast punk band
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In 1975, Suicide Commandos formed in Minneapolis—one of the first U.S. bands outside of New York to play in the Ramones-style harder-louder-faster mode that would define punk rock.[130] As the punk movement expanded rapidly in the United Kingdom in 1976, a few bands with similar tastes and attitude appeared around the United States. The first West Coast punk scenes emerged in San Francisco, with the bands Crime and The Nuns,[131] and Seattle, where the Telepaths, Meyce, and The Tupperwares played a groundbreaking show on May 1.[132] Rock critic Richard Meltzer cofounded VOM (short for "vomit") in Los Angeles. In Washington, D.C., raucous roots-rockers The Razz helped along a nascent punk scene featuring Overkill, the Slickee Boys, and The Look. Around the turn of the year, White Boy began giving notoriously crazed performances.[133] In Boston, the scene at the Rathskeller—affectionately known as the Rat—was also turning toward punk, though the defining sound retained a distinct garage rock orientation. Among the city's first new acts to be identified with punk rock was DMZ.[134] In Bloomington, Indiana, The Gizmos played in a jokey, raunchy, Dictators-inspired style later referred to as "frat punk".[135] The Suicide Commandos were an American punk rock trio from Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... The Nuns are an indie/punk band from the North-West of England. ... The Screamers were a punk rock group active in the Los Angeles, California area in the late 1970s. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Meltzer (born May 11, 1945) was one of the earliest rock music critics. ... VOM was conceived in 1976, a self-described beat combo featuring the renowned writer and critic Richard Meltzer on vocals, with Gregg Turner on 2nd vocals and Metal Mike Saunders on drums under the pseudonym Ted Klusewksi. The band also featured Dave Guzman on tuneless rhythm guitar, Gurl on bass... The Slickee Boys were a Washington, D.C.-area psychedelic / garage rock / punk band, led by Kim Kane, Mark Noone, and Marshall Keith. ... Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. ... DMZ was a first-wave punk band from Boston, Massachusetts, strongly influenced by 1960s garage rock. ... The Gizmos were a proto-punk band that formed in Bloomington, Indiana in 1975. ...


Like their garage rock predecessors, these local scenes were facilitated by enthusiastic impresarios who operated nightclubs or organized concerts in venues such as schools, garages, or warehouses, advertised via inexpensively printed flyers and fanzines. In some cases, punk's do it yourself ethic reflected an aversion to commercial success, as well as a desire to maintain creative and financial autonomy.[136] As Joe Harvard, a participant in the Boston scene, describes, it was often a simple necessity—the absence of a local recording industry and well-distributed music magazines left little recourse but DIY.[137]


The second wave

By 1977, a second wave of the punk rock movement was breaking in the three countries where it had emerged, as well as in many other places. Bands from the same scenes often sounded very different from each other, reflecting the eclectic state of punk music during the era.[138] While punk rock remained largely an underground phenomenon in North America, Australia, and the new spots where it was emerging, in the UK it briefly became a major sensation.[139]


North America

Music samples:

The California punk scene was in full swing by early 1977. In Los Angeles, there were The Zeros, The Germs, The Weirdos, X, The Dickies, The Bags, and the relocated Tupperwares, now dubbed The Screamers.[140] San Francisco's second wave included The Avengers, Negative Trend, The Mutants, and The Sleepers.[141] The Dils, from Carlsbad, moved between the two major cities.[142] The Wipers formed in Portland, Oregon. In Seattle, there was The Lewd.[143] Often sharing gigs with the Seattle punks were bands from across the Canadian border. A major scene developed in Vancouver, spearheaded by the Furies and Victoria's all-female Dee Dee and the Dishrags.[143] The Skulls spun off into D.O.A. and The Subhumans. The K-Tels (later known as the Young Canadians) and Pointed Sticks were among the area's other leading punk acts.[144] Image File history File links Johnny_Thunders_&_The_Heartbreakers_Chinese_Rocks. ... Chinese Rocks or Chinese Rock is a song about heroin written early in the careers of New York City punk legends Dee Dee Ramone and Richard Hell, circa 1976. ... The Heartbreakers was a punk rock group formed in New York in May 1975 by Johnny Thunders (vocals/guitar) and Jerry Nolan (drums) who had just quit the New York Dolls and Richard Hell (vocals/bass) who was forced out of Television, the band he had founded with Tom Verlaine... Dee Dee Ramone, 1979 Dee Dee Ramone (Douglas Glenn Colvin) (September 18, 1951 - June 5, 2002) was a German American songwriter and bassist, best remembered as a founding member of punk rock band The Ramones. ... Richard Hell (born October 2, 1949) is the stage name of Richard Meyers, an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. ... L.A.M.F. was the only studio album of Johnny Thunders & The Heartbreakers, which included such musicians as Walter Lure, Billy Rath, and Thunders New York Dolls bandmate Jerry Nolan. ... Johnny Thunders, born John Anthony Genzale, Jr (July 15, 1952 - April 23, 1991), was a rock and roll guitarist and singer, first with the New York Dolls, the proto-punk glam rockers of the early 1970s. ... Jerry Nolan (May 7, 1946 – January 14, 1992) was a U.S. rock and roll drummer, who played with The New York Dolls and The Heartbreakers. ... The Avengers were a California based punk band in the first wave of punk. ... The California punk scene is a regional punk music scene that started in the late 1970s and still exists today. ... The Zeros, aka the Mexican Ramones, who hailed from Chula Vista, California, beginning in 1976. ... The Germs are a punk rock band from Los Angeles formed in the late 1970s. ... The Weirdos were a punk rock band from Los Angeles, California. ... For other bands named X, see X (band). ... The Dickies are a punk rock group formed in Los Angeles, California in 1977. ... The Bags were one of the first generation of punk rock bands to emerge out of Los Angeles. ... The Screamers were a punk rock group active in the Los Angeles, California area in the late 1970s. ... The Avengers were a California based punk band in the first wave of punk. ... Negative Trend was an early San Francisco punk rock band, active from 1977–1979. ... The Mutants are an important band in the history of San Francisco punk rock and new wave music. ... The Dils were an American punk rock band of the late 1970s, originally from Carlsbad, California, and fronted by brothers Chip Kinman and Tony Kinman. ... Location of Carlsbad within San Diego County, California. ... The Wipers were a punk rock group formed in Portland, Oregon in 1977 by guitarist Greg Sage, drummer Sam Henry and bassist Dave Koupal. ... The Skulls were an early Vancouver punk rock band whose members would later found two of the areas most influential bands: D.O.A. and The Subhumans. ... D.O.A. is a hardcore punk band from Vancouver. ... This page is about the Canadian band called The Subhumans. ... Young Canadians were a Canadian punk rock band in the late 1970s. ... Pointed Sticks were a Canadian punk rock band from Vancouver, active from 1978 to 1981. ...


In eastern Canada, the Toronto protopunk band Dishes had laid the groundwork for another sizable scene,[145] and a September 1976 concert by the touring Ramones had catalyzed the movement. Early Ontario punk bands included The Diodes, The Viletones, The Demics, Forgotten Rebels, Teenage Head, The Poles, and The Ugly. Along with the Dishrags, Toronto's The Curse and B Girls were North America's first all-female punk acts.[146] In July 1977, the Viletones, Diodes, and Teenage Head headed down to New York City to play a four-day showcase at CBGB. Punk rock was already beginning to give way there to the anarchic sound of what became known as No Wave, although several original punk bands continued to perform. Leave Home, the Ramones' second album, had come out in January. September saw Richard Hell and The Voidoids' first full-length, Blank Generation.[147] The Heartbreakers' debut, L.A.M.F., and the Dead Boys', Young, Loud and Snotty, appeared in October; the Ramones' third, Rocket to Russia, in November. The Cramps, whose core members were from Sacramento by way of Akron, had debuted at CBGB in November 1976, opening for the Dead Boys. They were soon playing regularly at Max's Kansas City.[148] The Misfits formed in nearby New Jersey; by 1978, they had developed a style known as horror punk. “Diodes” redirects here. ... The Viletones were a Canadian punk band from Toronto, led by Steven Leckie, a. ... The Demics were a Canadian punk rock band, active in the late 1970s. ... The Forgotten Rebels are a punk rock band from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. ... Teenage Head is a Canadian rock group from Hamilton, Ontario and was one of the most popular Canadian new wave/punk rock bands during the early 1980s. ... No Wave was a short-lived but influential music and art scene that thrived briefly in New York City during the late 1970s and early 1980s alongside the punk scene there. ... Leave Home is the Ramones second album. ... Blank Generation is an early punk album by Richard Hell and the Voidoids, released in 1977 on Warner Brothers Sire Records imprint. ... L.A.M.F. was the only studio album of Johnny Thunders & The Heartbreakers, which included such musicians as Walter Lure, Billy Rath, and Thunders New York Dolls bandmate Jerry Nolan. ... Young Loud & Snotty is a 1977 album by The Dead Boys. ... Rocket to Russia is the third album by American Punk group The Ramones, released in 1977. ... The Cramps are a punk rock band originally formed in 1972. ... This article is about the band. ... Horror punk is a music genre that was defined by the band The Misfits, blending horror movie lyrical themes and imagery with musical influences from early punk rock, doo-wop, and, to a lesser degree, rockabilly. ...


The Ohio protopunk bands were joined by Cleveland's The Pagans,[149] Akron's Bizarros and Rubber City Rebels, and Kent's Human Switchboard. Bloomington, Indiana, had MX-80 Sound and Detroit had The Sillies. The Feederz formed in Arizona. Atlanta had The Fans. In North Carolina, there was Chapel Hill's H-Bombs and Raleigh's Th' Cigaretz.[150] The Chicago scene began not with a band but with a group of DJs transforming a gay bar, La Mere Vipere, into what became known as America's first punk dance club. Tutu and the Pirates and Silver Abuse were among the city's first punk bands.[151] In Boston, the scene at the Rat was joined by the Nervous Eaters, Thrills, and Human Sexual Response.[150] In Washington, D.C., the Controls played their first gig in spring 1977, but the city's second wave really broke the following year with acts such as Urban Verbs, Half Japanese, D'Chumps, Rudements, and Shirkers.[152] By early 1978, the D.C. jazz-fusion group Mind Power had transformed into Bad Brains, one of the first bands to be identified with hardcore punk.[150][153] The Pagans are a punk band from Cleveland, Ohio which formed in 1977 and disbanded in 1979. ... Rubber City Rebels, 1980. ... The Sillies were formed early 1977 by auto assembly line worker Ben Waugh. ... The Feederz were a punk rock band from Arizona. ... The Nervous Eaters were considered one of the premier punk bands from Boston in the 1970s. ... Sexual arousal is the process and state of an animal being ready for sexual intercourse. ... Half Japanese is a seminal punk rock band formed by brothers Jad and David Fair in their Uniontown, Maryland bedroom around 1975 - 1977. ... Bad Brains are an American punk rock band, originally formed in Washington, D.C. in 1979 . ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ...


Australia

In February 1977, EMI released The Saints' debut album, (I'm) Stranded, which the band recorded in two days.[154] The Saints had relocated to Sydney; in April, they and Radio Birdman united for a major gig at Paddington Town Hall.[155] Last Words had also formed in the city. The following month, The Saints relocated again, to Great Britain. In June, Radio Birdman released the album Radios Appear on its own Trafalgar label.[100] First album by Australian rock group The Saints. ... Paddington is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... The Last Words - Malcolm Baxter (vocals), Andy Groome (guitar), Leigh Kendall (bass), John Gunn (drums) - were one of the first Australian punk bands. ... Radios Appear was the first full length studio album by Sydney punk-rock band Radio Birdman. ...


