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Encyclopedia > Punjabi language
Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ پنجابی Pañjābī
Spoken in: Pakistan (80 million speakers)
India (30 million speakers)
UK, USA, Canada, Dubai, Philippines and other countries with Punjabi migrants 
Region: Punjab
Total speakers: Western: 61-62 million
Eastern: 28 million
Siraiki: 14 million
Total: 104 million 
Ranking: 10-14
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Punjabi 
Writing system: Shahmukhi, Gurmukhi 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of India Punjab, Delhi, Haryana
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: pa
ISO 639-2: pan
ISO 639-3: variously:
pan — Punjabi (Eastern)
pnb — Punjabi (Western)
pmu — Punjabi (Mirpuri)
lah — Lahndi
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Punjabi (also Panjabi; ਪੰਜਾਬੀ in Gurmukhi, پنجابی in Shahmukhi , Pañjābī in transliteration) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people in India, Pakistan and other parts of the world. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... This article is about the geographical region. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of first-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... The Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... Punjabi may refer to: Punjabi language, the language spoke by Punjabi people. ... Image File history File links Punjabi_gurmukhi_shahmukhi. ... The Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. ...


It is an Indo-European language within the smaller Indo-Iranian subfamily. Unusually for an Indo-European language, Punjabi is tonal; the tones arose as a reinterpretation of different consonant series in terms of pitch. In terms of linguistic typology it is an inflecting language, and word order is Subject Object Verb. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... A Tonal language is a language that uses tone to distinguish words. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... For fusion in word-formation, see Assimilation (linguistics). ... In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...

Contents

Dialects and geographic distribution

Being one of the most spoken languages in the world,[1] Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and the shared state capital Chandigarh. It is one of the second official languages of Delhi and Haryana.[2] It is also spoken in neighbouring areas such as Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Punjabi is the predominantly spoken language in the Punjab province of Pakistan (and the most widely spoken language in Pakistan according to the CIA factbook[3]), although it has no official status there, and both Urdu and English are preferred languages of the elite. Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Chandigarh   (Punjabi: , Hindi: , pronunciation: ) also called The City Beautiful , is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers such as the United States, Australia, England (where it is the second most commonly used language[4]) and Canada (where it is the fifth most commonly used language[5]). In recent times Punjabi has grown fast and has now become the fourth most spoken language in Canada.[6] A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Punjabi is the preferred language of most Sikhs, (most of their religious literature being written in it) and Punjabi Hindus. It is the usual language of Bhangra music, which has recently gained wide popularity both in South Asia and abroad. Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Writing is the process of inscribing characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other larger language constructs. ... // Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... Bhangra is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


There are many dialects of Punjabi and they all form part of a dialect continuum, merging with Sindhi and related languages in Pakistan, and Hindustani in India. The main dialects of Punjabi are Majhi, Doabi, Malwai and Powadhi in India, and Pothohari, Lahndi and Multani in Pakistan. Majhi is the standard written form of Punjabi. Punjabi is the fifth top language. It is spoken mainly in Punjab. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Sindhī (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ...


Punjabi University, Patiala, lists the following as dialects of Punjabi:[7] Punjabi University Patiala, one of the premier institutions of higher education located in Punjab (a state in India). ... , Patiala   (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city in the Punjab state of India. ...

When you talk about the villagers Rathi or Rath is gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in India. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Pahari (or Pahaari) is a general terms for a range of dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, not limited to a single country in the subcontinent. ... A variant of Punjabi ... Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ... Baar Di Boli literally means language from Outside. ... Jhangochi is the oldest and most conservative dialect of the Punjabi language. ...

  • Chenavri
  • Multani
  • Bhawalpuri
  • Thalochri
  • Thali
  • Bherochi
  • Lahore-gujranwala
  • Chakwali
  • Kachi
  • Awankari
  • Lubanki
  • Dhani
  • Ghebi
  • Hindko
  • Swaen
  • Chacchi
  • Pothohari/Pindiwali
  • Gojri
  • Punchi

Some of these dialects, such as Dogri, Siraiki and Hindko are sometimes considered separate languages, and are classified in different zones or divisions of Indo-Aryan: Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... Lubanki, Also known as Labanki is an Indo - Pakistan language spoken by the people of Labanas in pakistan and india. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Pothohari can mean either an inhabitant of Pothohar, an area in the north of Pakistani Punjab province, or the language spoken in the region. ... Gojri also known as Gujari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Gujjars of Northern Pakistan and India. ... Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ... Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ...

