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Encyclopedia > Punjabi
Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,پنجابی)
Spoken in: India, Pakistan and other countries with Punjabi migrants 
Region: Punjab
Total speakers: Western: 61-62 million
Eastern: 28 million
Siraiki: 14 million
Total: 104 million 
Ranking: 10th
Genetic classification: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Punjabi 
Official status
Official language of: Punjab (India), Delhi
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: pa
ISO 639-2: pan
ISO/DIS 639-3: variously:
pan — Punjabi (Generic)
pnb — Punjabi (Western)
pmu — Punjabi (Mirpuri)
lah — Lahnda 
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Punjabi (also Panjabi; ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Paṁjābī in Gurmukhī, پنجابی Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. It is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Iranian subfamily. It is an agglutinative and tonal language where words are ordered 'Subject Object Verb'. Image File history File links New version of word Punjabi in gurmukhi and in shahmukhi, not naskh, this time. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of first-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of first-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects, including most of the major language families of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest and South Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... This article deals with the metropolis of Delhi. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639 is one of several international standards that lists short codes for language names. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Created by me. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia. ... The GurmukhÄ« (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Tone refers to the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Punjabi culture suffered a split between India and Pakistan during the Partition of 1947. As such, Punjabi language and culture tend to be one of the uniting factors in spite of national and religious affiliations. Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents


Dialects and geographic distribution

Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and it is one of the second official languages of Delhi[1]. It is also spoken in neighbouring areas such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Punjabi is the predominant spoken language in the Punjab province of Pakistan although it has no official status there, and both Urdu and English are preferred languages of the elite. This article deals with the metropolis of Delhi. ... Haryana (हरयाणा) is a state in north India. ... Himachal Pradesh, formally the Punjab Hill States, is a state in northwest India. ... This article details the eastern Pakistani province of Punjab. ... Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as Britain, the United States and especially Canada, where it is the fifth most commonly used language[2]. Punjabi is the sacred language of the Sikhs, in which the religious literature is written. It is the usual language of Bhangra music, which has recently gained wide popularity both in South Asia and abroad. A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... Punjabis are an Indo-Aryan people native to the Punjab region located in the north west corner of the Indian subcontinent. ... Guru Nanak Dev (1469-1538), considered to be the founder of Sikhism, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Bhangra (Punjabi: ਭੰਗਡ਼ਾ, bhaṅgṛa) is both a lively dance which traces its roots to the region of Punjab, now divided between North India and Pakistan, and the musical accompaniment to the dance. ... Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ...


There are many dialects of Punjabi and they all form part of a dialect continuum, merging with Sindhi and related languages in Pakistan, and Hindustani in India. The main dialects of Punjabi are Majhi, Doabi, Malwai and Powadhi in India, and Pothohari, Lahnda and Multani in Pakistan. Majhi is the standard written form of Punjabi and is the dialect used in both Amritsar and Lahore. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Sindhi refers to an ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Amritsar (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ, Hindi: अमृतसर), meaning Pool of the Nectar of Immortality, is a city in Punjab, India. ... South section of the Hazuri Bagh, looking south towards the Roshnai Gate The Minar-e-Pakistan, south-side view Lahore (لاھور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ...


The Punjabi University, Patiala, lists the following as dialects of Punjabi[3]: Punjabi University Patiala, one of the premier institutions of higher education located in Punjab (a state in India). ... Patiala is a city in the Punjab state of India. ...

  • Bhattiani
  • Rathi
  • Malwai
  • Powadhi
  • Pahari
  • Doabi
  • Kangri
  • Chambiali
  • Dogri
  • Wajeerawadi
  • Baar di Boli
  • Jangli
  • Jatki
  • Chenavri
  • Multani
  • Bhawalpuri
  • Thalochri
  • Thali
  • Bherochi
  • Kachi
  • Awankari
  • Dhani
  • Ghebi
  • Hindki
  • Swaen
  • Chacchi
  • Pothohari
  • Punchi

Rathi or Rath is gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in India. ... Pahari (also known as Pahaari), is a crude word referring to all the different and varied dialects of communities living in the Indian part of central Himalayan range. ... A variant of Punjabi ... Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ... Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Pothohari can mean either an inhabitant of Pothohar, an area in the north of now Pakistani Punjab province, or the language spoken in the region. ...