The Victims became a short-lived leader of the Perth scene, recording the classic "Television Addict". They were joined by The Scientists, Kim Salmon's successor band to the Cheap Nasties. The Hellcats and Psychosurgeons (later known as the Lipstick Killers) in Sydney;[156] The Leftovers, The Survivors, and Razar in Brisbane;[157] and La Femme, The Negatives, and The Babeez (later known as The News) in Melbourne[158] were among the other bands constituting Australia's second wave. Melbourne's art rock–influenced Boys Next Door featured singer Nick Cave, who would become one of the world's most celebrated post-punk artists. The Victims were a punk band from Perth, Western Australia, active in 1977-79. ... Television Addict was the A-side of the debut single by The Victims, an early punk rock band from Perth, Western Australia. ... The Scientists was an influential indie rock band from Perth, Australia, led by Kim Salmon. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Art rock is a term used to describe a subgenre of rock music with experimental or avant-garde influences that emphasizes novel sonic texture. ... The Birthday Party was an Australian post punk rock group, active from 1977 to 1983. ... Nicholas Edward Cave (born 22 September 1957) is an Australian musician, songwriter, author, screenwriter, and occasional actor. ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock...


The UK

Music samples:
  • "White Riot"
    Sample of "White Riot" (single, 1977) by The Clash, later issued on U.S. edition of The Clash (a different version appears on UK edition of The Clash)
    "Reuters"
    Sample of "Reuters" by Wire, from Pink Flag (1977)
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

The Pistols' live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy was the signal moment in British punk's transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by.[159] Press coverage of punk misbehavior grew intense: On January 4, 1977, the Evening News of London ran a front-page story on how the Sex Pistols "vomited and spat their way to an Amsterdam flight."[160] In February 1977, the first album by a British punk band appeared: Damned Damned Damned reached number 36 on the UK charts. The EP Spiral Scratch, self-released by Manchester's Buzzcocks, was a benchmark for both the DIY ethic and regionalism in the country's punk movement.[161] The Clash's self-titled debut album came out two months later and rose to number 12; the single "White Riot" entered the top 40. In May, the Sex Pistols achieved new heights of controversy (and number 2 on the singles chart) with "God Save the Queen". The band had recently acquired a new bassist, Sid Vicious, who was seen as exemplifying the punk persona.[162] White Riot was the first single put out by seminal punk band The Clash, in 1977. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... The Clash is the first album-length recording released by the English punk band The Clash. ... Wire are an English rock band formed in 1976 (and intermittently active to the present) by Graham Lewis (bass, vocals), Bruce Gilbert (guitar), Colin Newman (vocals, guitar) and Robert Gotobed (né Grey) (drums). ... Pink Flag is the first album by the band Wire, released in 1977. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Front page of the first issue of the Evening News from July 26 1881. ... Damned, Damned, Damned is the debut album by the punk rock band The Damned. ... Spiral Scratch was a four-track EP by the punk rock band Buzzcocks, recorded in 1976 and released in January 1977. ... The Clash is the first album-length recording released by the English punk band The Clash. ... White Riot was the first single put out by seminal punk band The Clash, in 1977. ... God Save the Queen (B-side Did You No Wrong) was the second single released by the punk rock band Sex Pistols. ... For the professional wrestler, see Sid Eudy. ...


New groups continued to form around the country: Crass, from Essex, merged a vehement, straight-ahead punk rock style with a committed anarchist mission. Sham 69, London's Menace, and the Angelic Upstarts from South Shields in the Northeast combined a similarly stripped-down sound with populist lyrics, a style that became known as streetpunk. These expressly working-class bands contrasted with others in the second wave that presaged the post-punk phenomenon. Such groups expressed punk rock's energy and aggression, while expanding its musical range with a wider variety of tempos and often more complex instrumentation. London's Wire took minimalism and brevity to an extreme. London's Tubeway Army, Belfast's Stiff Little Fingers, and Dunfermline, Scotland's The Skids infused punk rock with elements of synth and noise music.[163] Liverpool's first punk group, the theatrical Big in Japan, didn't last long, but it spun off several well-known post-punk acts.[164] For information about the anarchist writer, see Chris Crass Crass was an English anarchist punk rock band, formed in 1977[1][2] and based around Dial House, an open house community near Epping, Essex. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... The Angelic Upstarts were a staunchly anti-fascist, anti-police, pro-IRA, Socialist working class oi! punk band of late 1970s and early 1980s. ... , South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the south bank of the mouth of the River Tyne, with a population of about 90,000. ... Oi! is a working class street-level subgenre of punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1970s. ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... Wire are an English rock band formed in 1976 (and intermittently active to the present) by Graham Lewis (bass, vocals), Bruce Gilbert (guitar), Colin Newman (vocals, guitar) and Robert Gotobed (né Grey) (drums). ... Tubeway Army (1977–1979) were a London-based punk and New Wave band led by Gary Webb. ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... Stiff Little Fingers are a punk band from Belfast, Northern Ireland, formed in 1977. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article is about the country. ... The Skids The Skids were an art-punk/punk rock and new wave band from Dunfermline, Scotland, founded in 1977 by Stuart Adamson (1958 - 2001, guitars / vocals / keyboards), Richard Jobson (vocals / guitar), Thomas Kellichan (drums) and William Simpson (bass guitar / vocals). ... Synthpop is a subgenre of New Wave in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. ... Noise music is music composed of non-traditional musical elements, and lacks the structure associated with Western Music. ... Image:Bij. ...

The stark cover design of Wire's debut LP, Pink Flag, symbolized the evolution of punk style
The stark cover design of Wire's debut LP, Pink Flag, symbolized the evolution of punk style[165]

Alongside thirteen original songs that would define classic punk rock, The Clash's debut had included a cover of the recent Jamaican reggae hit "Police and Thieves".[166] Other first wave bands such as The Slits and new entrants to the scene like The Ruts and The Police interacted with the reggae and ska subcultures, incorporating their rhythms and production styles. The punk rock phenomenon helped spark a full-fledged ska revival movement known as 2 Tone, centered around bands such as The Specials, The Beat, Madness, and The Selecter.[167] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wire are an English rock band formed in 1976 (and intermittently active to the present) by Graham Lewis (bass, vocals), Bruce Gilbert (guitar), Colin Newman (vocals, guitar) and Robert Gotobed (né Grey) (drums). ... Pink Flag is the first album by the band Wire, released in 1977. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Police and Thieves is a song most identified with both the man who co-wrote and originally produced the song, Lee Scratch Perry and with English punk rock band The Clash. ... The Ruts were a reggae-influenced British punk rock band, notable for the 1979 Top 10 hit Babylons Burning, and an earlier single In a Rut, which was never a hit but was much played and highly regarded by the noted disc jockey John Peel. ... This article is about the rock band. ... This article is about the genre. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Beat, known in North America as The English Beat, was one of the most important 2 Tone ska music groups. ... Madness are a British pop/ska band from Camden Town, London, that formed in 1976. ... The Selecters Three Minute Hero single cover The Selecter were a 2 Tone ska revival band from Coventry, England, formed in the late 1970s. ...


June 1977 saw the release of two more charting punk records: The Vibrators' Pure Mania and the Sex Pistols' third single, "Pretty Vacant", which reached number 6. In July, The Saints had a top 40 hit with "This Perfect Day". Recently arrived from Australia, the band was now considered insufficiently "cool" to qualify as punk by much of the British media, though they had been playing a similar brand of music for years.[168] In August, The Adverts entered the top 20 with "Gary Gilmore's Eyes". The following month, the Pistols hit number 8 with "Holidays in the Sun", while Generation X and The Clash reached the top 40 with, respectively, "Your Generation" and "Complete Control".[169] In October, the Sex Pistols released their first and only "official" album, Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols. Inspiring yet another round of controversy, it topped the British charts. In December, one of the first books about punk rock was published: The Boy Looked at Johnny, by Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons.[170] Declaring the punk rock movement to be already over, it was subtitled The Obituary of Rock and Roll. In January 1978, the Sex Pistols broke up while on American tour. Pretty Vacant was the third single released by punk band the Sex Pistols. ... For articles with similar titles, see Perfect Day (disambiguation). ... The Holidays in the Sun punk festivals are now known as Wasted Festivals Holidays in the Sun was the fourth single by punk band the Sex Pistols. ... Complete Control is a song by The Clash, released as a 7 single and featured on the US release of their debut album. ... Singles from Never Mind the Bollocks, Heres the Sex Pistols Released: November 26, 1976 Released: May 27, 1977 Released: July 2, 1977 Released: October 15, 1977 Released: May 27, 2002 Never Mind the Bollocks, Heres the Sex Pistols is the only album recorded by the English punk rock... Julie Burchill (born July 3, 1959 in Frenchay, Bristol) is an English writer, renowned for her invective and often contentious prose. ... Tony Parsons is the name of two noted journalists. ...


Rest of the world

Meanwhile, punk rock scenes were emerging around the globe. In France, les punks, a Parisian subculture of Lou Reed fans, had already been around for years.[171] Following the lead set by Stinky Toys, Métal Urbain played its first concert in December 1976. The new punk band's brief set included a cover of the Stooges' "No Fun", also a staple of the Sex Pistols' live show.[172] Other French punk acts such as Oberkampf and Starshooter soon formed.[173] In West Germany, bands primarily inspired by British punk came together in the Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW) movement. Ätzttussis, the Nina Hagen Band, and S.Y.P.H. featured "raucous vocals and militant posturing", according to writer Rob Burns.[174] Before turning in a mainstream direction in the 1980s, NDW attracted a politically conscious and diverse audience, including both participants of the left-wing alternative scene and neo-Nazi skinheads. These opposing factions were mutually attracted by a view of punk rock as "'against the system' politically as well as musically."[174] Briard jump-started Finnish punk with its 1977 single "I Really Hate Ya"/"I Want Ya Back";[175] other early Finnish punk acts included Eppu Normaali and singer Pelle Miljoona. In Japan, a punk movement developed around bands playing in an art/noise style such as Friction, and "psych punk" acts like Gaseneta and Kadotani Michio.[176] In New Zealand, Auckland's Scavengers and Suburban Reptiles were followed by The Enemy of Dunedin.[150] Punk rock scenes also grew in other countries such as Belgium (The Kids, Chainsaw),[177] the Netherlands (The Suzannes, The Ex),[178] Sweden (Ebba Grön, KSMB),[179] and Switzerland (Nasal Boys, Kleenex).[180] The Stinky Toys were a Parisian rock band featuring Eli Medeiros, Herve Zenouda and Jacno, from 1979 to 1981. ... Métal Urbain are one of the first French punk groups, heavily influenced by The Clash and The Sex Pistols on one hand and on the other by an electro approach related to Metal Machine Music of Lou Reed. ... Oberkamp performing live, c. ... Neue Deutsche Welle (New German Wave, often abbreviated NDW) was a genre of German music originally derived from punk rock and New Wave music in 1976. ... Nina Catharina Hagen is a singer from East Berlin, Germany. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Antti Hulkko (born October 11, 1962 in Pelkosenniemi, Finland), more famously known as Andy McCoy, is a Finnish musician. ... Martti Syrjä Eppu Normaali is one of the most popular bands in Finland. ... Pelle Miljoona (b. ... This article is about the Japanese rock band. ... The Suburban Reptiles and The Scavengers were the first punk bands to form in New Zealand. ... For the English band, see The Enemy (English band). ... First single on Romantik Records Chainsaw is the name of a punk rock band from Brussels, Belgium, formed in 1976 and split in 1978. ... The Ex is an anarchist punk rock band from the Netherlands. ... ThÃ¥ström, Fjodor and Gurra Ebba Grön was a Swedish punk band formed in 1977. ... KSMB was a Swedish punk rock band 1977 - 1982. ... This article is about the Kleenex band. ...


Punk transforms

Music sample:

"London Calling" Image File history File links London_Calling. ...

Sample of title track of London Calling (1979) by The Clash
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

By late 1978, the hardcore punk movement was emerging in southern California. A rivalry developed between adherents of the new sound and the older punk rock crowd. Hardcore, appealing to a younger, more suburban audience, was perceived by some as anti-intellectual, overly violent, and musically limited. In Los Angeles, the opposing factions were often described as "Hollywood punks" and "beach punks", referring to Hollywood's central position in the original L.A. punk rock scene and to hardcore's popularity in the shoreline communities of South Bay and Orange County.[181] London Calling is the hit song off the album of the same name (London Calling, 1979) by the U.K. punk/rock band The Clash; it is also the albums first track. ... This article is about the album. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The South Bay and surrounding regions in Southern California The South Bay is a region in the southwest peninsula of Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Cities in Orange County Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. ...