As classified in SIL Ethnologue: The Central Zone cricket team is a first-class cricket team that represents central India in the Duleep Trophy. ... The Rajasthani languages are a group of related languages spoken in India and Pakistan . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Indo-Aryan languages. ... Seraiki (Urdu: سراییکی ) is a language mostly spoken in the provinces of Sindh and the Punjab in central Pakistan by about 13. ... Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Pothohari can mean either an inhabitant of Pothohar, an area in the north of Pakistani Punjab province, or the language spoken in the region. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Pahari (or Pahaari) is a general terms for a range of dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, not limited to a single country in the subcontinent. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

 └Indo-Aryan └Northern zone └Western Pahari └Dogri [dgo] └Central zone └Eastern Punjabi [pan] └Northwestern zone └Lahnda [lah] ├Jakati [jat] ├Mirpur Punjabi [pmu] ├Northern Hindko [hno] ├Pahari-Potwari [phr] ├Siraiki [skr] ├Southern Hindko [hnd] └Western Punjabi [pnb]  

Western and Eastern Punjabi

Many sources[attribution needed] subdivide the Punjabi language into Western Punjabi or Lahndi (ਲਹਿੰਦੀ), and Eastern Punjabi. They tend to do so based on GA Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. The decision to divide the language has been controversial. The exact division of the language and even the legitimacy of such a division is disputed. Seraiki (Urdu: سراییکی ) is a language mostly spoken in the provinces of Sindh and the Punjab in central Pakistan by about 13. ...


The dialect spoken in central Punjabi — on both the Indian and Pakistani side — is Majhi or Majhaili. Grierson defined Western Punjabi (which he called "Lahnda") as being west of a line running north-south from Sahiwal and Gujranwala districts. This is well within present day Pakistan. Masica remarks that "whatever validity Frierson's line may once have had has no doubt been disturbed by the great movements of population associated with partition".[8] Contrary to this, Ethnologue has come to classify Lahndi as the dialect of Punjabi spoken in all of Pakistan. Punjabi language - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a city population of 1,132,509 (1998 census). ... This article is under construction. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Phonology

Vowels
Front Central Back
Close
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid ə
Open ɛː ɑː ɔː
Consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Plosive and
Affricate
voiceless p ʈ ʧ k
voiceless aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ ʧʰ
voiced b ɖ ʤ g
Fricative (f) s (z) (ʃ) ɦ
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant ʋ l ɭ j

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Grammar

Main article: Punjabi grammar

Writing system

There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language, depending on the region and the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of the speaker. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi (from the mouth of the Kings), a modified version of Persian-Nasta'liq (Arabic) script. In the Indian state of Punjab, Sikhs and others use the Gurmukhī (from the mouth of the Gurus) script. Hindus, and those living in neighbouring Indian states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh sometimes use the Devanāgarī script. Gurmukhī and Shahmukhi scripts are the most commonly used for writing Punjabi and are considered the official scripts of the language. Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... Chalipa panel, Mir Emad. ... The GurmukhÄ« (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ...


Role in Education

Notable authors

See List of Punjabi authors.

This page is a list of ≈Punjabi authors and authors who write in the Punjabi language. ...

Dictionaries

  • Punjabi Dictionary English to Punjabi Dictionary
  • Punjabi to English Dictionary Convert Punjabi word into English
  • Punjabi to English dictionary Punjabi Dictionary
  • Punjabi Kosh Free Windows based Punjabi->English->Punjabi dictionary
  • Punjabi Kashmiri Dictionary by Omkar N Koul and Rattan Lal Talashi. Patiala: Language Department. 1998.

