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Encyclopedia > Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab
Flag of Punjab Map of Pakistan with Punjab highlighted.
Capital
 • Coordinates
Lahore
 • 31.33° N 74.21° E
Population (2003)
 • Density
79,429,701
 • 386.8/km²
Area
205344 km²
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Main language(s) Punjabi (official)
English
Urdu (national)
Saraiki
Hindko
Pashto
Balochi
Status Province
 • Districts  •  35
 • Towns  •  
 • Union Councils  •  
Established
 • Governor/Commissioner
 • Chief Minister
 • Legislature (seats)
   1 July 1970
 • Khalid Maqbool
 • Dost Muhammad Khosa
 • Provincial Assembly (371)
Website Government of Punjab

The Punjab or Panjab (Urdu: پنجاب ) province of Pakistan is by far the country's most populous and prosperous region and is home to the Punjabis and various other groups. Neighbouring areas are Sindh to the south, Balochistan and the North West Frontier Province to the west, Pakistani administered Azad Kashmir, Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir and Islamabad to the north, and Indian Punjab and Rajasthan to the east. The main languages are the Punjabi, Urdu and Saraiki. The provincial capital is Lahore. The name Punjab literally translates from the Persian words Pañj (پنج), meaning "five", and Āb (آب) meaning "water". Thus "Punjab" can be translated as "(the) five waters" - and hence the land of the five rivers, referring to the Indus, Ravi, Sutlej, Chenab and Jhelum rivers; the last four rivers being the tributaries of the Indus River. The province was founded in its current form in May 1972. File links The following pages link to this file: Punjab (Pakistan) Categories: GFDL images ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Pakistan Standard Time (PST) is the time zone for Pakistan. ... UTC +5 is the timezone for : Pakistan Standard Time in Pakistan. ... Language families in Pakistan are mainly Indo-Aryan with a minor language belonging to Dravidian (Brahui) and one language isolate (burushaski) English is an official language of Pakistan while Urdu is termed the national language. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: , also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pathani or Pushtoo and also known as Afghan language[4][5]) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan[6]. // Geographic distribution of Pashto (purple) and other Iranian languages Pashto is spoken by about 30... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Union Councils of Pakistan are local governments in Pakistan. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant Gen. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Image File history File links Punjab. ... The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) of Pakistan contains roughly the part of Balochistan that falls within the borders of present-day Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Farsi redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... The Chenab River (Punjabi: , , Urdu: , literally Moon(Chen) River(ab)) is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahaul district of Himachal Pradesh, India. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ...

Contents

Geography

Administrative Divisions of Punjab
Administrative Divisions of Punjab

Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province at 205,344 km² (79,284 square miles) and is located at the northwestern edge of the geologic Indian plate in South Asia. The provincial level-capital and main city of the Punjab is Lahore, which has been the historical capital of the region. Other important cities include Multan, Faisalabad, Sialkot, and Rawalpindi. The province is home to six rivers: the Indus, Beas, Sutlej, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi. Nearly 60% of Pakistan's population lives in the Punjab. It is the nation's only province that touches Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Azad Kashmir, and contains the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad. This geographical position and a large multi-ethnic population strongly influence Punjab's outlook on National affairs and induces in Punjab a keen awareness of the problems of the Pakistan's other important provinces and territories. In the acronym P-A-K-I-S-T-A-N, the P is for PUNJAB. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x1102, 310 KB) Pakistan Survey, http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x1102, 310 KB) Pakistan Survey, http://www. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: ), the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... The Chenab River rises in the Himalayan ranges of Kashmir and flows through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: Å›imāl maÄ¡ribÄ« sarhadÄ« sÅ«ba شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ... For the capital of Pakistan, see Islamabad. ... This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to monoethnic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... For the town in southern Kazakhstan, see Hazrat-e Turkestan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Motto اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam(Urdu) Unity, Discipline and Faith Anthem Qaumi Tarana Capital Islamabad Largest city Karachi Official languages Urdu (national), English (official)[1] Demonym Pakistani Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Pervez Musharraf  -  Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Formation  -  Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared August 14, 1947   -  Islamic... This article is about the geographical region. ...


The province is a mainly a fertile region along the river valleys, while sparse deserts can be found near the border with India and Balochistan. The region contains the Thar and Cholistan deserts. The Indus River and its many tributaries traverse the Punjab from north to south. The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well. Fljótsdalur in East-Iceland A valley is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles (square kilometers) in area. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Derawar Fort in Cholistan. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Categories: Water-transport stubs | Canals | Water transport ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...


Climate

Most areas in Punjab experience fairly cool winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in. Spring is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...


The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46°C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51°C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54°C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... The wet season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. ...


Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years. Experts are suggesting that this is due to global climate change. [1]


Demographics and society

Punjabis in Horse and Cattle Show

The population of the province is estimated to be 86,084,000 in 2005 and is home to over half the population of Pakistan. The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi (which is written in a Perso-Arabic script in Pakistan) and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group (and overlap into neighbouring India). The language is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan, (however, it is recognized in the Indian Constitution). Punjabis themselves are a heterogeneous group comprising different tribes and communities, although the different castes in Pakistani Punjab has more to do with traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans as opposed to rigid social stratifications. Image File history File linksMetadata Horse&CattleShow. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Horse&CattleShow. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. ... There have been several documents known as the Constitution of Pakistan. ... The Constitution of India, the worlds lengthiest written constitution (with 395 articles and 8 schedules) was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. ... Look up Heterogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is on the social structure. ... Community is a set of people (or agents in a more abstract sense) with some shared element. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ...


The most important tribes within Punjab include the the Arains, the Gakhars, the Gujjars, the Jats, the Rajputs, the Punjabi Shaikhs and the Syeds. Other smaller tribes are the Awans, Rawns and the Maliks. In Central Punjab, there is a significant population who are descendants of settlers from the Kashmir Valley. In addition, there is a significant shift towards the usage of Urdu by the educated classes of the province as the Punjabis are the most ardent supporters of the nation-state of Pakistan and all of its national institutions[citation needed]. There is also a nationalist movement amongst the somewhat related Saraikis in the south of Punjab, in and around the city of Multan and many wish to see a separate the region into a new province of Saraikistan[citation needed]. Other smaller ethnic groups in the province include the Hindko, Pakhtuns, the Baloch, Kashmiris, Sindhis and Muhajirs. Three decades of bloodshed in neighbouring Afghanistan have brought a large number of Afghan refugees to the province. The Arain (Urdu: آرائین) are a very good of an agricultural[1] caste[2] settled mainly in the Punjab[3][4] (Pakistan), with significant numbers also in the Sindh (Pakistan). ... The location of Hazara relative to surrounding areas Gakhar (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) (Urdu: ) are an ancient aristocratic and warlike clan now located in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Jhelum, Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistan (Tibet), Chitral, and Khanpur (NWFP) regions in modern day Pakistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gujar. ... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... Sheikh (Arabic: شيخ ), meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... Sayyid (Arabic: سيد ) Sayyid is an honorific title often given to claimed descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Husayn and Hasan, the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib (who was Muhammads younger cousin and had been raised in his... Awan is an Arabic word, which means helper or an assistant. ... Rawn is a famous tribe of Punjab. ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is an Arabic word meaning king. It has been adopted in various other, mainly Asian languages, and it is sometimes used in derived meanings. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation). ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... See Muhajir page for all Muhajir groups in the world Muhajir or Mohajir (Urdu: مہاجر) is a term widely used to describe the Muslims who migrated to Pakistan after the independence of Pakistan from India. ...