As hardcore became the dominant punk rock style, many bands of the older California punk rock movement split up, although X went on to mainstream success and The Go-Go's, part of the L.A. punk scene when they formed in 1978, adopted a pop sound and became major stars.[182] Across North America, many other first and second wave punk bands also dissolved, while younger musicians inspired by the movement explored new variations on punk. Some early punk bands transformed into hardcore acts. A few, most notably the Ramones, Richard Hell and The Voidoids, and Johnny Thunders and The Heartbreakers, continued to pursue the style they had helped create. Crossing the lines between "classic" punk, post-punk, and hardcore, San Francisco's Flipper was founded in 1979 by former members of Negative Trend and The Sleepers.[183] They became "the reigning kings of American underground rock, for a few years."[184] For the 1960s band, see The Go-Gos (1960s). ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... Flipper is an influential punk/noise band from San Francisco, California, formed in 1979, continuing on in often erratic fashion until the mid-1990s, then reuniting in 2005. ...


Radio Birdman broke up in June 1978 while touring the UK,[100] where the early unity between bohemian, middle-class punks (many with art school backgrounds) and working-class punks had disintegrated.[185] In contrast to North America, more of the bands from the country's original punk movement remained active, sustaining extended careers even as their styles evolved and diverged. Meanwhile, the Oi! and anarcho-punk movements were emerging. Musically in the same aggressive vein as American hardcore, they addressed different constituencies with overlapping but distinct anti-establishment messages. As described by Dave Laing, "The model for self-proclaimed punk after 1978 derived from the Ramones via the eight-to-the-bar rhythms most characteristic of The Vibrators and Clash.... It became essential to sound one particular way to be recognized as a 'punk band' now."[186] In February 1979, former Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose in New York. If the Pistols' breakup the previous year had marked the end of the original UK punk scene and its promise of cultural transformation, for many the death of Vicious signified that it had been doomed from the start.[187] For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ...


By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms. On one side were New Wave and post-punk artists; some adopted more accessible musical styles and gained broad popularity, while some turned in more experimental, less commercial directions. On the other side, hardcore punk, Oi!, and anarcho-punk bands became closely linked with underground cultures and spun off an array of subgenres.[188] Somewhere in between, pop punk groups created blends like that of the ideal record, as defined by Mekons cofounder Kevin Lycett: "a cross between Abba and the Sex Pistols".[189] A range of other styles emerged, many of them fusions with long-established genres. Exemplifying the breadth of classic punk's legacy was The Clash album London Calling, released in December 1979. Combining punk rock with reggae, ska, R&B, and rockabilly, it went on to be acclaimed as one of the best rock records ever.[190] At the same time, as observed by Flipper singer Bruce Loose, the relatively restrictive hardcore scenes diminished the variety of music that could once be heard at many punk gigs.[138] If early punk, like most rock scenes, was ultimately male-oriented, the hardcore and Oi! scenes were significantly more so, marked in part by the slam dancing and moshing with which they became identified.[191] The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... The Mekons. ... Abba redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the album. ... This article or section should include material from mosh pit. ...


New Wave

For more details on this topic, see New Wave (music).

In 1976—first in London, then in the United States—"New Wave" was introduced as a complementary label for the formative scenes and groups also known as "punk"; the two terms were essentially interchangeable.[192] Over time, "New Wave" acquired a distinct meaning: Bands such as Blondie and Talking Heads from the CBGB scene; The Cars, who emerged from the Rat in Boston; The Go-Go's in Los Angeles; and The Police in London that were broadening their instrumental palette, incorporating dance-oriented rhythms, and working with more polished production were specifically designated "New Wave" and no longer called "punk". Dave Laing suggests that some punk-identified British acts pursued the New Wave label in order to avoid radio censorship and make themselves more palatable to concert bookers.[193] The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... The Cars were an American rock band, fronted by Ric Ocasek, that emerged from the early punk scene in the late 1970s. ...


Bringing elements of punk rock music and fashion into more pop-oriented, less "dangerous" styles, New Wave artists became very popular on both sides of the Atlantic.[194] New Wave became a catch-all term,[195] encompassing disparate styles such as 2 Tone ska, the mod revival based around The Jam, the sophisticated pop-rock of Elvis Costello and XTC, the New Romantic phenomenon typified by Duran Duran, synthpop groups like Human League and Depeche Mode, and the sui generis subversions of Devo, who had gone "beyond punk before punk even properly existed."[196] New Wave became a pop culture sensation with the debut of the cable television network MTV in 1981, which put many New Wave videos into regular rotation. However, the music was often derided at the time as being silly and disposable.[197] This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The mod revival was a music genre and subculture that started in the United Kingdom in 1978 and later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree). ... The Jam were an English punk rock/mod revival band active during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Elvis Costello (born Declan Patrick McManus August 25, 1954) is an English musician, singer, and songwriter. ... XTC are an influential new wave band from Swindon, England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Duran Duran are an English rock band notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... Synthpop is a subgenre of New Wave in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. ... The Human League are an English synthpop band formed in 1977, who, after several changes in line up, achieved great popularity in the 1980s and a limited comeback in the mid-1990s. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music band formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ...


Post-punk

For more details on this topic, see Post-punk.
Music sample:

"Totally Wired" Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... Image File history File links The_Fall_Totally_Wired. ...

Sample of "Totally Wired" (single, 1980) by The Fall (reissued on later editions of Grotesque (After the Gramme))
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

During 1976–77, in the midst of the original UK punk movement, bands emerged such as Manchester's Joy Division, The Fall, and Magazine, Leeds' Gang of Four, and London's The Raincoats that became central post-punk figures. Some bands classified as post-punk, such as Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, had been active well before the punk scene coalesced;[198] others, such as The Slits and Siouxsie & The Banshees, transitioned from punk rock into post-punk. A few months after the Sex Pistols' breakup, John Lydon (no longer "Rotten") cofounded Public Image Ltd. Lora Logic, formerly of X-Ray Spex, founded Essential Logic. Killing Joke formed in 1979. These bands were often musically experimental, like certain New Wave acts; defining them as "post-punk" was a sound that tended to be less pop and more dark and abrasive—sometimes verging on the atonal, as with Subway Sect and Wire—and an anti-establishment posture directly related to punk's. Post-punk reflected a range of art rock influences from Captain Beefheart to David Bowie and Roxy Music to Krautrock and, once again, the Velvet Underground.[10] This article is about the band. ... Grotesque (After The Gramme) is a 1980 album by the Fall. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the band. ... Magazine was an English Post-punk group active between 1977 and 1981. ... Gang of Four is an English post-punk group from Leeds. ... The Raincoats were formed in 1977 by Ana da Silva (vocals, guitar) and Gina Birch (vocals, bass) while they were students at Hornsey College of Art, London, England. ... Throbbing Gristle (formed on September 3, 1975, in London) are a British Avant-Garde group that evolved from the performance art group COUM Transmissions. ... Cabaret Voltaire was a British music group from Sheffield, England. ... John Joseph Lydon (born 31 January 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten, is an English rock musician. ... Public Image Ltd (PiL) is a band formed in 1978 by John Lydon, formerly and later Johnny Rotten of the Sex Pistols. ... Essential Logic was a UK post-punk band formed by saxophonist Lora Logic after leaving X-Ray Spex. ... This article is about the musical group. ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Art rock is a term used to describe a subgenre of rock music with experimental or avant-garde influences that emphasizes novel sonic texture. ... Don Van Vliet (born Don Glen Vliet on January 15, 1941, in Glendale, California, U.S.) is a musician and visual artist, best known by the pseudonym Captain Beefheart. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... Roxy Music are an English art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry (vocals and keyboards). ... Krautrock, also known as Kosmische Musik, is a generic name for the experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s. ...

Public Image Ltd's Metal Box (1979) epitomized post-punk innovations in both music and design
Public Image Ltd's Metal Box (1979) epitomized post-punk innovations in both music and design[199]

Post-punk brought together a new fraternity of musicians, journalists, managers, and entrepreneurs; the latter, notably Geoff Travis of Rough Trade and Tony Wilson of Factory, helped to develop the production and distribution infrastructure of the indie music scene that blossomed in the mid-1980s.[200] Smoothing the edges of their style in the direction of New Wave, several post-punk bands such as New Order (descended from Joy Division), The Cure, and U2 crossed over to a mainstream U.S. audience. Bauhaus was one of the formative gothic rock bands. Others, like Gang of Four, The Raincoats and Throbbing Gristle, who had little more than cult followings at the time, are seen in retrospect as significant influences on modern popular culture.[201] Public Image Ltd (PiL) is a band formed in 1978 by John Lydon, formerly and later Johnny Rotten of the Sex Pistols. ... Categories: Nintendo items | Computer and video game stubs ... Geoff Travis is the founder of both Rough Trade Records and the Rough Trade chain of record shops [1] ^ Rough Trade: Rough and ready. ... Rough Trade Records, now a member of the RIAA[1], began as an independent record label, based in London, England. ... Anthony Howard Wilson (20 February 1950 – 10 August 2007) was an English record label owner, radio presenter, TV show host, nightclub manager, impresario and journalist for Granada Television and the BBC. Wilson, commonly known as Tony Wilson, was the music mogul behind some of Manchesters most successful bands. ... FAC 115: Factory Records Stationery (1984) Factory Records was a Manchester based British independent record label, started in 1978, which featured several prominent musical acts on its roster such as Joy Division, New Order, A Certain Ratio, The Durutti Column, Happy Mondays, and (briefly) James and Orchestral Manoeuvres in the... In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. ... This article is about the alternative rock/electronic band New Order. ... This article is about the English rock band. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... For information about British rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Gothic rock (sometimes called goth rock or simply goth) is a genre of alternative rock that originated during the late 1970s. ...


A number of U.S. artists were retrospectively defined as post-punk; Television's debut record Marquee Moon, released in 1977, is frequently cited as a seminal album in the field.[202] The No Wave movement that developed in New York in the late 1970s, with artists like Lydia Lunch, is often treated as the phenomenon's U.S. parallel.[203] The later work of Ohio protopunk pioneers Pere Ubu is also commonly described as post-punk.[204] One of the most influential American post-punk bands was Boston's Mission of Burma, who brought abrupt rhythmic shifts derived from hardcore into a highly experimental musical context.[205] In 1980, Australia's Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their name to The Birthday Party, which evolved into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. King Snake Roost and other Australian bands would further explore the possibilities of post-punk. Later art punk and alternative rock musicians found diverse inspiration among these predecessors, New Wave and post-punk alike. Marquee Moon was Televisions 1977 (see 1977 in music) debut album. ... No Wave was a short-lived but influential music and art scene that thrived briefly in New York City during the late 1970s and early 1980s alongside the punk scene there. ... Lydia Lunch (born Lydia Koch on June 2, 1959 in Rochester, New York) is an American singer, poet, writer, and actress. ... Mission of Burma is a post-punk band from Boston, Massachusetts, USA comprising guitarist Roger Miller, bassist Clint Conley and drummer Peter Prescott, with Bob Weston (originally Martin Swope) as tape manipulator and sound engineer. ... The Birthday Party was an Australian post punk rock group, active from 1977 to 1983. ... Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds is a successful rock band with international personnel. ... // King Snake Roost, also known as KSR, were one of a number of Australian and International bands who emerged from Punk rock in the mid 1980s to be defined as Post Punk. ... Art punk is a music genre that is artistic, experimental and avant garde in nature. ... Alternative music redirects here. ...