See also

This page is a list of ≈Punjabi authors and authors who write in the Punjabi language. ... This is a List of Punjabi poets: Farid Ganjshakar Hashim Shah Hussain Waris Shah Bulleh Shah Sachal Sarmast Guru Nanak Sultan Bahu Khwaja Ghulam Farid Shiv Kumar Batalvi Amrita Pritam Mohan Singh Pash Gurbaksh Singh Preetlari Nanak Singh Ustad Daman Related Articles Punjabi language, Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi Punjab India Pakistan... // Surjit Bindrakhia Asa Singh Mastana Gurdas Mann Amar Singh Chamkila Deepa Domeli Amar Singh Chamkila Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Kuldeep Manak Shamshad Begum Surinder Shinda Alam Lohar Kartar Singh Ramla Didar Sandhu Surinder Kaur Lal chand Yamlajat Malkit Singh at the London Mela 2005 Mel Mahal Malkit Singh shankar Sahney... Taxila is a World Heritage Site Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjab region. ... Indian languages redirects here. ... Language families in Pakistan are mainly Indo-Aryan with a minor language belonging to Dravidian (Brahui) and one language isolate (burushaski) English is an official language of Pakistan while Urdu is termed the national language. ... Indian languages spoken by more than ten million people are given below. ... List of Punjabi television channels Apna Channel (Pakistan) Ravi TV (Pakistan) DD Punjabi (India) Balle Balle (India) ETC Channel Punjabi (india) Alpha ETC Punjabi (UK) Zee Punjabi (india) MH1 (India) Punjab Today (India) Vectone Punjab (UK) NRI Category: ...

References

  1. ^ punjabidictionary
  2. ^ The Times of India - "Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi" 25 June 2003
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook, Pakistan- People
  4. ^ "Punjabi Community". The United Kingdom Parliament.
  5. ^ Canadian Census Data (2001)
  6. ^ Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada-Indians Abroad-The Times of India
  7. ^ Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture
  8. ^ Masica, Colin P (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages8989uuijhygt. Cambridge University Press, pp.18-20. ISBN 0-521-29944-6. 

is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Shackle, Christopher (2003), "Panjabi", in Cardona, George & Dhanesh Jain, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, 581-621, ISBN 9780415772945, <http://books.google.com/books?id=jPR2OlbTbdkC&pg=PA581&dq=indo-aryan+languages&sig=gNSIxp0p9VDUqKKOWIndIiebfw0>.