The population of Punjab (Pakistan) is over 99% Muslim with a Sunni majority and Shia minority. There are small non-Muslims groups of Zorastrians, Bahá'ís, Christians, Sikhs and Hindus. The Ismaili and Ahmediya communities are considered non-Muslim by some. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ...


Due to its strategic location in the Asian sub-continent, wave after wave of migrants poured into the area and settled on its fertile lands and today, although originally belonging to the Aryan stock, there has been some settlements of Iranians, Central Asians, and Afghans who have come individually or in groups. This admixture has further diversified Pakistani Punjabis from Punjabis across the border in India. Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... An Afghan or an Afghani is the name used to describe a person from the country of Afghanistan. ...


The dialects spoken in different regions of the land have a common vocabulary and a shared heritage. The shared heritage also extends to a common faith, Islam. The people of Punjab have also a shared spiritual experience, which has been disseminated by Tassawwaf and can be witnessed on the occasion of the remembrance-fairs held on the Urs of Sufi Saints. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences. ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... Link titleAs a three letter acronym, URS can be: the former IOC country code for the Soviet Union Robert Schuman University (Université Robert Schuman) The Unbroadcastable Radio Show at the Comedy Store, Manchester URS Corporation, a US-based engineering services firm User Requirements Specification URS Certification http://www. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ...


History

Main article: History of Punjab

// Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the...

Ancient history and the Hindu Period

It was formerly thought that the original inhabitants of the Indus Valley area were the present populations of South India who were displaced by Aryans invaders from the North West, however, recently the Aryan invasion theory has been largely discarded by most scholars. It is now generally accepted that the area of the Indus Valley Civilization has been continuously inhabited for thousands of years by the same general population stock as is presently found in the area of Punjab. The main site of the Indus Valley Civilization in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into Indo-Aryan civilization. The arrival of the Indo-Aryans led to the flourishing of the Vedic Civilization that extended from the ancient Sarasvati River to the Ganges river to the entire Indian Subcontinent around 1500 BCE. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia. Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara Mahajanapadas, Mauryas, Kushans, Gupta Empire and Hindu Shahi. Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Multan and Lahore) grew in wealth. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Harappa is a city in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, located beside a former course of the Ravi River; about 35km southwest of Sahiwal. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... Ganga redirects here. ... (Redirected from 1500 BCE) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan Empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ...


Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from the west. Invaded by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks and Afghans, Punjab witnessed centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its legacy is a unique culture that combines Hindu, Buddhist, Persian, Central Asian, Islamic, Sikh and British elements. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (1980 map)  42% Pashtun  27% Tajik  9% Hazara  9% Uzbek         3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        Languages of Afghanistan (1980 map)  50% Dari dialect of Persian  35% Pashto  8% Uzbek  3% Turkmen  2% Baloch        The Demographics of Afghanistan are ethnically and linguistically mixed. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


The city of Taxila, reputed to house the oldest university in the world, Takshashila University, was established by the great Vedic thinker and politician Chanakya. Taxila was a great center of learning and intellectual discussion during the Hindu Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site, and revered for its archaeological and religious history. Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Takshashila University in ancient India was the worlds first university, dated from around 700 BCE. It was well known as an institution of higher learning in ancient India, attracting applicants from around the world who had to sit tough entrance examinations to be admitted. ... Chanakya- The Great Politics and Education Guru (Master) of India The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


The arrival of Islam

Badshahi Masjid - The largest mosque of the Mughal Empire built by emperor Aurangzeb.

The Punjabis were predominantly Hindus with large minorities of Buddhists and Zoroastrians, when the Umayyad Muslim Arab army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Punjab and Sindh in 711. Bin Qasim recorded he so was overwhelmed by the gold in the Aditya Temple in the thriving trading city of Multan (known as Mulasthana then), that he recovered the expenses for his entire invasion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ...


During the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, non-Muslims were forced to pay the jaziya tax or to convert to Islam. The province became an important centre and Lahore was made into a second capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], known as dhimmis, in exchange for being allowed to practice their faith, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ...


The Greeks, Central Asians and Persians

Unique to Pakistani Punjab was that this area was briefly conquered into various central Asian, Greek and Persian empires: after the bloody victories of Alexander the Great, Mahmud of Ghazni and Tamerlane. These were periods of contact between this region of Pakistan and the Persian Empire and all the way to Greece. In later centuries, when Persian was the language of the Mughal government, Persian architecture, poetry, art and music was an integral part of the region's culture. The official language of Punjab remained Persian until the arrival of the British in the mid 19th century, where it was finally abolished and the administrative language was changed over to English. The Punjabi language gained prominence during Ranjit Singh's rule in between but was written in the Sikh Gurumukhi script. After 1947, Urdu, which has Persian and Sanskrit roots, became Islamic Pakistan's national language. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Persia redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


The Mughals

The Mughals controlled the region from 1524 until 1739 and would also lavish the province with building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens and the Badshahi Mosque, both situated in Lahore. Muslim soldiers, traders, architects, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and some may have settled in the Punjab. Following the decline of the Mughals, the Shah of Iran and founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Nader Shah crossed the Indus and sacked the province in 1739. Following this terrible visitation, the Afghan conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani annexed the Punjab into his Durrani Empire from 1747 until 1762. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nāder Shāh Afshār (Persian: ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 6, 1698[1] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ...


The Afghans

The founder of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Durrani was born into the Sadozai section of the Popalzai clan of the Abdali tribe of the Pashtuns in the city of Multan in Pakistani Punjab. After cementing his authority over various Afghan and Pashtun tribes, he went about to establish the first united Afghan Kingdom, the Durrani Empire which consisted of all of Pakistan, Afghanistan and parts of Iran (Nishapur). The Punjab was a cultural reservoir for the Afghans, and many where attracted to its lush fertile lands, later settling them. It has been said that with the loss of the breadbasket regions of the Punjab and Sindh, Afghanistan has never been able to achieve a stable state ever since. Many Afghan tribes continue to live in Pakistan's Punjab province such as the Gardezis, Niazis, Lodhis, the Kakazai and the Barakzai to name a few. Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... Popalzai or Popalzay is the name of the Pashtun clan that is part of the larger Durrani tribe from which the first king of Afghanistan Ahmad Shah Durrani originated. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... Gardezi is a common Muslim family name. ... Major ethnic groups of Pakistan (1980); Pashtun in green. ... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... Read Family Tree of Kakazai Pathan Tribe on Page 555 from Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India - Published 1907 :: Courtesy: The British Library :: Daulat Khel, Maghdud Khel, Mahsud Khel and Mahmud Khel, Sub-divisions of Kakazai Pathan Tribe :: Courtesy: The British Library :: The Kakazai (see spelling variants below) are a... The Barakzai Dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. ...