Hardcore

For more details on this topic, see Hardcore punk.
Music samples:

A distinctive style of punk, characterized by superfast, aggressive beats, screaming vocals, and often politically aware lyrics, began to emerge in 1978 among bands scattered around the United States. The first major scene of what came to be known as hardcore punk developed in southern California in 1978–79;[206] the movement soon spread around North America and internationally.[207][208][209] According to author Steven Blush, "Hardcore comes from the bleak suburbs of America. Parents moved their kids out of the cities to these horrible suburbs to save them from the 'reality' of the cities and what they ended up with was this new breed of monster".[13] Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Image File history File links Pay_to_Cum. ... Music samples: Pay to Cum ( file info) — Pay to Cum by the Bad Brains from Pay to Cum single (1980) Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... Bad Brains are an American punk rock band, originally formed in Washington, D.C. in 1979 . ... Image File history File links Holiday_in_Cambodia. ... This article is about the single by Dead Kennedys. ... The Dead Kennedys are a hardcore punk band from San Francisco, California. ... Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables is the debut album by the Dead Kennedys, released initially on Cherry Red Records in the UK in 1980 and eventually through Faulty Products in the US (later by the DKs own Alternative Tentacles label). ...


Among the earliest hardcore bands, regarded as having made the first recordings in the style, were southern California's Black Flag and Middle Class.[208][209] Bad Brains—all of whom were black, a rarity in punk of any era—launched the D.C. scene.[207] Austin, Texas's Big Boys, San Francisco's Dead Kennedys, and Vancouver's D.O.A. were among the other initial hardcore groups. They were soon joined by bands such as the Minutemen, The Descendents, Circle Jerks, The Adolescents, and TSOL in southern California; D.C.'s Teen Idles, Minor Threat, and State of Alert; and Austin's MDC and The Dicks. By 1981, hardcore was the dominant punk rock style not only in California, but much of the rest of North America as well.[210] A New York hardcore scene grew, including the relocated Bad Brains, New Jersey's Misfits and Adrenalin O.D., and local acts such as the Nihilistics, The Mob, Reagan Youth, and Agnostic Front. Beastie Boys, who would become famous as a hip-hop group, debuted that year as a hardcore band. They were followed by The Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, and Leeway.[211] By 1983, Minneapolis's Hüsker Dü and Chicago's Naked Raygun were taking the hardcore sound in experimental and ultimately more melodic directions. Hardcore would constitute the American punk rock standard throughout the decade.[212] Black Flag was a hardcore punk band formed in 1976 in southern California, largely as the brainchild of Greg Ginn: the guitarist, primary songwriter and sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes. ... Middle Class were one of the first Hardcore bands in history. ... Bad Brains are an American punk rock band, originally formed in Washington, D.C. in 1979 . ... Washington, D.C. had one of the first and one of the most influential hardcore punk scenes in the United States during the 1980s. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... The Big Boys were a pioneering band who are credited with helping introduce the new style of hardcore punk that became popular in the 1980s. ... The Dead Kennedys are a hardcore punk band from San Francisco, California. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... D.O.A. is a hardcore punk band from Vancouver. ... The Minutemen were an American Punk rock band from San Pedro, California comprised of singer/guitarist D. Boon, singer/bassist Mike Watt and drummer George Hurley. ... The classic Descendents lineup left to right, Frank Navetta, Tony Lombardo, Milo Aukerman, and Bill Stevenson. ... The Circle Jerks are a hardcore punk band formed circa 1979 in Hermosa Beach, California. ... The Adolescents are a punk music group formed in 1980 in Fullerton, California. ... TSOL is a hardcore punk band which was formed during 1979 in Long Beach, California. ... The Teen Idles were a hardcore punk band that existed only for about fourteen months. ... Minor Threat was an American hardcore punk band that formed in Washington DC in 1980 and disbanded in 1983. ... State of Alert (or S.O.A.) was a hardcore punk group from Washington, D.C. fronted by Henry Garfield, who would later rise to fame as Henry Rollins. ... MDC is a punk band formed in Austin, Texas in 1979. ... The Dicks are a band considered influential in introducing the sound of hardcore punk, particularly in their home state of Texas. ... New York Hardcore (NYHC) refers to hardcore punk music created in New York City and to the subculture associated with that music. ... This article is about the band. ... Adrenalin O.D. was a popular hardcore punk band from New Jersey that existed from 1981 to 1990. ... The Mob were a popular band in NYC in the early 80s and are credited as being hardcore pioneers of the era. ... Reagan Youth (a play on Hitler Youth) was a band started by singer Dave Rubinstein (Dave Insurgent) and his friend and guitarist Paul Bakija in Queens in the early 1980s. ... Agnostic Front are a New York Hardcore Punk band formed in New York City in 1982. ... The Beastie Boys are a hip hop musical group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... The Cro-Mags were a hardcore punk band from New York City. ... Murphys Law is a hardcore band from New York. ... Leeway was formed in Astoria, New York, USA in 1984 by guitarist A.J. Novello and vocalist Eddie Sutton under the name The Unruled. ... // The Minneapolis area has been a fertile ground for the hardcore punk scene for many years. ... This article is about the rock band called Hüsker Dü. For other uses, see Husker Du. ... Naked Raygun was a very influential Chicago-based punk band of the 1980s and early 1990s. ...


The lyrical content of hardcore songs, typified by Dead Kennedys' "Holiday in Cambodia", is often critical of commercial culture and middle-class values.[209] Straight edge bands like Minor Threat, Boston's SS Decontrol, and Reno, Nevada's 7 Seconds rejected the self-destructive lifestyles of many of their peers, and built a movement based on positivity and abstinence from cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs.[213] In the early 1980s, bands from the American southwest and California such as JFA, Agent Orange, and The Faction helped create a rhythmically distinctive style of hardcore known as skate punk. Skate punk innovators also pointed in other directions: Big Boys helped establish funkcore, while Venice, California's Suicidal Tendencies had a formative effect on the heavy metal-influenced crossover thrash style. Toward the end of the decade, crossover thrash spawned the metalcore fusion style and the superfast thrashcore subgenre developed in multiple locations. This article is about the single by Dead Kennedys. ... For the drawing or cutting tool, see Straightedge. ... Boston Hardcore is the influential hardcore punk scene of Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Reno redirects here. ... 7 Seconds are a hardcore punk band from Reno, Nevada. ... JFA (Jodie Fosters Army) is a punk rock band, born in 1981 out of the Southern California skateboard culture. ... Agent Orange is a punk band from Placentia, California. ... The Faction are a punk rock band from San Jose, California that is closely linked to the underground skateboarding culture. ... Skate punk (also known as skatepunk, skate-punk, skate-thrash, surf punk, or skate-core) was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands were themselves skaters. ... Funkcore is a music genre or movement derived from a fusion of hardcore punk and funk. ... Venice Beach and Boardwalk Venice, California, is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California. ... Suicidal Tendencies is an American hardcore punk / crossover thrash band formed in 1981 in Venice, California. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Metalcore is a fusion of extreme metal and hardcore punk that began in the United States. ... Thrashcore is an extremely fast subgenre of punk rock and saw its beginnings after the beginnings of hardcore punk in the early 1980s. ...


Oi!

For more details on this topic, see Oi!.
Music sample:

"Punks Not Dead" For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links The_Exploited_Punks_not_dead. ...

Sample of title track of Punks Not Dead (1981), by The Exploited
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Following the lead of first-wave British punk bands Cock Sparrer and Sham 69, in the late 1970s second-wave units like Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts, The Exploited, and The 4-Skins sought to realign punk rock with a working class, street-level following.[214] Their style was originally called real punk or streetpunk; Sounds journalist Garry Bushell is credited with labelling the genre Oi! in 1980. The name is partly derived from the Cockney Rejects' habit of shouting "Oi! Oi! Oi!" before each song, instead of the time-honored "1,2,3,4!"[215] Oi! bands' lyrics sought to reflect the harsh realities of living in Margaret Thatcher's Britain in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[216] A subgroup of Oi! bands dubbed "punk pathetique"—including Splodgenessabounds, Peter and the Test Tube Babies, and Toy Dolls—had a more humorous and absurdist bent. Punks Not Dead is the debut album by the punk band The Exploited, which was released in 1981 through Secret Records. ... The Exploited is a punk rock band from the second wave of UK punk, formed in late 1979 or early 1980. ... Cock Sparrer (initially Cock Sparrow) is a punk rock band from East London. ... Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. ... The Cockney Rejects are an Oi! punk band which formed in the East End of London in 1979. ... The Angelic Upstarts were a staunchly anti-fascist, anti-police, pro-IRA, Socialist working class oi! punk band of late 1970s and early 1980s. ... The Exploited is a punk rock band from the second wave of UK punk, formed in late 1979 or early 1980. ... The 4-Skins are a working class Oi! punk rock band from East London, England. ... Oi! is a working class street-level subgenre of punk rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1970s. ... Sounds was a British music paper, published weekly from October 10, 1970 – April 6, 1991. ... Garry Bushell (born May 13, 1955 in Woolwich, South East London) is a newspaper columnist, rock music journalist, television presenter and author. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Punk Pathetique is a sub-variant of Punk Rock termed by Garry Bushell. ... Splodgenessabounds were a United Kingdom punk band. ... Peter and the Test Tube Babies are a punk rock band formed around Brighton in 1977 and still touring today. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Strength Thru Oi!, with its notorious image of British Movement activist and felon Nicky Crane
Strength Thru Oi!, with its notorious image of British Movement activist and felon Nicky Crane

The Oi! movement was fueled by a sense that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic...and losing touch".[217] The Oi! credo held that the music needed to remain unpretentious and accessible.[163] According to Bushell, "Punk was meant to be of the voice of the dole queue, and in reality most of them were not. But Oi was the reality of the punk mythology. In the places where [these bands] came from, it was harder and more aggressive and it produced just as much quality music."[218] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The British Movement was a British neo-Nazi group. ... Nicola Vincenzio Nicky Crane was born on May 21, 1958. ... The Business is a UK based Oi! band formed in the late 1970s. ... Unemployment benefits are sums of money given to the unemployed by the government or a compulsory para-governmental insurance system. ...


Although most Oi! bands in the initial wave were apolitical or left wing, many of them began to attract a white power skinhead following.[219] Racist skinheads sometimes disrupted Oi! concerts by shouting fascist slogans and starting fights, but some Oi! bands were reluctant to endorse criticism of their fans from what they perceived as the "middle-class establishment".[220] In the popular imagination, the movement thus became linked to the far right.[221] Strength Thru Oi!, an album compiled by Bushell and released in May 1981, stirred controversy, especially when it was revealed that the belligerent figure on the cover was a neo-Nazi jailed for racist violence (Bushell claimed ignorance).[219] On July 3, a concert at Hamborough Tavern in Southall featuring The Business, The 4-Skins, and The Last Resort was firebombed by local Asian youths who believed that the event was a neo-Nazi gathering.[222] Following the Southall riot, press coverage increasingly associated Oi! with the extreme right, and the movement soon began to lose momentum.[216] In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Southalls South Asian community be merged into this article or section. ...


Anarcho-punk

For more details on this topic, see Anarcho-punk.
Crass were the originators of anarcho-punk. Their all-black militaristic dress became a staple of the genre.
Crass were the originators of anarcho-punk.[223] Their all-black militaristic dress became a staple of the genre.

Anarcho-punk developed alongside the Oi! and American hardcore movements. With a primitive, stripped-down musical style and ranting, shouted vocals, British bands such as Crass, Subhumans, Flux of Pink Indians, Conflict, Poison Girls, and The Apostles attempted to transform the punk rock scene into a full-blown anarchist movement. As with straight edge, anarcho-punk is based around a set of principles, including prohibitions on wearing leather, and promoting a vegetarian or vegan diet.[223] The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... Crass photo by G Burnett This image is copyrighted and is not licenced under the GFDL. The licence holder allows anyone to use it for any non-commercial purpose, provided that the photographer Graham Burnett is credited File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Crass photo by G Burnett This image is copyrighted and is not licenced under the GFDL. The licence holder allows anyone to use it for any non-commercial purpose, provided that the photographer Graham Burnett is credited File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... For information about the anarchist writer, see Chris Crass Crass was an English anarchist punk rock band, formed in 1977[1][2] and based around Dial House, an open house community near Epping, Essex. ... For information about the anarchist writer, see Chris Crass Crass was an English anarchist punk rock band, formed in 1977[1][2] and based around Dial House, an open house community near Epping, Essex. ... The Subhumans are an anarcho-punk band formed in the Trowbridge area of Wiltshire, UK in 1980. ... Flux Of Pink Indians was a anarcho-punk/Post punk band that originated from Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. ... Conflict is an anarcho-punk band originally based around Eltham in South London. ... Poison Girls preforming at the squatted Zig Zag Club in London, 18th December 1982 The Poison Girls were a British anarcho-punk band. ... The Apostles are an experimental punk rock band who developed within the confines of the 1980s Anarcho Punk scene in the UK, but did not necessarily adhere to the aesthetics of that movement. ...


