FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Punic" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Punic

The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. Contrary to other Phoenicians they had a landowning aristocracy who established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Sahara traderoutes. In later times one of these clans conquered a Hellenistic inspired empire in Iberia, possibly having a foothold in Western Gaul. Like other Phoenician people their urbanized culture and economy was strongly linked to the sea. Overseas they established control over coastal regions of the Maghreb, Tripolitania, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, the Baleares, Malta, other small islands of the Western Mediterranean and possibly along the Atlantic coast of Iberia, although this is disputed. In the Baleares, Sardinia, Corsica and Sicily they had strong economic and political ties to the independent natives in the hinterland. Their naval presence and trade extended throughout the Mediterranean to the British Islands, the Canaries, and West Africa. Famous technical achievements of the Punic people of Carthage are the development of uncolored glass and the use of lacustrine limestone to improve the purity of molten iron. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ... Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinnya) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Castilian Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 17th 4 992 km² 1,0% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 14th 916 968 2,2% 183,69/km² Demonym  - English  - Catalan  - Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... Missing image image:ccaa-canary. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Most of the Punic culture was destroyed as a result of the Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage, while traces of language, religion and technology could still be found in Africa during the early Christianisation. After the Punic Wars, Romans used the term Punic as an adjective meaning treacherous. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ...


In archaeological and linguistic usage Punic refers to a Hellenistic and later era culture and dialect from Carthage that had developed into a distinct form from the Phoenician of the mother city of Tyre. Phoenicians also settled in Northwest Africa (the Maghreb) and other areas under Carthaginian rule and their culture and political organisation were a distinct form. Remains of the Punic culture can be found in settlements from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to Cyprus in the East. Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...

Contents

Culture in the period 814BCE-146BCE

The Punics took their religion from their Phoenician forefathers, who worshiped Baal Hammon and Melqart, and merged it with African deities and some Greek and Egyptian, such as Apollo, Tanit, and Dionysis, even depicting Baal Hammon in human form looking much like the Greek god Zeus. This was not unusual, the Phoenicians themselves had influenced the Hebrews in much the same way about 500 years earlier. Their culture became a melting pot, since Carthage was a major hub of trade in the known world, but they still kept many of their old cultural identities and practices, such as possible child sacrifice. It is a possibility children were sacrificed for religious purposes.[citation needed] One of Hannibal Barca's brothers may have been a sacrifice because Hamilcar Barca, his father, had fathered 4 children but we only have three names: Hannibal Barca; Hasdrubal Barca; and Mago Barca[citation needed]. So, it is a possibility, not an unusual one either as many cultures of the time made sacrifices, such as the Greeks, Gauls, and even the Romans themselves on occasion would make human offerings, though more often done with an animal which was also probably the case with Carthage. Ba‘al Hammon (more properly Ba‘al Ḥammon or possibly Ba‘al Ḥamon) was the chief god of Carthage, generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Saturn. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... Basic Tanit symbol Tanit was a Carthaginian lunar goddess. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) This article is about the ancient deity. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (~270 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal. ... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... Hasdrubal Barca (d. ... Mago Barca (also spelled Magon) (243 BC - 203 BC), brother of the Carthaginian General Hannibal, he played a major role in the Second Punic War against Rome. ...


Sicilian and Punic Wars

Being trade rivals with Magna Grecia, the Punics had several clashes with the Greeks over the island of Sicily in the Sicilian Wars. They eventually fought Rome in the Punic Wars, but lost due to being outnumbered, lack of full governmental involvement, and reliance on their navy as the power of their military. This enabled a Roman settlement of Africa and eventual domination of the Mediterranean Sea. Cato the Elder notoriously ended his speeches with the imperative that Carthage should be utterly crushed, a view summarised in Latin by the phrase Praeterea censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, meaning simply, "Moreover, I declare, Carthage must be destroyed!". They were eventually incorporated into the Roman Republic in 146 BCE with the destruction of Carthage, but Cato never got to see his victory because he died in 149 BCE. Magna Graecia (Latin for Greater Greece, Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of an area in ancient southern Italy and Sicily that was colonised by ancient Greek settlers in the 8th century BCE. Originally, Magna Graecia was the... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Combatants Carthage Greek city-states of Magna Graecia, led by Syracuse Commanders Hamilcar† Hannibal Mago† Himilco Hamilcar Gelo Dionysius I Timoleon Agathocles The Sicilian Wars, (480 BC-307 BC) were a series of conflicts fought between Carthage and the Greek city-states of Magna Grecia, headed by Syracuse, over control... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ...


Culture in the period 146BCE-c.700CE

The annexation of Carthage wasn't the end of the Punics. Although the area was romanized and the population adopted the Roman religion (while fusing it with aspects of their beliefs and customs), the language and the ethnicity persisted for some time. People of Punic origin prospered again as traders, merchants, and even politicians of the Roman Empire. Carthage was rebuilt around 46 BCE by Julius Caesar, which was considered a bad gesture by some because the ruins of Carthage were cursed and so would be anyone who built on its site (Caesar ironically died 19 months later). However, Carthage again prospered and even became the number two trading city in the Roman Empire, until Constantinople took over that position. As Christianity spread across the Roman Empire, it was especially successful in Northern Africa and Carthage became a major Christian city even before the religion was legal. The Punic population still spoke the language and it is even possible that Saint Augustine himself was Punic, as he was aware of Punic words. One of his more well known passages reads: "It is an excellent thing that the Punic Christians call Baptism itself nothing else but salvation, and the Sacrament of Christ's Body nothing else but life." ("Forgiveness and the Just Deserts of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants", 1.24.34, AD 412) Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Map of Constantinople. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... St. ...


The last remains of a distinct Punic culture probably disappeared somewhere in the chaos during the Fall of Rome. The demographic and cultural characteristics of the region were thoroughly transformed by turbulent events such as the Vandals' wars with Byzantines, the forced population movements that followed and, finally, the Arabic conquest in the 7th century. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


See also

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region then called PÅ«t in Ancient Egyptian, Canaan in Phoenician, Hebrew and Aramaic, and Phoenicia in Greek and Latin. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The present day Republic of Tunisia, al Jumhuriyah at-Tunisiyah, has a population of close to ten million people, almost all of whom are Arab-Berber. ... Poenulus, a Latin-language play, is one of Plautus comedies. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... Species L. Balf. ... Binomial name Punica granatum L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ...

References

B. H. Warmington, Carthage (2d ed. 1969) T. A. Dorey and D. R. Dudley, Rome against Carthage (1971) N. Davis, Carthage and Her Remains (1985).


  Results from FactBites:
 
Punic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (181 words)
Punic (from Latin pūnicus) was a Latin version of the term "Phoenician".
Phoenicians settled in Northwest Africa (the Maghreb) from the city of Tyre (in modern Lebanon) and their culture and political organisation separated into a distinct form.
There were distinct Punic settlements from the Iberian Peninsula and Gibraltar in the West to Cyprus in the East; Sicily was a battleground between Punic and Roman forces for a long time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m