The Sikhs

A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Sikh ruler, Ranjit Singh.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Sikh ruler, Ranjit Singh.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the religion of Sikhism was born, and during the Mughal period gradually emerged as a formidable military force until subjugated and assimilated by the later expanding British Empire. After fighting Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Sikhs wrested control of the Punjab from his descendants and ruled in a confederacy, which later became the Sikh Kingdom of the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. A denizen of the city of Gujranwala, the capital of Ranjit Singh's kingdom was Lahore. The Sikhs made architectural contributions to the city and the Lahore Fort. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1712, 239 KB) Image Info: Description: The Lahore Fort:->A pavillion adjacent to the Shish Mahal (Mirror Castle). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1712, 239 KB) Image Info: Description: The Lahore Fort:->A pavillion adjacent to the Shish Mahal (Mirror Castle). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized independent sovereign, punjabi Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab[1]. They were loosely politically linked but strongly bound in the cultural and religious spheres. ... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707 starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh may refer to Maharaja Ranjit Singh , the Jat-Sikh ruler of Punjab region Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Jat ruler of Bharatpur princely state in Rajasthan, India Maharaja Ranji Singh Rahix, Indian founder of the RAHI Maharaja Ranjitsinhji, Jam Sahib of Nawanagar, India and cricketer Categories: ... Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a population of 1,132,509 (1998 census). ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ...


The British

The Maharaja's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo-Sikh War; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore and the annexation of territory south of the Satluj to British India. The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


Some parts of Pakistani Punjab also served as the centre of resistance in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ...


Partition and its aftermath

Minar-e-Pakistan
Minar-e-Pakistan

In 1947 the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western Punjabis voted to join the new country of Pakistan while the easterners joined India. This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 188 KB) Image Info: Description: A panoramic view of the Minar-e-Pakistan, taken from the Lahore Fort. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1712, 188 KB) Image Info: Description: A panoramic view of the Minar-e-Pakistan, taken from the Lahore Fort. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ...


The undivided Punjab, of which Punjab (Pakistan) forms a major region today, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs unto 1947 apart from the Muslim majority.[2]


At the time of Partition in 1947 and due to the ensuing horrendous exchange of populations, the Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India.[3] Punjabi Muslims were uprooted similarly from their homes in East Punjab which now forms part of India.[4]


The West Punjabi Hindu and Sikh refugees who moved to India leaving their ancient home lands in Punjab (Pakistan) belonged to various sub groups, clans, tribes, castes and linguistic groups. This includes Khatris, Aroras, Rajputs, Jats, Gujjars, Kambojs, Mohyals, Mazhabis, as well as others such as the linguistically distinct Multanis. A unique feature among Punjabis of different faiths Muslim, Hindu and Sikh hailing from the area which now forms the Punjab (Pakistan) is the enduring affinities to sub grouping and clans cutting across religious lines. Consequently these Punjabis of Pakistan, despite having left the country, continue to share common surnames and tribal affiliations with their parent tribes and lands left behind. This includes surnames such as Sahgal, Sial, Bhatti, Ghumman, Sandhu, Tiwana and Cheema. In recent years, many of these refugees have been able to visit their ancestral homelands. The Khatris is a sub-group of Punjabis and are the original Kshatriya group of the Hindu caste system. ... For mycologist who uses the author abbreviation Arora, see David Arora. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ... The Gujjar or Gurjar are an ethnic group and caste of the Indian subcontinent. ... Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mohyal (Punjabi-Shahmukhi: ﻝﺎﻴﮨﻮﻣ , Punjabi-Gurmukhi: ਮੋਹ੍ਯਾਲ, Hindi: मोहयाल) (alternate spellings include Muhiyal, Muhial, Mhial, Mohiyal or Mahjal) is the name of an endogamous group of seven lineages arising from the Gandhara region. ... A Mazhabi person is one belonging to the Dalit population of Punjab and Haryana in Northern India. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Sehgal (sometimes written as Sahgal or Saigal) is one of the family names of the Indian subcontinent, from the the Khatri community. ... typical Sial material, a Precambrian granite showing potassium feldspar (felsic) matrix For the Sial tribe of Pakistan, see Sial (tribe). ... Bhatti is a chandravanshi rajput clan and is one of the largest tribes of Rajputs, and also is a tribe of Jats. ... Ghuman (Urdu: گهمن) is a gotra or clan of Jats found in the Pakistan and Northern Indian state of Punjab. ... Shaheed Bhagat Singh was born into the Sandhu family[1][2] Sandhu is one of the most well known Jatt clans, along with Narwal and Toor, originally from the Northern Indian state of Punjab. ... Tiwana is a Punjabi tribe that hails from the Punjab region of Northern India. ... Saka (Scythian) horseman from Pazyryk in Central Asia, c. ...


Recent History

Since the 1950's, Punjab industrialized rapidly. New factories came up in Lahore, Multan, Sialkot. In the 1960's the new city of Islamabad was built near Rawalpindi.   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: ), the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...


Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis. Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result most rural areas are dominated by a small set of land-owning families. This small ruling class also allegedly dominates powerful positions in the army and civil bureaucracy. This results in some resentment from residents of other provinces as well as by the working people of Punjab. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


In the 1950's there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. In order to address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in 1955. It was merged into a single province West Pakistan. In 1972, after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh, Punjab again became a province. West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955–1970) name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of 1965 and 1971. Since the 1990's Punjab hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta. It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha and Rawalpindi. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in 2004, has helped pacify the situation. Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib. Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Gen J N Chaudhuri, Lt Gen Harbakhsh Singh Field Marshal Ayub Khan, Gen Mohd Musa Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800[2] - 6,917 killed[3] (17 day period alone) 4,000 - 7,000 killed/ captured[4... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi Strength 500,000+ troops[citation needed] 400,000+ troops[citation needed] Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sargodha (Urdu: ) is the capital city of Sargodha District in Punjab province, Pakistan, it is located in northeast Pakistan, to the west-northwest of Lahore on the lower Jhelum Canal. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Image of Indo-Pakistani border ceremony in Wagah from Michael Palins BBC TV series Himalaya. The Khaki-uniformed guards are Indian, while the green/black/grey-uniformed ones are Pakistani. ... Nankana Sahib, also known as Raipur and Rai-Bhoi-di-Talwandi is a city in the state of Punjab in present-day Pakistan. ...


Starting in the 1980's large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East, Britain, Spain, Canada and the United States for economic opportunties. Business and cultural ties between the US and Punjab are growing. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


The rise of radical Islamic jihad in Punjab gained international attention. The bloody legacy of partition violence resulted in an anti-minority sentiment since its formation. In the 1980's society got even more polarized with funding by certain Middle Eastern countries of radical madrassas, both Sunni and Shia. Throughout the 1990's there were a series of gun battles between Shia and Sunni groups which claimed many lives. There were also attacks on Christian, Ahmadiya and Hindu minorities. The presence of armed militant groups and their propaganda are often felt in some areas. Some Punjabis joined or assisted jihadi campaigns in Afghanistan, Kashmir and in Britain. In the 2000's, in the Musharraf era, the Sufi heritage of Punjab slowly started staging a comeback. In addition non-religious holidays such as Basant and New Year's Eve are again celebrated openly. Some Middle Eastern countries started to provide development assistance not driven by fundamentalist compulsions, such as by the UAE in Rahim Yar Khan. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto ruler (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive power) of [[the office of President of Pakistan (becoming Head of State) on June 20, 2001. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... Introduction Rahim Yar Khan district is located in Punjab. ...