The movement spun off several subgenres of a similar political bent. Discharge, founded back in 1977, established D-beat in the early 1980s. Other groups in the movement, led by Amebix and Antisect, developed the extreme style known as crust punk. Several of these bands rooted in anarcho-punk such as The Varukers, Discharge, and Amebix, along with former Oi! groups such as The Exploited and bands from father afield like Birmingham's Charged GBH, became the leading figures in the UK 82 hardcore movement. The anarcho-punk scene also spawned bands such as Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror that in the mid-1980s defined the heavily distorted grindcore style, a close relative of the early death metal sound.[224] Led by Dead Kennedys, a U.S. anarcho-punk scene developed around such bands as Austin's MDC and southern California's Another Destructive System.[225] Discharge is an influential punk and metal band formed in the UK in 1977, whose music is characterized by a heavy, distorted, and grinding guitar-driven sound and anti-melodic shouted or screamed vocals, with lyrics on anarchist and pacifist themes. ... D-beat is a drum beat, specifically a fast rock beat unique to hardcore punk, especially in its UK and European variants. ... Amebix, formed in England in 1978 as The Band with No Name, were a band that many consider to have started the sub genre crust punk. ... Antisect were an anarcho-punk (and eventually crust punk) band formed in 1982 in Daventry, Northamptonshire, UK. Their debut album, was released in 1983 on Flux Of Pink Indians Spiderleg Records label and reached number 4 in the indie album charts. ... Crusty redirects here. ... The Varukers are a hardcore punk band formed in 1979, . The band has gone through many line-up changes over the years with the only constant member being Rat on vocals. ... This page is about the UK punk rock band. ... Napalm Death are a grindcore/death metal band from Birmingham, England. ... Extreme Noise Terror (often abbreviated to ENT) is a crust, grindcore, and deathgrind band originally from Ipswich, England. ... Grindcore, often shortened to grind, is an evolution of crust punk, most commonly associated with death metal, a very different though similarly extreme style of music. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... MDC is a punk band formed in Austin, Texas in 1979. ...


Pop punk

For more details on this topic, see Pop punk.
Music sample:

"Fast Cars" Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... Image File history File links Buzzcocks_Fast_Cars. ...

Sample of "Fast Cars" by Buzzcocks, from Another Music in a Different Kitchen (1978)
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With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s bubblegum pop, the Ramones paved the way to what became known as pop punk.[226] In the late 1970s, UK bands such as Buzzcocks and The Undertones combined pop-style tunes and lyrical themes with punk's speed and chaotic edge.[227] In the early 1980s, some of the leading bands in southern California's hardcore punk rock scene emphasized a more melodic approach than was typical of their peers. According to music journalist Ben Myers, Bad Religion "layered their pissed off, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies"; Descendents "wrote almost surfy, Beach Boys–inspired songs about girls and food and being young(ish)."[228] Epitaph Records, founded by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion, was the base for many future pop punk bands, including NOFX, with their third wave ska–influenced skate punk rhythms. Bands that fused punk with light-hearted pop melodies, such as The Queers and Screeching Weasel, began appearing around the country, in turn influencing bands like Green Day, who brought pop punk wide popularity and major record sales. Bands such as The Vandals and Guttermouth developed a style blending pop melodies with humorous and offensive lyrics. The mainstream pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink-182 is criticized by many punk rock devotees; in critic Christine Di Bella's words, "It's punk taken to its most accessible point, a point where it barely reflects its lineage at all, except in the three-chord song structures."[229] For the panel game, see Never Mind the Buzzcocks. ... Another Music in a Different Kitchen was Buzzcocks first album, released in 1978 and includes the hit single I Dont Mind which reached No. ... The Beach Boys, originally the Beech Boys, a small team of four brothers from the south of Poland, emigrated to America in the early 1950s in search of a fortune to be made in the Arizonian logging industry. When it soon became evident they had been the victims of... Bubblegum pop (bubblegum rock, bubblegum music, youth music, or simply bubblegum) is a genre of pop music. ... For the panel game, see Never Mind the Buzzcocks. ... The picture cover of The Undertones 1979 Youve Got My Number (Why Dont You Use It!) single The Undertones are a Northern Irish rock band formed in Derry, Northern Ireland in 1975. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Ben Myers (born 1976 in Durham, UK) is an author, music journalist and record label owner. ... Bad Religion is a seminal American punk rock band, formed in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass), Greg Graffin (vocals), Brett Gurewitz (guitars) and Jay Ziskrout (drums). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Epitaph Records is a Hollywood, California based record label owned by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz. ... Brett Gurewitz (born May 12, 1962) Los Angeles,CA. Also known as Mr. ... NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... Third wave ska is a music genre derived from the fusion of Jamaican ska with various American and British styles of music, such as 2 Tone, rock music, punk rock, pop punk, hardcore and jazz. ... Skate punk (also known as skatepunk, skate-punk, skate-thrash, surf punk, or skate-core) was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands were themselves skaters. ... The Queers are an American pop punk band formed in 1982 by Portsmouth, New Hampshire native Joe King (A.K.A. Joe Queer). ... Screeching Weasel was an American punk band from Chicago, Illinois. ... This article is about the band Green Day. ... This article is about the punk rock band. ... Guttermouth is an American punk rock band formed in 1989 in Huntington Beach, California and currently recording for Volcom Entertainment. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Other fusions and directions

Music sample:

"Mater Dolores" Image File history File links TheScreamersMaterDolores. ...

Sample of "Mater Dolores" by The Screamers (recorded 1977 or 1978)
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From 1977 forward, punk rock crossed lines with many other popular music genres. Los Angeles punk rock bands laid the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: The Flesh Eaters with deathrock; The Plugz with Chicano punk; and Gun Club with punk blues. The Meteors, from South London, and The Cramps, who moved from New York to Los Angeles in 1980, were innovators in the psychobilly fusion style.[230] Milwaukee's Violent Femmes jumpstarted the American folk punk scene, while The Pogues did the same on the other side of the Atlantic, influencing many Celtic punk bands. The Mekons, from Leeds, combined their punk rock ethos with country music, greatly influencing the later alt-country movement. In the United States, varieties of cowpunk played by bands such as Nashville's Jason & the Scorchers and Arizona's Meat Puppets had a similar effect. The Screamers were a punk rock group active in the Los Angeles, California area in the late 1970s. ... The Flesh Eaters 1980: Chris D., DJ Bonebrake, Dave Alvin, John Doe, Steve Berlin, Bill Bateman The Flesh Eaters are a Los Angeles deathrock band whose peak of popularity was in the late 1970s and early 80s. ... Deathrock is a term used to identify a subgenre of punk rock and Goth which incorporates elements of horror and spooky atmospheres within a Goth-Punk style and first emerged most prominently in the West Coast of the United States and London during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... The Plugz were a punk rock band from Los Angeles, California that formed in 1978. ... Los Lobos Chicano rock or Latin rock is rock music performed by Mexican American groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture. ... The Gun Club were a rock band from Los Angeles in the 1980s led by flamboyant singer/guitarist, ex-rock critic Jeffrey Lee Pierce. ... Allmusic. ... ... South London area South London (known colloquially as South of the River) is the area of London south of the River Thames. ... The Cramps are a punk rock band originally formed in 1972. ... Psychobilly is a genre of rock music that mixes elements of punk rock, rockabilly, and other genres. ... This article is about the band. ... The Anarchy Heart, a symbol popular in the young radical community, particularly with Folk Punks and Anarchists. ... The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk rock movement. ... Celtic punk (also known as Paddybeat, Celtcore, Jig punk, or Rock and Reel) is a music genre typically associated with Irish punks or punks from the Irish diaspora; although other Celtic nationalities, such as Scottish, Manx and Welsh people are also represented. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... Alternative country can refer to several ideas. ... Cowpunk or Country Punk is a subgenre of punk rock that began in southern California in the 1980s, especially Los Angeles. ... Nashville redirects here. ... Jason & The Scorchers were an Alt country band led by Jason Ringenberg whose sound combined punk with country music. ... The Meat Puppets are an American rock band formed in January 1980, in the Sunnyslope neighborhood of Phoenix, Arizona. ...


Other bands pointed punk rock toward future rock styles or its own foundations. New York's Suicide, who had played with the New York Dolls at the Mercer Arts Center, L.A.'s The Screamers and Nervous Gender, and Germany's DAF were pioneers of synthpunk. Chicago's Big Black was a major influence on noise rock, math rock, and industrial rock. Garage punk bands from all over—such as Medway's Thee Mighty Caesars, Chicago's Dwarves, and Adelaide's Exploding White Mice—pursued a version of punk rock that was close to its roots in 1960s garage rock. Seattle's Mudhoney, one of the central bands in the development of grunge, has been described as "garage punk".[231] Suicide is an American rock music group intermittently active since 1971 and composed of Alan Vega (vocals) and Martin Rev (synthesizers and drum machines). ... The Screamers were a punk rock group active in the Los Angeles, California area in the late 1970s. ... Music samples: Miscarriage Sample of Nervous Gender Miscarriage, from Live at Target compilation (1980). ... DAF is an influential electropunk / Neue Deutsche Welle band from Düsseldorf, formed in 1978 featuring drummer/synth player Robert Görl, vocalist Gabi Delgado-Lopez , guitarist Wolfgang Spelmans and bassist/keyboardist/saxophonist Chrislo Haas. ... Defining characteristics of synthpunk (also known as synth-punk) bands include being founded at the same time (late 1970s) and place (California) as many US punk bands, performing with those same punk bands, in those same punk clubs, with records released on those same punk labels, preferring electronic instruments such... Big Black was a noise rock band founded in Chicago, Illinois, United States, that was active between 1982 and 1987. ... Merzbow Einstürzende Neubauten Sonic Youth Melt Banana Lightning Bolt Moonlander & Moodswinger, Yuri Landman Neptune Noise rock describes one variety of post-punk rock music that became prominent in the 1980s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial Rock is a musical genre which is a fusion between Industrial Music and specific Rock n Roll subgenres such as Punk, Oi!, Hardcore and later on Hard Rock. ... Garage punk is a subgenre of punk rock that is heavily influenced by garage rock. ... Medway is the name given to a conurbation in the north of Kent, England. ... Billy Childish (real name William Charlie Hamper, or Steven John Hamper) (born December 1, 1959) is an artist, singer, and guitarist, hailing from Chatham in Kent, England. ... A recent iteration of The Dwarves The Dwarves are a punk rock band, formed in Chicago, Illinois as The Suburban Nightmare in the late 1980s. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... The Exploding White Mice were a punk-pop band from Adelaide, Australia in the 1980s. ... Mudhoney is a grunge band, formed in Seattle in 1988. ... Grunge redirects here. ...


Legacy and later developments

Alternative rock

For more details on this topic, see Alternative rock.
Music sample:

"Celebrated Summer" Alternative music redirects here. ... Image File history File links Husker_Du_-_Celebrated_Summer. ...

Sample of "Celebrated Summer" by Hüsker Dü, from New Day Rising (1985)
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The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound or brought its outsider spirit to very different kinds of music. The original punk explosion also had a long-term effect on the music industry, spurring the growth of the independent sector.[232] During the early 1980s, British bands like New Order and The Cure that straddled the lines of post-punk and New Wave developed both new musical styles and a distinctive industrial niche. Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subcultural identity.[233] In the United States, parallel developments were occurring, though with less impact on the record charts: Critically celebrated but still hitless bands such as Minneapolis's Hüsker Dü and their protégés The Replacements bridged the gap between punk rock styles like hardcore and the various nonmainstream sounds collectively referred to as "college rock" at the time.[234] Celebrated Summer is a song by Hüsker Dü from their album New Day Rising. ... This article is about the rock band called Hüsker Dü. For other uses, see Husker Du. ... New Day Rising is a 1985 hardcore punk album by the Minnesota band Hüsker Dü, released on SST Records. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... For other uses, see The Replacements (disambiguation). ... College rock was a term used in the USA to describe 1980s alternative rock before the term alternative came into common usage. ...