Western and eastern Punjabi

Many sources subdivide the Punjabi language into Western Punjabi — Lehnda (ਲੇਹੰਦਾ), Lahnda (ਲਹਿੰਦਾ) and Lahndi (ਲਹਿੰਦੀ) are all used synonymously — and Eastern Punjabi. They tend to do so based on GA Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. The decision to divide the language has been controversial and most Punjabis (and many linguists) do not divide the language into two. Indeed, the distinction was largely arbitrary and could be seen to divide a dialect continuum into chunks that are 'easier to manage'.


This distinction between Western and Eastern Punjabi is blurred at the very best. For example, although Grierson defined the area of Lahnda as West of Lahore, this definition has gradually moved to encompass all forms of Punjabi used in Pakistan. This has led to both Lahore Punjabi and Amritsar Punjabi being defined as separate languages even when Majhi is the main dialect spoken in both cities. South section of the Hazuri Bagh, looking south towards the Roshnai Gate The Minar-e-Pakistan, south-side view Lahore (لاھور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Amritsar (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ, Hindi: अमृतसर), meaning Pool of the Nectar of Immortality, is a city in Punjab, India. ...


As classified in Ethnologue:

 Indo-European └Indo-Iranian └Indo-Aryan │ ├Northern zone │└Western Pahari │ └Dogri [dgo] │ ├Northwestern zone │└Lahnda [lah] │ ├Jakati [jat] │ ├Khetrani [xhe] │ ├Mirpur Punjabi [pmu] │ ├Northern Hindko [hno] │ ├Pahari-Potwari [phr] │ ├Seraiki [skr] │ ├Southern Hindko [hnd] │ └Western Punjabi [pnb] │ └Central zone └Eastern Punjabi [pan] 

Some of these dialects, such as Dogri, are now considered separate languages. Dogri is an Indic language spoken by some two million people in South Asia, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir but also in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir and elsewhere. ...


Vocabulary

Modern Punjabi vocabulary has been influenced by other languages, including Hindustani, Persian and English. Like other North Indian languages, it is derived from Sanskrit and is therefore Indo-European. Hindustani is a term used by linguists to describe several closely related idioms in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects, including most of the major language families of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest and South Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


Much like English, Punjabi has moved around the world and developed local forms by integrating local vocabulary. While most loanwords come from Hindustani, Persian and English, Punjabi emigrants around the world have integrated terms from such languages as Spanish and Dutch. A distinctive "Diaspora Punjabi" is thus emerging. As there is no formal consensus over vocabulary and spelling in Punjabi, it is likely that Diaspora Punjabi will increasingly deviate from the forms found on the Indian Subcontinent in the future. Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ...


Writing system

There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language, depending on the region and the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of the speaker. The script used for writing Punjabi in the Punjab province of Pakistan is known as Shahmukhi (from the mouth of the Kings) which is a modified version of Persian-Nasta'liq script. Sikhs and others in the Indian state of Punjab tend to use the Gurmukhī (from the mouth of the Gurus) script. Hindus, and those living in neighbouring states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh sometimes use the Devanāgarī script. Gurmukhī and Shahmukhi scripts are the most commonly used for writing Punjabi and are considered the official scripts of the language. Shahmukhi (شاہ Ù…Ú©Ú¾ÛŒ) is a script used to record the Punjabi language. ... Nastaliq or Nastaleegh (نستعلیق) is a specific style for writing in the Arabic alphabet. ... The GurmukhÄ« (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਖੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language. ... A Hindu (also spelt Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, also known as Sanatan (सनातन) Dharma, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural systems of Bharat (India) and Nepal and the island of Bali While almost all Indians were known as Hindus to the outside world till the... Haryana (हरयाणा) is a state in north India. ... Himachal Pradesh, formally the Punjab Hill States, is a state in northwest India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी —, pronounced as , but in English pronounced as ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida writing system used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali...