However the spread of radicalism has not stopped and incidents of terrorism continue sporadically. Radical groups sympathetic to Taliban and Al Qaeda are believed to have carried out bombings in Lahore, Sargodha and the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in Rawalpindi in 2007. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Sargodha (Urdu: ) is the capital city of Sargodha District in Punjab province, Pakistan, it is located in northeast Pakistan, to the west-northwest of Lahore on the lower Jhelum Canal. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Punjab Assembly Building
Punjab Assembly Building

Districts

There are 35 districts in Punjab, Pakistan. The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ...

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bahawalnagar District (Urdu: بہاولنگر) is a district of Province of The Punjab of Pakistan. ... Bahawalpur District (Urdu: بہاول پور) is one of the districts of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Bhakkar District (Urdu: بھکر) is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Chakwal (Urdu: چکوال) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Dera Ghazi Khan (Urdu: ڈیرہ غازی خان) is a district in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Faisalabad District is one of the districts of Punjab, Punjab, , Pakistan. ... Gujranwala District is a district in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Gujrat (Urdu: گجرات) is a district in Pakistan located in Punjab Province. ... Hafizabad district (Urdu: حافظ آباد) is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Jhang (Punjabi/Urdu: جھنگ) Jhang District is situated in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... The Jhelum district (Urdu: جہلم) is situated in Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Kasur District is one of the districts in the province of ( Punjab , Pakistan. ... Khanewal is distric in the Pakistani province of Punjab. ... Khushab District (Urdu: خوشاب) is a rural district located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Lahore District is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Layyah Sadar Bazar (Main Bazar) Layyah Layyah District (Urdu: لیہ ) is a district in the Punjab, Pakistan. ... Lodhran District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... The district of Mandi-Bahaudddin is situated in Punjab and is bounded on the northwest by the Jhelum River, on the South-East by the Chenab River which separates it from Gujranwala District and Gujrat District and on the southwest by Sargodha District. ... Mianwali (Urdu: میانوالی) is a District in the north-west of Punjab province, Pakistan. ... Multan District is a district of Pakistan. ... Muzaffargarh is a mostly rural district in the south of the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Narowal District (Urdu/Punjabi: نارووال) is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... -1... Okara District (Urdu: ضلع اوکاڑہ) is a district of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Nankana Sahib District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Rahim Yar Khan district, one of the districts of Pakistan, is located in Punjab. ... Nankana Sahib District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sahiwal District (Urdu: ساہیوال ) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Sargodha District is one of the districts in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Sheikhupura District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... // Geography The Sialkot district lies south of the Gujrat district, the state of Jamu, and Kashmir, while Narowal district is to the southeast and Gujranwala district is situated to the west. ... Toba Tek Singh is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Vehari District (Urdu: وہاڑی) was created in 1976 out of the three tehsils of Multan District namely Vehari, Burewala, Mailsi and Sub-tehsils Machiwal and Gaggo of Sahiwal District. ...

Economy

Irrigated land of Punjab
Irrigated land of Punjab

Despite lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialized province of Pakistan; its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, metals, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90% of the paper and paper boards, 71% of the fertilizers, 65% of the sugar and 40% of the cement of Pakistan.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x1296, 745 KB) Ammar, I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x1296, 745 KB) Ammar, I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Despite its dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Seeds which are grown for their oil. ... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ...


Punjab contributes about 68% to annual food grain production in the country. 51 million acres (210,000 km²) is cultivated and another 9.05 million acres (36,600 km²) are lying as cultivable waste in different parts of the province.


Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity. In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is sold for money. ...


Punjab has also more than 48 thousand industrial units. The small and cottage industries are in abundance. There are 39,033 small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 11,820. The ginning industries are 6,778. There are 6,355 units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries.


Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.


Punjab is also a mineral rich province with extensive mineral deposits of coal, rock salt, dolomite, gypsum, and silica-sand. The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a dozen economically viable projects. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ...


Education

The literacy rate has increased greatly since independence. In 2003, over 53% of the population of the province was estimated to be literate by the Labour Force Survey. [1] This is a chart of the education market of Punjab estimated by the government in 1998. Also see [2]

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrolment Ratio(%)
23,019,025 50,602,265 73,621,290
Below Primary 3,356,173 11,598,039 14,954,212 100.00
Primary 6,205,929 18,039,707 24,245,636 79.68
Middle 5,140,148 10,818,764 15,958,912 46.75
Matriculation 4,624,522 7,119,738 11,744,260 25.07
Intermediate 1,862,239 1,821,681 3,683,920 9.12
BA, BSc… degrees 110,491 96,144 206,635 4.12
MA, MSc… degrees 1,226,914 764,094 1,991,008 3.84
Diploma, Certificate… 418,946 222,649 641,595 1.13
Other qualifications 73,663 121,449 195,112 0.26

Major universities & colleges

The following is a list of major universities in Pakistan, organized by subnational entities. ... Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) is a private university in Lahore, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) is one of the leading institution in Pakistan which is working under the umbrella of COMSATS, with a well-established reputation and a wide range of interests and facilities. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Wah Cantt (Urdu: واہ) is a cantonment city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of the Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Aitchison College is a semi-private boys boarding university-preparatory school located in Lahore, Punjab, in Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... UCP University of Central Punjab (UCP), located in Lahore, Pakistan, is a private sector university. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... University of Agriculture (UAF) is situated in Faisalabad, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... National Textile University is the premier institution of Textile Education in Pakistan. ... Bahauddin Zakariya University (Urdu: جامعھ بہاؤ الدین زکریا ) is located in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Islamia University is a university in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... University of Punjab is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Kinnaird College for Women is the most prominent college in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, commonly referred to as UET Lahore is one of the leading engineering universities of Pakistan, and the oldest of them all, offering Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral degrees in a variety of disciplines. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... National College of Arts Lahore , usually referred to by its acronym NCA, is a famous old college in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Lahore College for Women University is a womens university in Lahore, Pakistan. ... GCU Clock Tower Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan. ... University of Education is the most prominent college in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... The term virtual university characterizes an organization that provides higher education on the Internet. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... University of Health Sciences is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... The University of Sargodha was established in 2002 by an ordinance of the Government of Pakistan Formerly, it was called the Government College, Sargodha. ... Sargodha (Urdu: ) is the capital city of Sargodha District in Punjab province, Pakistan, it is located in northeast Pakistan, to the west-northwest of Lahore on the lower Jhelum Canal. ... University of Gujrat is located at Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan The University of Gujrat Act 2004 sardar pura situated in Gujrat Categories: | ... Gujrat (Urdu/Punjabi: گجرات) is a city in Pakistan and is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in the Punjab Province[1]. A person living in Gujrat is called Gujrati. ... The University of Engineering Science and Technology (UESTP-KTH) Sialkot has been established in collaboration Swedish Royal Institute of Technology. ... University of Engineering and Technology (UET) refers to several institutions of higher education located in South Asia: Balochistan University of Engineering and Technology at Khuzdar, Balochistan, Pakistan Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology at Dhaka, Bangladesh Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology at Chittagong, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology... Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... University of Arid Agriculture is located at Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... The National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) is a public university located at several campuses in Pakistan. ... Aerial View of Cadet College Hasanabdal - 1993 Cadet College, Hasan Abdal is a residential high school that is located in Hasan Abdal, Attock District, Punjab, Pakistan. ... Burewala (Urdu: ) is a city in southern Punjab, Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Murray College (formerly known as: Scotch Mission College), Sialkot was established by the Scottish missionaries belonging to the Church of Scotland Mission in 1889. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: ), the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...