A 1985 Rolling Stone feature on the Minneapolis scene and innovative California hardcore acts such as Black Flag and Minutemen declared, "Primal punk is passé. The best of the American punk rockers have moved on. They have learned how to play their instruments. They have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are more than shouted political slogans. Some of them have even discovered the Grateful Dead."[235] By the end of the 1980s, such bands were being classified as "alternative rock" in the U.S. media; the analogous term in the UK was "indie". These were broad categories, including groups such as R.E.M. and XTC whose music had little apparent connection to punk. Even among those bands whose debt to punk was more obvious, the alternative label encompassed styles as diverse as British gothic rock and the structural experimentalism of New England's Dinosaur Jr and Throwing Muses.[236] This article is about the magazine. ... This article is about the band. ... REM or R.E.M. is an acronym for: Rapid Eye Movement, a phase during sleep U.S. rock music band R.E.M., formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 Roentgen equivalent man, a unit for measuring levels of exposure to radiation. ... Gothic rock (sometimes called goth rock or simply goth) is a genre of alternative rock that originated during the late 1970s. ... Dinosaur Jr is an American alternative rock band formed in Amherst, Massachusetts in 1983 as Dinosaur. ... An early band formation (left to right): Narcizo, Hersh, Donelly, and Langston. ...

Sonic Youth's Kim Gordon in 1991, walking on her bass guitar

As American alternative bands like Sonic Youth, who had grown out of the No Wave scene, and Boston's Pixies started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to capitalize on the underground market that had been sustained by hardcore punk for years.[237] In 1991, Nirvana emerged from Washington State's grunge music scene, achieving huge commercial success with its second album, Nevermind. The band's members cited punk rock as a key influence on their style.[238] "Punk is musical freedom," wrote singer Kurt Cobain. "It’s saying, doing, and playing what you want."[239] The widespread popularity of Nirvana and other punk-influenced bands such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers fueled the alternative rock boom of the early and mid-1990s.[236] The resulting shift in popular taste is chronicled in the film 1991: The Year Punk Broke, which features Nirvana, Dinosaur Jr, and Sonic Youth.[240] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... Gordon in 2005 Kim Althea Gordon (born April 28, 1953, in Rochester, New York), is a musician, vocalist, and artist. ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... The Pixies[1] are an American alternative rock band formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1985. ... This article is about the American grunge band. ... Grunge redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nevermind (disambiguation). ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ... This article is about the rock group. ... This article is about the band. ... 1991: The Year Punk Broke was a 1992 documentary directed by Dave Markey showcasing a late 1991 European tour of a number of punk and punk-inspired bands. ...


Emo

For more details on this topic, see Emo.

In its original, mid-1980s incarnation, emo was a less musically restrictive style of punk developed by participants in the Washington, D.C. area hardcore scene. It was originally referred to as "emocore", an abbreviation of "emotive hardcore". Notable early emo bands included Rites of Spring, Embrace, and One Last Wish. The term derived from the tendency of some of these bands' members to become strongly emotional during performances. Fugazi, formed out of the dissolution of Embrace, inspired a second, much broader based wave of emo bands beginning in the mid-1990s. Groups like San Diego's Antioch Arrow generated new, more intense subgenres like screamo, while others developed a more melodic style closer to indie rock. Bands such as Seattle's Sunny Day Real Estate and Mesa, Arizona's Jimmy Eat World broke out of the underground, attracting national attention. By the turn of the century, emo had arguably surpassed hardcore, its parent genre, as the roots-level standard for U.S. punk, though some music fans claim that typical latter-day emo bands like Panic! At The Disco and Fall Out Boy don't even qualify as punk at all.[241] Look up emo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rites of Spring was an punk band from Washington, D.C. in the mid-1980s known for their energetic, cathartic live performances. ... Embrace was a short-lived post-hardcore band from Washington, D.C., which lasted from the summer of 1985 to the spring of 1986. ... Michael Hampton - guitars, backing vocals Brendan Canty - drums Guy Picciotto - guitars, lead vocals Edward Janney - bass, backing vocals, lead vocals May 1986 - Jan 1987 Amidst the breakup of Rites of Spring in 1986, three of its four members - Picciotto, Janney and Canty - went on to form a new band after... For other uses, see Fugazi (disambiguation). ... Antioch Arrow, from California, was on the seminal hardcore/emo label Gravity Records, responsible for putting San Diego on the map in the mid-90s as one of the epicenters of the movement. ... Screamo is a musical genre which evolved from emo and punk in the early 1990s. ... Sunny Day Real Estate or SDRE was an alternative rock band formed in Seattle, Washington. ... Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Government  - Mayor Keno Hawker (R) Area  - City  125. ... Jimmy Eat World is an American alternative rock band from Mesa, Arizona, formed in 1993. ... Panic! at the Disco is an alternative rock band from Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Fall Out Boy (commonly abbreviated as FOB) is an American band from Wilmette, Illinois (a suburb of Chicago) that formed in 2001. ...


Queercore and riot grrrl

Carrie Brownstein, performing with Sleater-Kinney in 2005
Carrie Brownstein, performing with Sleater-Kinney in 2005
For more details on these topics, see Queercore and Riot Grrrl.

In the 1990s, the queercore movement developed around a number of punk bands with gay and lesbian members such as Fifth Column, God Is My Co-Pilot, Pansy Division, Team Dresch, and Sister George. Inspired by openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation, queercore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative music styles. Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of prejudice, sexual identity, gender identity, and individual rights. The movement has continued to expand in the twenty-first century, supported by festivals such as Queeruption. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1171x900, 500 KB) Summary Carrie Brownstein of Sleater-Kinney. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1171x900, 500 KB) Summary Carrie Brownstein of Sleater-Kinney. ... Carrie Brownstein (born September 27, 1974), is an American musician and actress. ... Sleater-Kinney are an indie rock trio from Olympia, Washington influenced by the riot grrrl movement of the 1990s. ... Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid 1980s as an offshoot of punk. ... Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an indie/punk feminist movement that reached its height in the 1990s but continues to exert influence over alternative cultures. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... Fifth Column, from left to right: Caroline Azar, G.B. Jones, Beverly Breckenridge. ... God Is My Co-Pilot is a queercore band from New York City that has been recording and playing since 1991. ... Pansy Division is a punk band that was a founding example of the queercore genre. ... Team Dresch are a queercore band who performed and recorded in the 1990s and made a significant impression on that movement, as well as on the independent music scene. ... Sister George, named after the 1960s movie The Killing of Sister George, were an influential and important band from London. ... Sexual identity is a term that, like sex, has two distinctively different meanings. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Queeruption - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In 1991, a concert of female-led bands at the International Pop Underground Convention in Olympia, Washington, heralded the emerging riot grrrl phenomenon. Billed as "Love Rock Revolution Girl Style Now," the concert's lineup included Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy, L7, and Mecca Normal.[242] Singer-guitarists Corin Tucker of Heavens to Betsy and Carrie Brownstein of Excuse 17, bands active in both the queercore and riot grrrl scenes, cofounded the celebrated indie/punk band Sleater-Kinney in 1994. Bikini Kill's lead singer, Kathleen Hanna, the iconic figure of riot grrrl, moved on to form the art punk group Le Tigre in 1998.[243] Coordinates: , Country State County Thurston Incorporated January 28, 1859 Government  - Mayor Mark Foutch Area  - Total 18. ... Bikini Kill was a punk band of the Riot Grrrl movement formed in Olympia, Washington in October of 1990. ... Bratmobile was an American punk band. ... Heavens to Betsy was an all girl punk rock band from Olympia, Washington. ... L7 was an all-female grunge band that was active between 1985 and 2000. ... Mecca Normal in 2006 Mecca Normal is an influential two-piece indie rock band from Vancouver, Canada. ... Corin Tucker (born November 9, 1972) is a singer and guitarist, best known for her work with rock band Sleater-Kinney. ... Carrie Brownstein (born September 27, 1974), is an American musician and actress. ... Excuse 17 is a punk rock queercore band from Olympia, Washington that performed and recorded in the mid 1990s. ... Sleater-Kinney are an indie rock trio from Olympia, Washington influenced by the riot grrrl movement of the 1990s. ... Kathleen Hanna (b. ... Art punk is a music genre that is artistic, experimental and avant garde in nature. ... Le Tigre (album) Le Tigre (shirt) Le Tigre is a feminist electro post-punk band formed in 1998 by Kathleen Hanna. ...


The punk revival

Music samples:

Along with Nirvana, many of the leading alternative rock artists of the early 1990s acknowledged the influence of earlier punk rock acts. With Nirvana's success, the major record companies once again saw punk bands as potentially profitable.[244] In 1993, California's Green Day and Bad Religion were both signed to major labels. The next year, Green Day released Dookie, which became a huge hit, selling 8 million albums in just over two years.[245] Bad Religion's Stranger Than Fiction was certified gold.[246] Other California punk bands on indie label Epitaph, run by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz, also began garnering mainstream success. In 1994, Epitaph put out Let's Go by Rancid, Punk In Drublic by NOFX, and Smash by The Offspring, each eventually certified gold or better. Smash went on to sell over 11 million copies, becoming the best-selling independent-label album of all time.[247] MTV and radio stations such as LA's KROQ-FM played a major role in these bands' crossover success, though NOFX refused to let MTV air its videos.[248] Green Day and Dookie's enormous sales paved the way for a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the following decade.[249] The Vans Warped Tour and the mall chain store Hot Topic brought punk even further into the U.S. mainstream. Image File history File links Basket_Case1. ... Basket Case is a song by Green Day from their 1994 hit album Dookie. ... This article is about the band Green Day. ... This article is about the album by Green Day. ... Sum 41 is a Canadian rock band from Ajax, Ontario. ... All Killer No Filler is the sophomore album by Sum 41, released on May 8, 2001 (see 2001 in music). ... This article is about the band Green Day. ... Bad Religion is a seminal American punk rock band, formed in Southern California in 1980 by Jay Bentley (bass), Greg Graffin (vocals), Brett Gurewitz (guitars) and Jay Ziskrout (drums). ... This article is about the album by Green Day. ... Stranger Than Fiction is the eighth full-length studio album by Bad Religion, released in 1994 (see 1994 in music). ... In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. ... Epitaph Records is a Hollywood, California based record label owned by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz. ... Brett Gurewitz (born May 12, 1962) Los Angeles,CA. Also known as Mr. ... Lets Go is a 1994 punk rock album by the band Rancid. ... Rancid is a punk band, formed in 1991 in Albany, California, by Matt Freeman and Tim Armstrong. ... Punk in Drublic is a music album by punk rock band NOFX. The album was released in 1994 through Epitaph Records. ... NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... Singles from Smash Released: 1994 Released: 1994 Released: 1995 For the electronic music album, see Smash (Jackson and His Computer Band album). ... For other uses, see Offspring (disambiguation). ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... KROQ-FM is a commercial radio station located in Los Angeles, California, broadcasting on 106. ... Warped Tour is a touring music and extreme sports festival. ... For the Le Tigre song, see Hot Topic (Song). ...


Following the lead of Boston's Mighty Mighty Bosstones and two California bands, Berkeley's Operation Ivy and Long Beach's Sublime, ska punk and ska-core became widely popular in the mid-1990s. The original 2 Tone bands had emerged amid punk rock's second wave, but their music was much closer to its Jamaican roots—"ska at 78 rpm".[250] Ska punk bands in the third wave of ska created a true musical fusion with punk and hardcore. ...And Out Come the Wolves, the 1995 album by Rancid—which had evolved out of Operation Ivy—became the first record in this ska revival to be certified gold;[251] Sublime's self-titled 1996 album was certified platinum early in 1997.[245] The Mighty Mighty Bosstones were a ska-core band from Boston, Massachusetts. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... Operation Ivy was an influential ska punk band formed in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... Sublime was an American ska-punk band that originated in Long Beach, California. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... The third wave of ska music (ska punk, skacore) arose in the 1990s in the United States. ... ...And Out Come the Wolves is an album by the punk rock band Rancid, released in August of 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... Sublime is the hit album released by the eponymous band. ...