Examples

English Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Transliteration Notes
Hello ਸਤਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਕਾਲ

ਨਮਸਤੇ/ਨਮਸਕਾਰ


ਅੱਸਲਾਮ ਅਲੈਕਮ

سات سری اکال

نمستے/نمسکار


السلام علیکم

Sat Srī Akāl (Sikh)

Namastē/Namaskār (Hindu)


As'salām Alaikam (Muslim)

The greeting used depends on the religion of the speaker.
Yes (Informal) ਹਾਂ ہاں Hāṁ
Yes (Formal) ਹਾਂ ਜੀ ہاں جی Hāṁ Jī
No (Informal) ਨਾ نا
No (Formal) ਨਹੀਂ/ਨਹੀਂ ਜੀ نہیں/نہیں جی Nahīṁ/Nahīṁ Jī
My name is ___. ਮੇਰਾ ਨਾਂ ___ ਹੈ । میرا نام ___ ہے۔ Mērā Nāṁ ___ Hai

Notable authors

Waris Shah was a Punjabi poet from the Punjab, most well-known for his seminal work Heer, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. ... Bulleh Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet, believed to have lived from 1680 to 1758. ... Hashim Shah was the famous poet and literary person who wrote numerous poems and literary writings. ... Sultan Bahu (ca 1628 - 1691) was a muslim, sufi and saint of Pakistan, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri sufi order. ... Shiv (July 23, 1936 - May 7, 1973), as hes fondly called, was a revolutionary and maverick Punjabi poet. ... Amrita Pritam (August 31, 1919 – October 31, 2005) (Gurmukhi: ਅਮ੍ਰਿਤਾ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਮ, Devanagari: अमृता प्रीतम) is a famous Punjabi poet and writer living in India since 1947, when India and Pakistan were divided as two separate countries. ... Pash (Paash) ਅਵਤਾਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਪਾਸ਼ Pash or often spelled as Paash, Avtar Singh Sandhu, was born in Talwandi Salem, Jalandhar (Punjab, India) on 9th of September 1950. ... Nanak Singh is considered the pioneer novelist in Punjabi. ... Dhani Ram Chatrik Dhani Ram Chatrik was born on October 4, 1876. ... Akbar Khan (?-1849). ... Jaswant Singh Kanwal Jaswant Singh Kanwal was born in Dhudike, Moga District, Punjab, India. ...

See also

This page is a list of Punjabi people or Punjabi language authors. ... This is a List of Punjabi poets: Farid Ganjshakar Hashim Shah Hussain Waris Shah Bulleh Shah Sachal Sarmast Guru Nanak Sultan Bahu Khwaja Ghulam Farid Shiv Kumar Batalvi Amrita Pritam Mohan Singh Pash Gurbaksh Singh Preetlari Nanak Singh Ustad Daman Related Articles Punjabi language, Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi Punjab India Pakistan... // Notable Punjabi singers Legends Asa Singh Mastana Gurdas Mann Surjit Bindrakhia Surinder Kaur Prakash Kaur Jagmohan Kaur Malkit Singh at the London Mela 2005 Old-School Malkit Singh Harbhajan Mann Manmohan Varis Hans Raj Hans Kamal Heer Babbu Mann New-School Sukhshinder Shinda Jazzy B Punjabi MC (DJ) Bally Sagoo... List of Punjabi television channels Apna Channel (Pakistan) Ravi TV (Pakistan) DD Punjabi (India) Balle Balle (India) ETC Channel Punjabi (india) Alpha ETC Punjabi (UK) Zee Punjabi (india) MH1 (India) Punjab Today (India) Vectone Punjab (UK) NRI Category: ... India is rich in languages, boasting not only the indigenous sprouting of Dravidian and Indo-Aryan tongues, but of the absorption of Middle-Eastern and European influences as well. ... India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... Indian languages spoken by more than ten million people are given below. ...

References

  1. ^ The Times of India - "Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi" 25 June 2003
  2. ^ Canadian Census Data (2001)
  3. ^ Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture

June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and the shared state capital Chandigarh.
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Punjabi or Panjabi ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; in Gurmukhi, پنجابی; in Shahmukhi, Pañjābī in transliteration) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken or understood by the Punjabi people in India, Pakistan and other parts of the world by over 150 million people.It is an Indo-European language within the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranian subfamily.The language...
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