Cultural heritage

Mausoleum of Sheikh Rukh-e-Alam (1320 AD)
Mausoleum of Sheikh Rukh-e-Alam (1320 AD)

Punjab has been the cradle of civilization since times immemorial. The ruins of Harappa show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 5000 years ago. Taxila, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts in bygone ages. In the more moderate era post-9/11, the ancient Hindu Katasraj temple and the Salt Range temples are regaining attention and much-needed repair. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x794, 98 KB) Summary Author: Zeeshan Javeed (Zeeshan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x794, 98 KB) Summary Author: Zeeshan Javeed (Zeeshan. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Katasraj temple is a Hindu temple situated in in Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. ...


The structure of a mosque is simple and it expresses openness. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Holy Qur’an decorate mosques and mausoleums in Punjab. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1320 AD) at Multan are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy. The earliest existing building in South Asia with enamelled tile-work is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan is of a richer and more elaborate nature. The pictured wall of Lahore Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world. Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ...


Fairs and festivals

The culture of Punjab derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints. The Sufi saints spread Islam and preached and lived the Muslim way of life. People have festivities to commemorate these traditions. The fairs and festivals of Punjab reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions. These mainly fall in following categories: Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


Religious and seasonal fairs/festivals

Religious fairs are held on special days of Islamic significance like Muharram, Eid Milad-un-Nabi, Eid-ul-Fithr, Eid-ul-Azha and Shab-e-Brat. The main activities on these special occasions are confined to congregational prayers and rituals. Melas are also held to mark these occasions.


Devotional fairs or Urs

The fairs held at the shrines of Sufi saints are called Urs. They generally mark the death anniversary of the saint. On these occasions devotees assemble in large numbers and pay homage to the memory of the saint. Soul inspiring music is played and devotees dance in ecstasy. The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. It forms a part of the folk music through mystic messages. The most important Urs are: Urs of Data Ganj Bukhsh at Lahore, Urs of Hazrat Mian Mir at Lahore, Urs of Baba Farid Ganj Shakar at Pakpattan, Urs of Hazrat Bahaudin Zakria at Multan, Urs of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan at Dera Ghazi Khan, Urs of Shah Hussain at Lahore, Urs of Hazrat Bullehe Shah at Kasur and Urs of Hazrat Imam Bari (Bari Shah Latif) at Rawalpindi-Islamabad.


A big fair is organized at Jandiala Sher Khan in district Sheikhupura on the Mausoleum of Syed Waris Shah who is the most loved Sufi poet of Punjab due to his work known as Heer Ranjha.


Industrial and commercial fairs

Exhibitions and Annual Horse Shows in all Districts and National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore are held with the official patronage. National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. It not only encourages and patronizes agricultural products and livestock through the exhibitions of agricultural products and cattle but is also a colourful documentary on the rich cultural heritage of the Province with its strong rural roots.


Arts & crafts

The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts that flourished in the urban centres particularly in Lahore. The former include cotton textiles, basketry, embroidery etc. while the latter are tile and woodwork skills, ivory, silver and gold work, naqqashi and architectural crafts.


Hand knotted carpets of fine quality are made in Punjab since the Mughal period. Emperor Akbar in the 15th century established the first factory in Lahore. While carpets were made for the wealthy, rough rugs (known as namdas) were made by the common people for their own use. Lahore is the centre of hand-made carpets. Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Since ancient times the weavers of the region have produced colourful fabrics of silk and cotton. The hand-woven cotton cloth like khaddar of Kamalia, are popular. The cloth woven on handlooms is either block printed or beautifully embroidered. Multan is famous for beautiful hand-woven bed covers.


Major attractions

The province is home to many well known historical sites including the Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Fort, the Badshahi Mosque,and the ruins of the ancient city of Harrapa. The Anarkali Market and Jahangir's Tomb are prominent in the city of Lahore as is the Lahore Museum, while the ancient city of Taxila in the northwest was once a major centre of Hinduism, Buddhism and of Hellenic influence. Many important Sikh shrines are in the Pakistani portion of Punjab, including the birthplace of the first Guru: Guru Nanak (born at Nankana Sahib). There is also the largest salt mine in Asia situated the Khewra Salt Mines. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Harappa is a city in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, located beside a former course of the Ravi River; about 35km southwest of Sahiwal. ... Imaginary painting of AnārkalÄ« by renowned artist Abdul Rehman Chughtai Anarkali (Urdu: اناركلى; Hindi: अनारकली; anārkalÄ«) (pomegranate blossom) is a bazār (market) located on Mall Road in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. ... n ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Khewra Salt Mines is a salt mine in Pakistan, about 160 kilometers from Islamabad and 260 kilometers from Lahore. ...


Punjabi music

Classical music forms are an important part of the cultural wealth of the Punjab. The Muslim musicians have contributed a large number of ragas to the repository of classical music.


Among the Punjabi poets, the names of Sultan Bahu, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad Baksh and Waris Shah and folk singers like Inayat Hussain Bhatti and Tufail Niazi, Alam Lohar, Sain Marna, Mansoor Malangi, Allah Ditta Lunewala, Talib Hussain Dard, Attaullah Khan Esakhlvi, Gamoo Tahliwala, Mamzoo Gha-lla, Akbar Jat, Arif Lohar,Ahmad Nawaz Cheena and Hamid Ali Bela are well-known. In the composition of classical ragas, there are such masters as Malika-i-Mauseequi (Queen of Music) Roshan Ara Begum, Ustad Amanat Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan and Ustad Fateh Ali Khan. Alam Lohar has made significant contributions to folklore and Punjabi literature, by being a very influential Punjabi folk singer from 1930 until 1979. Sultan Bahu (ca 1628 - 1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint, who founded the Sarwari Qadiri sufi order. ... Bulleh Shah Bulleh Shah (1680 – 1757)(Punjabi: ), whose real name was Abdullah Shah, was a Punjabi Sufi poet and humanist. ... Mīān Muhammad Bakhsh was a Sufi saint and also a Panjabi poet of great repute. ... Waris Shah (1719 or 1730–1790) was a Punjabi poet from the Punjab, most well-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. ... Inayat Hussain Bhatti (1928-1999) was a multidimensional icon of Pakistan. ...


For the popular taste however, light music, particularly Ghazals and folk songs, which have an appeal of their own, the names of Mehdi Hasan, Ghulam Ali, Nur Jehan, Malika Pukhraj, Farida Khanum, Roshen Ara Begum and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are well-known. Folk songs and dances of the Punjab reflect a wide range of moods: the rains, sowing and harvesting seasons. Luddi, Bhangra and Sammi depict the joy of living. Love legends of Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, Sohni Mahenwal and Saiful Mulk are sung in different styles. Mehdi Hasan is a well-known ghazal singer. ... Ghulam Ali (Devanagari:ग़ुलाम अली, Nastaliq: غلام علی) (born 1940) is a famous Pakistani ghazal singer of the Patiala Gharana. ... Mughal empress Nur Jehan. ... Malika Pukhraj (1912 - 2004) was a highly popular singer of Pakistan. ... Farida Khanum is renowned Pakistani Ghazal singer. ... This article is about the Pakistani musician. ...