External links

Wikipedia
Punjabi language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Punjabi Online Music
  • Punjabi language history
  • Online translator English to Punjabi, or vice-versa
  • Punjabi Dictionary (Gurmukhi)
  • Punjabi Kosh Free Unicode based Punjabi->English->Punjabi dictionary
  • Punjabi language online tutorial
  • Panjabi / Punjabi Primer
  • Academy of the Punjab In North America (APNA)
  • Learn Gurmukhi - Sound and Graphics
  • Panjabi Language
  • Intuitive predictive transliteration technology for Punjabi
  • Dulai, Narinder K. 1989. A Pedagogical Grammar of Punjabi. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
  • Dulai, Narinder K. and Omkar N Koul 1980. Punjabi Phonetic ReaderMysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
  • Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 1989. Modes of Address and Pronominal Usage in Punjabi. Mysore: Cenral Institute of Indian languages.
  • Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 1992. Punjabi Language and Linguistics: An Annotated Bibliography. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
  • Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 2007. Punjabi Newspaper Reader. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.
  • Sukhvinder Singh 2006. Panjabi Phonology: A Sociolinguistic Study. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. ... The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the medieval languages such as Apabhramsha or Abahatta, which eventually evolved into the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani... Abahatta is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages such as Bangla, Maithili, Oriya. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... Any of the three main dialects of Prakrit, used extensively in Sanskrit literature. ... Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India after the decline of Sanskrit as an official language. ... Maharashtri is a language of medieval India, descended from Sanskrit, and spoken in what is now Maharashtra and other parts of India. ... A Dramatic Prakrit, Sauraseni was the chief language of northern medieval India, evolving into the Hindi language complex and Punjabi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... GāndhārÄ« was a north-western prakrit spoken in Gāndhāra. ... Jain Prakrit is a term loosely used for the language of the Jain canon. ... Paisaci, also known as Paisachi, or Paishachi, is an extinct language of classical India, its existence as a medium of debate and literary expression is recorded in various Theravada Buddhist sources, and mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Iranian language family. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... Dhanwar also known as Rai (ISO/DIS 639-3: dhw) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim mainly by the Rai community. ... Hindi as defined by the 1991 Indian census includes linguistically disparate Indo-Aryan dialects. ... Awadhi is an Indian language, often considered a dialect of Hindi, spoken in the Awadh (Oudh) region of Uttar Pradesh. ... Bagheli is a language of the Baghelkhand region of central India. ... Bambaiyya Hindi, Mumbaiyya, or Bombay Hindi (Hindi: बंबय्या हिंदी) is a vernacular form of Hindi spoken primarily in Mumbai (Bombay, formerly). ... Brij Bhasha (or Braj Bhasha) is a language spoken in India by more than 42,000 people in the undefined region of Brij Bhoomi, which was a political state in the era of the Mahabharata wars. ... Bundeli is a Western Hindi language (often considered a dialect of Hindi) spoken in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh. ... Chhattisgarhi is a language of India. ... Indian Indentured labourers were initially brought to Fiji from many districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. ... Haryanvi is a combination of dialects mainly spoken by natives in Haryana (North Indian State), Haryanvi is not classified as a language and has lots of similarities with Hindi, and has planty of Urdu words in it. ... Kannauji language (कन्नौजी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sansiboli is a highly endangered dialect of Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan family. ... Sadhukaddi, a popular language of medieval India, is a vernacular dialect of Hindi/ Hindustani which is a mix of Hindi (Khariboli), Braj Bhasha, Awadhi, Bhojpuri and Rajasthani, hence it is also commonly called a Panchmail Khichadi. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Dakhni (Hindi: दक्खिनी ), also known as Dakkhani, Deccani (Urdu: دکنی), is a dialect of the Urdu language, was spoken in the Deccan region of southern India, centered on the cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Chennai. ... Rekhta is the highly Persianized form of Urdu, a language that combines Arabic, Persian, and Hindi. ... Angika (Dev. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bangla redirects here. ... The dialects of the Bengali language are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family. ... Chittagonian is an Indo-European language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and the much of the southeast of the country. ... Sylheti (native name সিলটী Silôţi; Bengali name সিলেটী SileÅ£i) is the language of Sylhet proper, the north-eastern region of Bangladesh and southern districts of Assam around Silchar. ... Bhojpuri is a popular regional language spoken in northeastern India in the western part of state of Bihar, the northwestern part of Jharkhand, and the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, as well as an adjoining area of southern plains of Nepal. ... The Bishnupriya Manipuri language (BPM) (ইমার ঠার/বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language. ... The Chakma language (Changma Vaj or Changma Kodha) is an Indo-European language spoken in southeastern Bangladesh and neighboring areas of India. ... Halbi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 500,000 individuals across the central part of India. ... Hajong is an Indo-Aryan language with Tibeto-Burman roots spoken by about 19,000 ethnic Hajong in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal in India and the Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. ... The Magadhi language (also known as Magahi) is a language of India. ... Maithili (मैथिली MaithilÄ«) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Majhi (ISO/DIS 639-3: mjz) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Mal Paharia, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 60,000 of 111,000 ethnic Mal Paharia in the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal in India and possibly in Bangladesh. ... Nahari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 100 people in 1961 in the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa in India. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Rajbangsiis an Indo-European; Indic langauge spoken in India by over 3,000,000 people according to the 1991 census, the actual number of speakers may vary due to acculturation into the more predominant Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu) languages or by how many people were reach for the survery and furthermore... Rohingya is a language spoken by the Rohingya Muslim people of Arakan (Rakhine), Burma (Myanmar). ... Sadri is a Bihari language spoken in India and Bangladesh. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Pahari (or Pahaari) is a general terms for a range of dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, not limited to a single country in the subcontinent. ... The Garhwali are a people of the hilly Garhwal Division of Uttarakhand. ... Variously used to signify the people or the local dialect of Kumaon, a region in the Indian Himalayas. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... The Pothwari or Pothohari language in Urdu otherwise known as Mirpuri or Potwari is an Indo-European language spoken from the Potwar district around Rawalpindi, Pakistan to the Cease-fire Line (LoC) of Indian administered Kashmir de-facto border in the Mirpur district of the Jammu area in Pakistan administered... Derawali is an Indo-European language spoken in western parts of Punjab, Pakistan; it is a dialect of Saraiki (western Punjabi) language. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... It has been suggested that Hindku be merged into this article or section. ... The Kangri language is spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, by the Kangri people. ... Kachhi (also spelled, Cutchi or Kachchhi) is an Indo-Aryan Language spoken in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat, with approximately 866,000 speakers. ... Lahnda languages or West Panjabi dialects is a group of Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages. ... ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Dhivehi or Divehi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 300,000 people in the Republic of Maldives where it is the official language of the country and in the island of Minicoy (Maliku) in neighbouring India where it is known as Mahl. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Mahal (މަހަލް) or Mahl, also known locally as Maliku Bas, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Minicoy Island (Maliku), in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , pronounced ], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... The Bhil languages are a group of Central Indo-Aryan languages spoken by some 6 million Bhils in western, central, and by small numbers, even in far eastern, India. ... Bhili is a Central Indo_Aryan language spoken in west_central India, in the region east of Ahmadabad. ... Gamit language is spoken in the area of the surat and mostly spoken by the gamit caste. ... Punkmorten 15:55, 9 February 2006 (UTC) Category: ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Kalto or Nahali is a language isolate spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) by around 5,000 people. ... Rajasthani (राजस्थानी) is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. ... Bagri बागड़ी is a dialect of Rajasthani language of the Indo-Aryan family. ... Goaria is the language used in Rajasthan. ... Gojri also known as Gujari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Gujjars of Northern Pakistan and India. ... Jaipuri language (जयपुरी) refers to the dialect of the Rajasthani languages spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan, in and around the Jaipur region. ... Malvi is an Indo-European language with over a million speakers spoken in Malwa. ... The Marwari language (also variously Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi) is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan, but is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and in Eastern Pakistan. ... Mewari is a popular language spoken in the Mewar region of Rajasthan. ... This language, also known as Thari or Dhati, was spoken in parts of Pakistan. ... This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ... Saurashtra, more correctly, Sauraṣṭri or Sauraṣṭram or Sourashtra, also known as Palkar, Sowrashtra, Saurashtram, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Southern Indian State of Tamil Nadu. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Balochi, a north-western Iranian language, is the principal language of Balochistan. ... Bashkardi or Bashagerdi is a southwestern Iranian language spoken in the southeast of Iran in the provinces of Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan, and Hormozgan. ... Dialects of Central Iran is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Central Iran. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... ... Gorani (also Gurani) is a dialect spoken by several hundreds of thousands of Kurds in the province of Kurdistan and province of Kermanshah in Iran, and in the Halabja region in Iraqi Kurdistan and the Hewraman mountains between Iran and Iraq. ... Harzani (correct form: harzandi) is a modern Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the north of the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan, around the village of Harzand. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ... Kumzari is an Iranian language spoken by the members of the Shihuh tribe in the Kumzar coast of Musandam Peninsula, northern Oman. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soranî (سۆرانی) is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... Laki is an Iranian language/dialect (of Gurâni) of the north-western branch spoken in the central Zagros region of Iran (Luristan province) by the Lak people. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Luri is a southwestern Iranian language and is mainly spoken by the Lurs and Bakhtiari people in the Iranian provinces of Lorestan, Ilam, Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari, Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad and parts of Khuzestan and Hamadan. ... Mazandarani or Tabari (Also known as: Mazeniki, Taperki) is an Iranian language of the northwestern branch. ... Burki is a tribe living in the Kanigurram valley of South Waziristan agency, on the frontier borders of Pakistan. ... Sengiseri is a language spoken in the Semnan province of Iran mainly in the Sangsar (Mahdi Shehr) town and in a several surrounding villages. ... Burki is a tribe living in the Kanigurram valley of South Waziristan agency, on the frontier borders of Pakistan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Aimaq is a dialect of the Persian language of Afghanistan spoken in West of the Hazara, central northwest Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Tajikistan. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Dari (Persian: ) is the official name for the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan[1] and is a synonymous term for Parsi]. // There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari. ... Dehwari is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken by over 20,000 people in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with a significant deviation from it to be on the borderline of being a separate language. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Judeo-Shirazi is a dialect form of the Persian language. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Semnani is one of north western Iranian languages, it is very similar to Mazandarani because they are from the same family which was known as tabari languages. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... The Tat language or Tati is a Western Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group in The Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia. ... Tat language or Tati (Persian: ‎ ) is a group of northwestern Iranian dialects which are closely related to Talysh language. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ... The map of Iranian Speking World The Bartangi language (Persian برتنگی) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Iranian languages. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog (), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Munji language, also Munjani language, is a Pamir language spoken in Badakshan in Afghanistan. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is a language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog ( ), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Ishkashimi language is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... The Munji language, also Munjani language, is a Pamir language spoken in Badakshan in Afghanistan. ... The Rushani language, a Pamir language, is closely related to the Shughni language, and in fact may be classified as a dialect of it. ... Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... The Sarikoli language (also Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. ... The Wakhi Tajiki language is an Iranian language in the subbranch of Southeastern Iranian languages (see Pamir languages). ... The Yazgulyam language (also Yazgulyami, Iazgulem, Yazgulam, natively yuzdami zevég, Tajik yazgulomi) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken by ca. ... The Yidgha language is a Pamir language spoken in the Upper Lutkuh Valley of Chitral, west of Garam Chishma in Pakistan. ... The Vanji language, also spelt Vanchi and Vanži, is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Waziri language is an east-iranian language spoken on the Waziristan Province of Pakistan and some of the neighboring provinces in Pakistan and Afghanstan. ... The Yaghnobi language [1] is a living Northeastern Iranian language (the only other living member being the Ossetic), and is spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by Yaghnobi people. ... Tangshewi is a language possibly of the Iranian family of languages. ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... Dameli is a language spoken by less than 5,000 people in the remote valley of Damil-Nisar, in the Chitral District of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Domaaki - also known as Dumaki or Doma - is a language spoken in parts of northern Pakistan. ... Gawar-Bati is known in Chitral as Aranduyiwar, because it is spoken in Village Arandu, which is the last village in the bottom of Chitral and is across the Kunar River from Berkot in Afghanistan. ... Kalami is a Dardic language spoken in northern Pakistan. ... Kalash or Kalasha (also known as Kalasha-mun) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Iranian branch, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral Group. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Khowar is classified as a Dardic Language. ... Kohistani is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan District (Pakistan). ... Nangalami is a Dardic language and is a branch of the Indo-Iranian language group, which in turn is branch of the Indo-European language. ... Pashayi - also known as Pashai - is a language (or a group of languages) spoken in parts of southwestern Afghanistan. ... Tshina is a Dardic Language and is spoken by majority of people in Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Shumashti - also known as Shumasht - is a language spoken in parts of western Afghanistan. ... Torwali (Turvali) language is spoken in Kohistan and Swat, North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ... Askunu is a language of Afghanistan spoken by the Askunu people in the region of Pech Valley around Wama, northwest of Asadabad in Kunar province. ... Kalasha-ala or simply Kalasha is a language spoken by the Kalasha of Nuristan in a few villages in the central part of the Kunar Province of Afghanistan. ... Kamkata-viri contains the two main dialects Kata-vari and Kamviri. ... Kamviri is a dialect of the Kamkata-viri language spoken by 5,500 (or up to 10,000) of the Kom people of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Kata-vari is a dialect of the Kamkata-viri language spoken by the Kata in parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Mumviri is a dialect of the Kamkata-viri language spoken by perhaps 1,500 of the Mumo people of Afghanistan. ... Tregami or Trigami is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the villages of Gambir and Katar in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... Vasi-vari is a language spoken by the Vasi in a few villages in the Prasun Valley in Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

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Canada's federal election and the Punjabi language (1121 words)
Punjabi is listed as the sixth most spoken language in Canada, and it could easily move into fourth or fifth position if all Punjabis claimed it to be their mother tongue.
To deny Punjabi the recognition of this contribution, and to say that it is not a Canadian language is a form of discrimination known in social sciences as Lingucism.
Punjabi was accepted as one of the six languages to be taught as second language in BC schools in 1994.
Punjabi Network (2485 words)
Punjabi is one of the 14 regional languages recognized in the Indian constitution.
There was a movement for the promotion of the Punjabi language in the 1980s and '90s, and some Punjabi literature is being published using the Urdu script; among the works published are Punjabi classics that have hitherto been available in Gurmukhi script or preserved in oral tradition.
He wrote at a time when Sikh religion and politics and the Punjabi language were under such strong attack by the English that the Sikhs had begun to doubt the value of their way of life.
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