By 1998, the punk revival had commercially stalled,[252] but not for long. Pop punk band Blink-182's 1999 release, Enema of the State, reached the Billboard Top 10 and sold 4 million copies in less than a year.[245] New pop punk bands such as Sum 41, Simple Plan, Yellowcard, and Good Charlotte achieved major sales in the first decade of the 2000s. In 2004, Green Day's American Idiot went to number 1 on both the U.S. and UK charts. Jimmy Eat World, which had taken emo in a radio-ready pop punk direction,[253] had Top 10 albums in 2004 and 2007; in a similar style, Fall Out Boy hit number 1 with 2007's Infinity on High. The revival was broad-based: AFI, with roots in hardcore, had great success with 2003's Sing the Sorrow and topped the U.S. chart with Decemberunderground in 2006. Ska punk groups such as Reel Big Fish and Less Than Jake continued to attract new fans. Celtic punk, with U.S. bands such as Flogging Molly and Dropkick Murphys merging the sound of Oi! and The Pogues, reached wide audiences. The Australian punk rock tradition was carried on by groups such as Frenzal Rhomb, The Living End, and Bodyjar. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Singles from Enema of the State Released: November 9, 1999 Released: January 18, 2000 Released: August 29, 2000 Enema of the State, Blink-182s third, and most successful, studio album, was released June 1, 1999, on MCA Records and features the hits Whats My Age Again?, Adams... Sum 41 is a Canadian rock band from Ajax, Ontario. ... This article is about the French Canadian rock band. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the band. ... Singles from American Idiot Released: 2004 Released: 2004 Released: 2005 Released: 2005 Released: 2005 This article is about Green Day album. ... Wal-Mart pre-order cover Singles from Infinity on High Released: January 16, 2007 Released: February, 2007 Released: April 9, 2007 Released: July 2, 2007 Released: September 11, 2007 Infinity on High is Fall Out Boys fourth studio album. ... AFI, in recent years short for A Fire Inside, is an American band from Ukiah, California. ... Sing the Sorrow was the first major-label release by the alternative rock band AFI, released in 2003. ... Singles from Decemberunderground Released: April 3, 2006 Released: September 26, 2006 Released: February 27, 2007 Released: July 2007 Decemberunderground is the seventh studio album from Californian rock band AFI, and their first album to debut at #1 on the U.S. Billboard 200, selling 182,000 units in its first... Reel Big Fish is an American ska punk band from Huntington Beach, California, best known for the 1997 hit Sell Out. ... Less Than Jake is an American ska punk band from Gainesville, Florida. ... Flogging Molly is a seven-piece Irish American punk band that formed in Los Angeles and is currently signed under SideOneDummy Records. ... DKM redirects here. ... Frenzal Rhomb is an Australian punk band that formed in 1991, based in the city of Sydney. ... This article is about the Australian band. ... Bodyjar is an Australian punk rock band based in Melbourne, which has been together since 1994, when they changed their name from Helium. The groups album, How It Works, reached the top 20 on the Australian ARIAnet albums chart in 2000. ...

NOFX in concert in 2007
NOFX in concert in 2007

With punk's renewed visibility came concerns among some in the punk community that the music was being co-opted by the mainstream.[248] They argued that by signing to major labels and appearing on MTV, punk bands like Green Day were buying into a system that punk was created to challenge.[254] Such controversies have been part of the punk culture since 1977, when The Clash was widely accused of "selling out" for signing with CBS Records.[255] The effect of commercialization on the music itself was an even more contentious issue. As observed by scholar Ross Haenfler, many punk fans "'despise corporate punk rock', typified by bands such as Sum 41 and Blink 182."[256] By the 1990s, punk rock was so sufficiently ingrained in Western culture that punk trappings were often used to market highly commercial bands as "rebels". Marketers capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to such an extent that a 1993 ad campaign for an automobile, the Subaru Impreza, claimed that the car was "like punk rock".[257] Although the commercial mainstream has exploited many elements of punk, numerous underground punk scenes still exist around the world. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... For the high-performance versions of the Impreza, see Subaru Impreza WRX and Subaru Impreza WRX STi The Subaru Impreza is a compact car that was first introduced by Subaru in 1993. ...


See also

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... It has been suggested that this list be merged into a category entitled Category:Punk rock groups. ... A number of overlapping punk rock genres have developed since the emergence of punk rock (often shortened to punk) in the mid 1970s. ... This is a timeline of punk rock, from its beginnings in the early 1960s to the present time. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas, "The Ramones: Biography", All Music Guide. Retrieved on October 11, 2007.
  2. ^ a b Robb (2006), foreword by Michael Bracewell.
  3. ^ Ramone, Tommy, "Fight Club", Uncut, January 2007.
  4. ^ a b McLaren, Malcolm, "Punk Celebrates 30 Years of Subversion", BBC News, August 18, 2006. Retrieved on January 17, 2006.
  5. ^ Christgau, Robert, "Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk, by Legs McNeil and Gillian McCain" (review), New York Times Book Review, 1996. Retrieved on January 17, 2007.
  6. ^ See, e.g., Rodel (2004), p. 237; Bennett (2001), pp. 49–50.
  7. ^ Savage (1992), pp. 280–281. Several sources incorrectly ascribe the illustration to the leading fanzine of the London punk scene, Sniffin' Glue (e.g., Wells [2004], p. 5; Sabin [1999], p. 111). Savage reproduces the original image, and the Sideburns attribution is clearly correct.
  8. ^ Blush (2001), pp. 173, 175. See also The Stimulators—Loud Fast Rules 7″ Killed By Death Records (September 21, 2006).
  9. ^ Harris (2004), p. 202.
  10. ^ a b Reynolds (2005), p. 4.
  11. ^ Kosmo Vinyl, The Last Testament: The Making of London Calling (Sony Music, 2004).
  12. ^ Murphy, Peter, "Shine On, The Lights Of The Bowery: The Blank Generation Revisited", Hot Press, July 12, 2002; Hoskyns, Barney, "Richard Hell: King Punk Remembers the [ ] Generation", Rock's Backpages, March 2002.
  13. ^ a b Blush, Steven, "Move Over My Chemical Romance: The Dynamic Beginnings of US Punk", Uncut, January 2007.
  14. ^ Wells (2004), p. 41; Reed (2005), p. 47.
  15. ^ a b Shuker (2002), p. 159.
  16. ^ Laing (1985), p. 58; Reynolds (2005), p. ix.
  17. ^ Chong, Kevin, "The Thrill Is Gone", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, August 2006. Retrieved on December 17, 2006.
  18. ^ Quoted in Laing (1985), p. 62.
  19. ^ Palmer (1992), p. 37.
  20. ^ Laing (1985), p. 62.
  21. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 61–63.
  22. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 118–119.
  23. ^ Laing (1985), p. 53.
  24. ^ Sabin (1999), pp. 4, 226; Dalton, Stephen, "Revolution Rock", Vox, June 1993. See also Laing (1985), pp. 27–32, for a statistical comparison of lyrical themes.
  25. ^ Laing (1985), p. 31.
  26. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 81, 125.
  27. ^ Quoted in Savage (1991), p. 440. See also Laing (1985), pp. 27–32.
  28. ^ Segal, David (2001-04-17). Punk's Pioneer. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  29. ^ Bessman (1993), pp. 48, 50; Miles, Scott, and Morgan (2005), p. 136.
  30. ^ a b Isler, Scott, and Ira Robbins. Richard Hell & the Voidoids. Trouser Press. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  31. ^ Colegrave and Sullivan (2005), p. 78.
  32. ^ a b Strohm (2004), p. 188.
  33. ^ See, e.g., Laing (1985), "Picture Section", p. 18.
  34. ^ Wojcik (1995), pp. 16–19; Laing (1985), p. 109.
  35. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 89, 97–98, 125.
  36. ^ Laing (1985), p. 92, 88.
  37. ^ Laing (1985), p. 89, 92–93.
  38. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 34, 61, 63, 89–91.
  39. ^ Laing (1985), p. 90.
  40. ^ Laing (1985), p. 34.
  41. ^ Laing (1985), p. 82.
  42. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 84–85.
  43. ^ Laing (1985), p. 14.
  44. ^ Sabin (1999), p. 157.
  45. ^ Harrington (2002), p. 165.
  46. ^ Reed (2005), p. 49.
  47. ^ Fletcher (2000), p. 497.
  48. ^ MC5: Kick Out the Jams review by Lester Bangs, Rolling Stone, April 5, 1969. Retrieved on January 16, 2007.
  49. ^ Marcus (1979), p. 294.
  50. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 49.
  51. ^ Harrington (2002), p. 538.
  52. ^ Bessman (1993), pp. 9–10.
  53. ^ Andersen and Jenkins (2001), p. 12. Vaughan, Robin (June 6–12, 2003). Reality Bites. Boston Phoenix. Harvard, Joe. Mickey Clean and the Mezz. Boston Rock Storybook. Robbins, Ira. Wille Alexander. Trouser Press Guide. Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
  54. ^ Klimek, Jamie, "Mirrors", Jilmar Music; Jäger, Rolf, "Styrenes—A Brief History", Rent a Dog. Both retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  55. ^ Ohtaka, Toshikazu. Interview with Mick Farren. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. “Soundwise, we wanted to be incredibly loud and violent! That says it all. The hippies wanted to be nice and gentle, but our style was the opposite of that peaceful, natural attitude.”
  56. ^ Unterberger (1998), pp. 86–91.
  57. ^ Laing (1985), pp. 24–26.
  58. ^ Robb (2006), p. 51.
  59. ^ Neate, Wilson. NEU!. TrouserPress.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  60. ^ Anderson (2002), p. 588.
  61. ^ Unterberger (2000), p. 18.
  62. ^ Leblanc (1999), p. 35.
  63. ^ Quoted in Leblanc (1999), p. 35.
  64. ^ Shapiro (2006), p. 492.
  65. ^ Bangs, Lester, "Of Pop and Pies and Fun", Creem, December 1970. Retrieved on November 29, 2007.
  66. ^ Nobahkt (2004), p. 38.
  67. ^ Shapiro (2006), p. 492. Note that Taylor (2003) misidentifies the year of publication as 1970 (p. 16) as does Scott Woods in the introduction to his interview with Marsh: "A Meaty, Beaty, Big, and Bouncy Interview with Dave Marsh". rockcritics.com. Retrieved on December 26, 2006.
  68. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 16
  69. ^ Houghton, Mick, "White Punks on Coke", Let It Rock. December 1975.
  70. ^ a b c Savage (1991), p. 131
  71. ^ Laing (1985), p. 13; "Punk Magazine Listening Party # 7", PunkMagazine.com, July 20, 2001. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
  72. ^ Harvard, Joe, "Real Kids", Boston Rock Storybook. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  73. ^ Savage (1991), pp. 130–131
  74. ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 16–17
  75. ^ Savage (1991), pp. 86–90, 59–60.
  76. ^ a b Walker (1991), p. 662.
  77. ^ a b Savage (1992), p. 89.
  78. ^ Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 102.
  79. ^ Patti Smith—Biography. Arista Records. Retrieved on 2007-10-23. Savage (1991), p. 91; Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 511; Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 106.
  80. ^ Savage (1991), pp. 90–91.
  81. ^ Bessman (1993), p. 27.
  82. ^ Savage (1991), pp. 132–133.
  83. ^ Deming, Mark. "The Dictators Go Girl Crazy!" (review). All Music Guide. Retrieved on 2007-12-27.
  84. ^ Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 119.
  85. ^ Savage (1992), p. 90.
  86. ^ Walsh (2006), p. 27.
  87. ^ Savage (1991), p. 132.
  88. ^ Walsh (2006), pp. 15, 24; for Punk, Wayne County, and punk homosexuality, see McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 272–275; Savage (1992), p. 139; for CBGB's closing in 2006, see, e.g., Damian Fowler, "Legendary punk club CBGB closes", BBC News, October 16, 2006. Retrieved on December 11, 2006.
  89. ^ Savage (1992), p. 137.
  90. ^ Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 249
  91. ^ Isler, Scott, and Ira Robbins. Ramones. Trouser Press. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  92. ^ Adams (2002), p. 369; McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 233–234.
  93. ^ Richard Hell—Another World/Blank Generation/You Gotta Lose. Discogs. Retrieved on 2007-10-23. Buckley (2003), p. 485.
  94. ^ Walsh (2006), p. 8.
  95. ^ Buckley (2003), p. 3; McFarlane (1999), p. 507.
  96. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (October 2, 2003). "Misfits and Malcontents". abc.net.au. Retrieved on November 1, 2006.
  97. ^ McFarlane (1999), p. 548.
  98. ^ Lucy Beaumont (2007-08-17). "Great Australian Albums [TV review]" . The Age. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. Ben Gook (2007-08-16). "Great Australian Albums The Saints – (I'm) Stranded [DVD review]" . Mess+Noise. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  99. ^ Stafford (2006), pp. 57–76.
  100. ^ a b c McFarlane (1999), p. 507.
  101. ^ McCaleb (1991), p. 529.
  102. ^ "The Sex Pistols", Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock 'n' Roll (2001). Retrieved on September 11, 2006; Robb (2006), pp. 83–87; Savage (1992), pp. 99–103.
  103. ^ Colegrave and Sullivan (2005), p. 19.
  104. ^ "The Bromley Contingent", punk77.co.uk. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  105. ^ Savage (1992), pp. 151–152. The quote has been variously ascribed to McLaren (e.g., Laing [1985], pp. 97, 127) and Rotten (e.g., "Punk Music in Britain", BBC, October 7, 2002), but Savage directly cites the New Musical Express issue in which the quote originally appeared. As no contemporary evidence has been put forward in contradiction, the Jones attribution is clearly correct.
  106. ^ Quoted in Friedlander and Miller (2006), p. 252.
  107. ^ Quoted in Savage (1992), p. 163.
  108. ^ Savage (1992), p. 163.
  109. ^ Savage (1992), pp. 124, 171, 172.
  110. ^ "Sex Pistols Gig: The Truth". BBC (2006-06-27). Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  111. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 56; McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 230–233.
  112. ^ Robb (2006), p. 198.
  113. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 56.
  114. ^ Kurt Loder (2003-03-10). "The Clash: Ducking Bottles, Asking Questions". MTV.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  115. ^ Taylor (2004), p. 80.
  116. ^ Laing (1985), p. 13; "This Week in 1976", towerblock.co.uk. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11, 2005 (Monday) The Indonesian government asks TV stations to close down between 1 am and 5 am daily for six months in order to save energy after recent increases in the price of crude oil. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Rhapsody is an online music service run by RealNetworks. ... PopMatters is an international magazine of cultural criticism. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Michael Azerrad is an American author, journalist and musician. ... Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981-1991 is a book by Michael Azerrad (ISBN 0-316-78753-1). ... Julie Burchill (born July 3, 1959 in Frenchay, Bristol) is an English writer, renowned for her invective and often contentious prose. ... muffin is cool ... A media theorist, most commonly associated with the study of universal subcultures, and the presentation of rebellion against the mainstreams of society. ... Naomi Klein (b. ... No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies is a book by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein. ... John Joseph Lydon (born 31 January 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten, is an English rock musician. ... Greil Marcus (2006) Greil Marcus (born 1945) is an American author, music journalist and cultural critic. ... Co-Founder and writer of Punk Magazine, Legs McNeil was also a features editor at Spin magazine and editor in chief of Nerve. ... Ben Myers (born 1976 in Durham, UK) is an author, music journalist and record label owner. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jon Savage real name Jonathan Sage (born 1953) is a writer, broadcaster and music journalist, best known for his award winning history of the Sex Pistols and punk music, Englands Dreaming (1991). ... Steven Wells is a journalist and author. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Punk rock
  • Distorted Magazine monthly online punk rock magazine
  • A History of Punk 1990 essay by rock critic A.S. Van Dorston.
  • "White Punks on Coke" 1975 article on protopunk reprinted in 2008 in Crawdaddy! magazine.
  • Punk 77 history of early UK punk
  • Punk Directory punk music directory
  • Punk 2 New Wave Top 100 list and short reviews
  • Punk interviews and reviews Reviews and interviews from 1980 - 2008.