For the most popular music from the region, bhangra, the names of Abrar-Ul-Haq,Arif Lohar, Legacy and Malkoo are renown. Bhangra is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia. ... Abrar-ul-Haq (Urdu/Punjabi: ابرار الحق) (Abrar is also spelled as Ibrar) is a Pakistani pop, bhangra and folk singer. ... Arif Lohar (Urdu: عارف لوہار) is a popular Pakistani Folk/pop singer. ...


Folklore

Main article: Punjabi folklore

The folk heritage of the Punjab is the traditional urge of thousands of years of its history. While Urdu is the official language of the province, there are a number of local dialects through which the people communicate. These include Majhi, Jhangochi or Jangli, Pothohari, Saraiki, Jatki, Hindko, Chhachhi, Doabi and Derewali. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects. Majhi may refer to: Majhi dialect, the principal dialect of Punjabi Majhi language Category: ... Jhangochi is the oldest and most conservative dialect of the Punjabi language. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Pothohari can mean either an inhabitant of Pothohar, an area in the north of Pakistani Punjab province, or the language spoken in the region. ... ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ...


There are a number of folk tales that are popular in different parts of the Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Dulla Bhatti, and Sassi Punnun. The mystic folk songs include the Kafees of Khwaja Farid in Saraiki, Punjabi and the Shalooks by Baba Farid. They also include Baits, Dohas, Lohris, Sehra and Jugni.[3] Mirza Sahiba (PunjabiShahmukhi: مرزاصاحباں) is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Heer Ranjha (Punjabi: , ) is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. ... Sohni Mahiwal is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. ... Dulla Bhatti (Punjabi: دًﻻ بھٹى) was a famous legendary hero of Punjab, who led a rebellion against the famous mughal king Akbar. ... Sassi Punnun (or Sassi Panhu) (Sindhi: سسي پنھون) is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Sindh. ... Fariduddin Ganjshakar (Farid-ul-Din Masaud Shakar Ganj) c. ... Jugni is a term created by the late ALAM LOHAR in 1965. ...


The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan. Punjabi romantic dances include Dharees, Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi. Dhamaal (English: Madness) is a Bollywood film directed by Indra Kumar and starring Sanjay Dutt, Riteish Deshmukh, Aashish Chaudhary, Arshad Warsi and Javed Jaffrey. ... Bhangra is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia. ... Giddha (Punjabi: , ) is a form of dance that comes from the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. ... Dhola is a census town in Bhavnagar district in the state of Gujarat, India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Social issues

The Punjab is relatively the most stable province of Pakistan as Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country and thus dominate much of the nation by sheer numbers. Starting in 2007, terrorism and rising fundamentalism has become an issue. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


One social/educational issue is the status of Punjabi language. According to Dr. Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level. There are only two daily newspaper published in Punjabi in Central Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan".


Punjabis are prominent in business, agriculture, industry, government, and the military to the point that there is resentment from other ethnic groups. The Punjabi middle classes tend to ally themselves with Urdu speaking Muhajirs and show respect towards Sindhis, Kashmiris, Pakhtuns and Balochis. The smaller provinces often voice concern at Punjabi domination of key institutions such as the Army[citation needed]. A newer generation of upper class Panjabis is re-affirming their maternal language and have begun requesting the government for official patronage not just of their language (Panjabi) but that of other major ethnic groups in Pakistan such as the Pashtuns, Balochi and Saraiki[citation needed]. Punjabis form the 40 to 45% of population of Pakistan. Urdu ( , , trans. ... See Muhajir page for all Muhajir groups in the world Muhajir or Mohajir (Urdu: مہاجر) is a term widely used to describe the Muslims who migrated to Pakistan after the independence of Pakistan from India. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... The Baloch (بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Balochi may refer to: Baloch people Balochi language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ...


Punjabi women enjoy comparable rights to females in Karachi and Islamabad in Lahore and other cities, but conservative and more traditional ways of life are present and dominate the countryside.   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ...


Famous people of Punjab

Main articles: List of Punjabis and Main article: List of famous Punjabis before Independence

This is a full spectrum list of famous and prominent Punjabi people from the Punjab region of Northern India, Pakistan and the emigrant Punjabi people diaspora worldwide, including in the EU, US, Canada and etc. ... Nawab Sir Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (Urdu: نواب ملک خضرحیات تیوانہ ) came from a family which had, since the 15th century, been prominent among the landed aristocracy of the Punjab. ... Rai Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal was one of the greatest freedom fighters in the Indian rebellion of 1857. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ... Shah Hussain (1538-1599) was a Punjabi poet and Sufi saint. ... Shoaib Akhtar (Urdu: شعیب اختر) (born 13 August 1975 in Rawalpindi, Punjab) is a Pakistani cricketer, widely recognized as the fastest bowler in the world, earning him the name Rawalpindi Express. ... Wasim Akram (Urdu: وسیم اکرم) (born June 3, 1966 in Lahore, Punjab) is a former Pakistani cricketer. ... Waris Shah (1719 or 1730–1790) was a Punjabi poet from the Punjab, most well-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. ... Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi (Urdu: چودھری پرویز الہی) (born November 1, 1945) was the Chief Minister of the Pakistans most populous province, Punjab, from 2002 to 2007. ... Faiz Faiz Ahmed Faiz (فيض احمد فيض), (1984 - 1911) is considered by many to be a poet in the great tradition of Urdu poets like Ghalib and Iqbal. ... Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (Urdu: چودھری شجاعت حسین) (born 1946) is a politician from Pakistan who was the Prime Minister of that country from June 30, 2004 until August 28, 2004. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Noor Jehan (Urdu: نور جہاں) (September 21, 1926 – December 23, 2000) was a famous Punjabi and Urdu singer and actress. ... Muhammad Alam Lohar (Urdu: محمد عالم لوہار ) is a prominent Punjabi folk music singer of Pakistan. ... Arif Lohar (Urdu: عارف لوہار) is a popular Pakistani Folk/pop singer. ... Abdul Kardar or Abdul Hafeez Kardar was the first Test captain of the Pakistan cricket team. ... Prof. ... Inzamam-ul-Haq (born 3 March 1970) is a Pakistani cricketer. ... For the cricketer from the West Indies, see Imran Khan (Trinidad and Tobago cricketer). ... Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan One of Pakistans elder political statesmen, Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan, was the Central leader of the opposition Alliance for Restoration of Democracy (ARD), Mr Khans political career spanned over half a century. ... This article is about the Pakistani musician. ... Mir Mohammed Muayyinul Islam, (1550-1635) popularly known as Mian Mir is a famous Sufi saint who resided in Lahore (in present-day Pakistan). ... Sultan Rahi Sultan Muhammad (1938 - 1996) popularly known as Sultan Rahi, with his rugged looks, brawny and stocky, with an aggressive style of dialogue delivery was the Pakistani film superstar and the ultimate action hero and firmly established himself as the biggest film personality from Pakistan during the 1980s. ... Saeed Khan Rangeela (1937 - 2005) was a famous Pakistani comedian, who was featured in nearly 300 Urdu and Punjabi-language films. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 10, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan)[1] is a Pakistani politician. ... Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif also known as Shahbaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد شہاز شریف ) is a well known Pakistani politician. ... Waqar Younis (Urdu: وقار یونس) (born November 16, 1971 as Waqar Younis Maitla) is a Pakistani cricketer, a fast bowler, from Burewala, Punjab. ...