Crawdaddy! was the first U.S. magazine of rock and roll music criticism. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... // Etymology Avant-punk is a corruption of avant-garde, a term generally used in popular reference to mean in the forefront of innovation, though with more specific meanings in the arts. ... Celtic punk (also known as Paddybeat, Celtcore, Jig punk, or Rock and Reel) is a music genre typically associated with Irish punks or punks from the Irish diaspora; although other Celtic nationalities, such as Scottish, Manx and Welsh people are also represented. ... Christian punk is a form of Christian alternative music and a subgenre of punk rock with some degree of Christian lyrical content. ... Cowpunk or Country Punk is a subgenre of punk rock that began in southern California in the 1980s, especially Los Angeles. ... Crusty redirects here. ... Dance-punk (also known as disco-punk) is a term for an amalgamation of the conceptual elements of punk rock with the production techniques of dance musics, such as funk, dub, disco, synthpop, house, and techno. ... Deathrock is a term used to identify a subgenre of punk rock and Goth which incorporates elements of horror and spooky atmospheres within a Goth-Punk style and first emerged most prominently in the West Coast of the United States and London during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Look up emo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Anarchy Heart, a symbol popular in the young radical community, particularly with Folk Punks and Anarchists. ... Garage punk is a subgenre of punk rock that is heavily influenced by garage rock. ... Ceòl Gàidhlig Mar Sgian Nad Amhaich compilation 7 single with Oi Polloi, Mill a h-Uile Rud, Atomgevitter and Nad Aislingean Gaelic Punk is a subgenre of punk rock consisting of groups and bands singing in Scottish Gaelic as an effort to preserve and spread knowledge of the... Glam punk is glam rock and punk rock music. ... Grindcore, often shortened to grind, is an evolution of crust punk, most commonly associated with death metal, a very different though similarly extreme style of music. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hardcore Punk is a subgenre of Punk Rock that originated in North America in the late 1970s. ... Post-hardcore; this specific genre was created by others as a sourse to relaese the emotion that builds inside, making the music intimate and touching to listeners. ... Horror punk is a music genre that was defined by the band The Misfits, blending horror movie lyrical themes and imagery with musical influences from early punk rock, doo-wop, and, to a lesser degree, rockabilly. ... Two Punk Front members (1978). ... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... No Wave was a short-lived but influential music and art scene that thrived briefly in New York City during the late 1970s and early 1980s alongside the punk scene there. ... Merzbow Einstürzende Neubauten Sonic Youth Melt Banana Lightning Bolt Moonlander & Moodswinger, Yuri Landman Neptune Noise rock describes one variety of post-punk rock music that became prominent in the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Oi! (disambiguation). ... Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... Psychobilly is a genre of rock music that mixes elements of punk rock, rockabilly, and other genres. ... Allmusic. ... Punk Pathetique is a sub-variant of Punk Rock termed by Garry Bushell. ... Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid 1980s as an offshoot of punk. ... Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an indie/punk feminist movement that reached its height in the 1990s but continues to exert influence over alternative cultures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Skate punk (also known as skatepunk, skate-punk, skate-thrash, surf punk, or skate-core) was named because of its popularity among skateboarders, and the fact that many members of skate punk bands were themselves skaters. ... Defining characteristics of synthpunk (also known as synth-punk) bands include being founded at the same time (late 1970s) and place (California) as many US punk bands, performing with those same punk bands, in those same punk clubs, with records released on those same punk labels, preferring electronic instruments such... Taqwacore is a genre of punk music dealing with Islam and its culture, originally conceived in Michael Muhammad Knights novel, The Taqwacores. ... Afro-punk (sometimes spelled Afropunk or AfroPunk) is a term referring to African American and black people experiences of punk culture. ... Protopunk is a term used to describe a number of performers who were important precursors of punk rock, or who have been cited by early punk rockers as influential. ... The DIY ethic (do it yourself ethic) refers to the ethic of being self-reliant and doing things yourself as opposed to paying others to do it. ... Early punk rock musicians (1970s-1980) // 999 Acme Sewage Company Abrasive Wheels The Adicts The Adverts Alternative TV Amazorblades Angelic Upstarts Anti-Nowhere League Anti-Pasti The Angry Samoans The Au Pairs The Automatics The Avengers Bad Brains Bad Religion The Bags Big Balls and the Great White Idiot Big... This is a list of bands that are considered part of the second wave of punk rock, beginning in the 1980s. ... It has been suggested that this list be merged into a category entitled Category:Punk rock groups. ... The punk subculture is a subculture that is based around punk rock. ... List of punk movies, i. ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the punk subculture. ... The cover of the God Save the Queen single designed by Jamie Reid. ... Punk dance is the variety of dance popular among fans of punk rock and related styles. ... A cover of the punk zine Maximum RocknRoll. ... A punk zine (or punkzine) is a fanzine devoted to punk rock music, bands, or the DIY punk philosophy. ... For the drawing or cutting tool, see Straightedge. ... This article is about the genre. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÜ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Arena rock, also called stadium rock or anthem rock, is a loosely-defined term describing a rock era. ... Art rock is a term used to describe a subgenre of rock music with experimental or avant-garde influences that emphasizes novel sonic texture. ... It has been suggested that Merseybeat be merged into this article or section. ... Blues Rock or Blues-rock is a fusion genre of music which combines elements of the blues with rock and roll. ... Boogaloo (shing-a-ling, popcorn music) is a genre of Latin music and dance that was very popular in the United States in the late 1960s. ... For other uses, see British Invasion (disambiguation). ... The Canterbury Scene (or Canterbury Sound) is a term used to loosely describe the group of progressive rock musicians that were based around the city of Canterbury, Kent, England during the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... Christian rock (occasionally abbreviated CR) is a form of rock music played by bands whose members are Christian and who often focus the lyrics on matters concerned with the Christian faith. ... Comedy rock is a term used to describe rock music that mixes the music with general comedy. ... For the geological term, see Country rock (geology). ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Frat rock was an early influential American subgenre of rock and roll / roots rock. ... Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a rock music style that developed in the UK in the post-hippie early 1970s which was performed by singers and musicians wearing outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. ... Hard Rock redirects here. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Instrumental rock and roll is a type of rock and roll music which emphasises musical instruments, and which features no or very little singing. ... The term jam band is commonly used to describe psychedelic rock-influenced bands whose concerts largely consist of bands reinterpreting their songs as springboards into extended improvisational pieces of music. ... Jangle pop is a musical genre that began in United States during the middle of the 1960s, combining angular, chiming guitars and power pop structures. ... Krautrock, also known as Kosmische Musik, is a generic name for the experimental music scene that appeared in Germany in the late 1960s and gained popularity throughout the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Pop rock (disambiguation). ... Power pop is a long-standing musical genre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American pop music. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that attempts to replicate the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. ... Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement, largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend on Sea. ... Pub rock is a style of Australian rock and roll popular throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and still influencing contemporary Australian music today. ... Rap rock is a hybrid of rap and rock music. ... Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, and emerged in the early-1950s. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Samba-rock - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Soft rock, also referred to as light rock or easy rock, is a style of music which uses the techniques of rock and roll to compose a softer, supposedly more ear-pleasing sound for listening, often at work or when driving. ... Southern rock is a subgenre of rock music. ... Stoner rock and stoner metal are interchangeable terms describing sub-genres of rock and metal music. ... In the early 1960s, one of the most popular forms of rock and roll was surf rock. ... This is a list of music genres derived from rock and roll, including major rock, metal and punk genres: Categories: | ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... The massive popularity and worldwide scope of rock and roll resulted in an unprecedented level of social impact. ...


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