Sight and Sounds of Punjab

Notes

  1. ^ Mercury drops to freezing point - Dawn Pakistan
  2. ^ The Punjab in 1920s – A Case study of Muslims, Zarina Salamat, Royal Book Company, Karachi, 1997. table 45, pp. 136. ISBN 9694072301
  3. ^ Panel 33 European Association for South Asian Studies
  4. ^ Pakistan: a modern history, Ian Talbot, St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0312216068
  5. ^ Punjab Gateway

  (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...

See also

The Tenants Association Punjab is a revolutionary movement of peasants, workers and tenants working on government land in the Pakistani side of the Punjab, organised against government repression. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... This article is about the geographical region. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... The Punjabi people (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی, also Panjabi people) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. ... Taxila is a World Heritage Site Punjabi Culture is the culture of the Punjab region. ...

External links

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... The Chenab River (Punjabi: , , Urdu: , literally Moon(Chen) River(ab)) is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahaul district of Himachal Pradesh, India. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... The Chenab River (Punjabi: , , Urdu: , literally Moon(Chen) River(ab)) is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahaul district of Himachal Pradesh, India. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... The Chenab River (Punjabi: , , Urdu: , literally Moon(Chen) River(ab)) is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahaul district of Himachal Pradesh, India. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: Å›imāl maÄ¡ribÄ« sarhadÄ« sÅ«ba شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... For the capital of Pakistan, see Islamabad. ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ... This article details only the area administered by Pakistan. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bahawalnagar District (Urdu: بہاولنگر) is a district of Province of The Punjab of Pakistan. ... Bahawalpur District (Urdu: بہاول پور) is one of the districts of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Bhakkar District (Urdu: بھکر) is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Chakwal (Urdu: چکوال) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Dera Ghazi Khan (Urdu: ڈیرہ غازی خان) is a district in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Faisalabad District is one of the districts of Punjab, Punjab, , Pakistan. ... Gujranwala District is a district in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Gujrat (Urdu: گجرات) is a district in Pakistan located in Punjab Province. ... Hafizabad district (Urdu: حافظ آباد) is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Jhang District (Urdu: جھنگ) is located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... The Jhelum district (Urdu: جہلم) is situated in Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Kasur District is one of the districts in the province of ( Punjab , Pakistan. ... Khanewal is distric in the Pakistani province of Punjab. ... Khushab District (Urdu: خوشاب) is a rural district located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Lahore District is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Layyah Sadar Bazar (Main Bazar) Layyah Layyah District (Urdu: لیہ ) is a district in the Punjab, Pakistan. ... Lodhran District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... The district of Mandi-Bahaudddin is situated in Punjab and is bounded on the northwest by the Jhelum River, on the South-East by the Chenab River which separates it from Gujranwala District and Gujrat District and on the southwest by Sargodha District. ... Mianwali (Urdu: میانوالی) is a District in the north-west of Punjab province, Pakistan. ... Multan District is a district of Pakistan. ... Muzaffargarh is a mostly rural district in the south of the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... -1... Narowal District (Urdu/Punjabi: نارووال) is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Okara District (Urdu: ضلع اوکاڑہ) is a district of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Nankana Sahib District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Rahim Yar Khan district, one of the districts of Pakistan, is located in Punjab. ... Nankana Sahib District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sahiwal District (Urdu: ساہیوال ) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Sargodha District is one of the districts in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Sheikhupura District is one of the districts in the province of Punjab , Pakistan. ... // Geography The Sialkot district lies south of the Gujrat district, the state of Jamu, and Kashmir, while Narowal district is to the southeast and Gujranwala district is situated to the west. ... Toba Tek Singh is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ... Vehari District (Urdu: وہاڑی) was created in 1976 out of the three tehsils of Multan District namely Vehari, Burewala, Mailsi and Sub-tehsils Machiwal and Gaggo of Sahiwal District. ... // Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with its population being the second largest in the world after Mumbai. ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Akbars Fort at Attock Attock (Urdu: اٹک) is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and also a border district on the river Indus. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... This article is about the town of Chitral. ... Masjid Noor Daska Daska is a small industrial city with a population of around 200,000 in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... An afternoon scene in Gilgit Gilgit (Urdu: گلگت) is the capital city of Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about Hyderabad, Pakistan. ... Location within Pakistan Coordinates: , Country Pakistan Province Constructed 1960s Union Council 40 UC (District Govt. ... Jaranwala is the second largest Tehsil of Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Khanewal (Urdu: خانیوال) is a district in the province of Punjab Pakistan. ... Khewra Salt Mines is a salt mine in Pakistan, about 160 kilometers from Islamabad and 260 kilometers from Lahore. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Structure dubbed the great bath in the excavated Mohenjo-daro ruins. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... View of Mountain Valley from the Top Murree city (Urdu: مری) is a popular hill station and a summer resort, especially for the residents of Islamabad, and for the cities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... Nawabshah Mudjamrao Road Nawabshah (Urdu: نوابشاہ) city (established in 1912) is located in the centre of Sindh,Along With Left Bank Of River Indus Near Sakrand Tehsel, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: ), the capital of Sialkot District, is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Skardu Town as seen from the Skardu Fort Skardu (Urdu: سکردو) is the principle town and capital of Baltistan district, one of the districts making up Pakistans Northern Areas (also part of the Pakistani-administered part of Kashmir). ... Sukkur (Urdu:سکر, Sindhi: سکھر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ... Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Thatta or Thatto (Urdu: ٹھٹہ, Sindhi:ٺٽو) is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan, near Lake Keenjhar, the largest freshwater lake in the country. ... Wah Wii (full name) (Urdu: واہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Following are Fourteen Points of Mr. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A series of three wars between Britain and the Afghans in the 19th century and early 20th century was formerly called the Afghan Wars but is now referred to as the Anglo-Afghan wars perhaps to distinguish them from the civil strife in the 1980s. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). ... Pakistani Baluchistan was conquered by the British Empire on October 1, 1887. ... National motto: Ä«mān, ittihād, nazm (Urdu: Faith, unity, discipline) Official languages Urdu, English Capital Islamabad Largest city Karachi President General Pervez Musharraf Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 803,940 km² 3. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Combatants  India  Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357-500 killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POW.[7] The Kargil War, also known... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Coin of Muizzuddin Muhammad Bin Sam , circa 1173 AD - 1206 AD , Issued from Delhi following coin typology of Prithviraja. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... This article is under construction. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... For the Lost character, please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Pakistan Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, al-Qaeda, Taliban, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured), Tohir Yo‘ldosh Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 700[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000... In recent history, the Pakistani political processess have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... The Chief Justice of Pakistan heads the Supreme Court of Pakistan. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Government of Sindh is based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. ... ... The Government of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) is in Peshawar, the provincial capital of the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-ud-Din Kedwai based on the 1906 flag of the All-India Muslim League. ... Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (behind Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. ... A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... Pakistan had a parliamentary system of government that has been modified several times since its inception. ... Political parties in Pakistan lists political parties in Pakistan. ... List of Mayors (Nazims) during 20th Century Karachi City Municipal Act was promulgated in 1933. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Parliament of Pakistan is known as the Majlis-e-Shoora (Council of Advisors). ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mumlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning Grand Vizier, is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ... Terrorism in Pakistan has been prevalent since the 1980s following the breakup of the nation into modern Pakistan and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... Sports in Pakistan are played with great passion. ... The Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) is the national governing body for field hockey in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) is responsible for all major cricket including Test cricket played in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... This is a list of those people who have umpired at least one Test match in Pakistan between Pakistan and other Test cricket nations. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... The Pakistan Premier League (PPL) is the first division of Pakistani football. ... The Pakistan National Football Challenge Cup is the national knockout cup competition in Pakistani football, run by Pakistan Football Federation. ... Gilli िगल्ली -danda डन्डा is a game popular across the length and breadth of India and Pakistan. ... Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) (Telugu: , Punjabi: , Marathi: , Hindi: ,Urdu: ; IPA: ) is a team sport originally from the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Pakistan Open golf tournament was first played in 1967. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... K2 from Concordia The Baltoro Glacier, at over 70 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. ... Broghol, also spelled Boroghil and several other ways, is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... Broghol is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Clifton beach seafront, Karachi Clifton Beach, on the Arabian Sea, is a beach in Clifton, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, one of the neighborhoods of Saddar Town, Karachi. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Dorah Pass, also spelled and pronounced Durah Pass, connects Badakshan in Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Durand Line is the term for the 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Guddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Sukkur in Pakistan. ... Gumal Pass is a pass on the border of Afganistan and the southeastern portion of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Hawkes Bay or Hawkesbay is a popular beach and a neighborhood located in Kiamari Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Schematic map of the Indo-Gangetic Plain The Indo-Gangetic Plain also known as The Kathwiarschi plains is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Indus Waters Treaty Historical context The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the waters of the Indus basin. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... The Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan is planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the worlds largest rivers. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Lowarai Pass is located between the Panjkora and Chitral valleys in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Lowari Top is a pass that connects Chitral with Dir in Pakistan. ... // Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with its population being the second largest in the world after Mumbai. ... K2, the 2nd highest of the world Broad Peak, the 12th highest of the world Pakistan contains five of the highest fourteen independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) and many other high peaks, in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Hindu Raj ranges. ... Mazar-e-Quaid - the icon of Karachi Mazar-e-Quaid is referred to mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. ... National Parks of Pakistan There are 14 National Parks in Pakistan. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab region of India, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock-salt. ... Sandspit Beach is situated north west of Karachi. ... The Sarpo Laggo Glacier (Sarpo Laggo: young husband) is a glacier in Pakistan, in the Karakoram mountain range of the Himalayas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shandur Top is a high mountain pass that connects Chitral to Gilgit. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Airblue is a private airline based in Karachi, Pakistan. ... The Pakistan aviation industry was started up when Orient Airways merged with Pakistan International Airlines Corporation (PIAC) to become the national flag carrier of Pakistan called Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Islamabad Stock Exchange is the three largest stock exchange of Pakistan located in the capital, Islamabad. ... The Karachi Stock Exchange or KSE is a stock exchange located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... This organization, company, or building article needs to be wikified. ... This is a list of companies from Pakistan. ... History (First Project, Al Azam Square, Site Office, Karachi-1966). ... Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, more commonly known as Pakistan International Airlines or PIA (Urdu: Ù¾ÛŒ آئی اے يا پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایرلاینز), is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan, based in Karachi. ... PKR redirects here. ... The logo of the Karachi Port Trust. ... Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located at , (24. ... A slum in Karachi, Pakistan with an open sewer running along the lane Poverty in Pakistan, is a major economic issue. ... This is a list of the tallest structures in Pakistan, measured from base to the tallest point (Either roof top or antenna or spire). ... The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ... A1GP (formerly A1 Grand Prix) is an open-wheel auto racing series. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ... In Islamic Pakistani culture Chand Raat or night of the moon as it translates marks the end of Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان ) and the start of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر). ... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... After the Partition of India, Hinduism became one of the smallest religions in the newly created state of Pakistan, but has nonetheless played a major role in its culture and politics as well as the history of its regions. ... Holidays in Pakistan: Category: ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... The Kara Film Festival is the only internationally recognized film festival of Pakistan, to represent Lollywood annually held in Karachi. ... This is a list of musicians from Pakistan listed in alphabetical order. ... Pakistan has many radio and TV channels. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... This is a list of mosques in Pakistan. ... Murree Beer is Pakistans leading beer brand made by Murree Brewery. ... Awards Lux Style Awards, MTV Pakistan Awards, Indus Music Awards, The Musik Awards Charts MTV Pakistan Charts, AAG 10, The Musik Countdown Music Festivals All Pakistani Music Conference Media MTV Pakistan, Indus Music, The Musik, AAG TV National anthem Qaumi Tarana Regional folk styles Balochi - Punjabi - Sindhi - Pastho - Kashmiri Khowar... Flag of Pakistan. ... Pakistan Idol is an upcoming reality television show on GEO television, based on the popular British show Pop Idol and its American counterpart American Idol. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... Sikhism is a very small minority religion in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but has many cultural, historical and political ties to the country, and to the historical region of Punjab. ... Sports in Pakistan are played with great passion. ... The term Sufi rock describes the sound of famous Pakistani rock band Junoon. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... The following is a list of major universities in Pakistan, organized by subnational entities. ... The National library was established after almost 46 years of independence. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Pakistani poetry as a tradition partakes of Urdu poetry, which see. ... Pervez Musharraf has led Pakistan since 1999. ... General elections will be held in Pakistan in early January 2008. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Pakistan is the sixth most populous nation in the world. ... Pakistan Air Force (Urdu: پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fazaya) (PAF) is the Aviation branch of the Pakistan armed forces and is responsible for defending Pakistani air-space from intrusions. ... The Pakistan Boy Scouts Association (PBSA) (Urdu:پاکستان بوائے اسکا وٹ ایسوسی ایشن) is the national Scouting organization of Pakistan and has 516,891 members (as of 2002). ... This page lists articles on Wikipedia that are related to Pakistan. ... Language(s) UrduLanguages of PakistanArabicEnglish Religion(s) IslamChristianityZoroastrianism An overseas Pakistani is a Pakistani citizen who has migrated to another country or a person of Pakistani origin who is born outside Pakistan. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Punjab Gurudwara Yatra,Gurudwaras in Punjab,Gurudwara Tours with Time Travels (0 words)
It was only in the nineteenth century during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, that the people of Punjab lavished their wealth on their revered shrine.
The sound from the Bugles blown together from both sides paints past on the canvas when India and Pakistan were one, simultaneously Flags of the two nations are ceremoniously retrieved and lights are switched on marking the end of the day.
Amidst thunderous applause today this point is the only land route open to approach Pakistan and central Asia.
Pakistan :: Punjab (9553 words)
Geographically, it is a land of contrasts, from the alluvial plain of the Indus River and its tributaries to the sand-dunes of the Cholistan Desert, from the verdant beauty of the pine-covered foothills of the Himalaya to the strangely convoluted lunar landscape of the Potwar Plateau and the Salt Range.
The best time to visit northern Punjab is in the spring, from February to April, and in the autumn, from September to November.
To the east beyond the Kunhar River, may be seen the snow covered mountain ranges of Kashmir, to the north and north-east, the mountains of Kohistan and Kaghan are sighted, to the north-west are snowy ranges of Swat and Chitral.
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