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Encyclopedia > Punctuation
Punctuation marks

apostrophe ( ' ) ( )
brackets ( ( ) ) ( [ ] ) ( { } ) ( 〈 〉 )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ellipsis ( ) ( ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
hyphen ( - ) ( )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( " ) ( ‘ ’ ) ( “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/solidus ( / )
interpunct ( · ) An apostrophe An apostrophe ( â€™ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... Various brackets in Arial See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which is shorter, and which has quite different uses. ... For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ... An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... Opening (inverted) and closing question marks The question mark (also known as an interrogation point, query, or eroteme) is a punctuation mark that replaces the full stop at the end of an interrogative sentence. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ... A semicolon ( ; ) is a type of punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ... An interpunct is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

Interword separation

spaces: (   ) ( ) ( )
Interword separation is the set of symbol or spacing conventions used by the orthography of a script to separate words. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ...

Other typographer's marks

ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
asterism ( )
at ( @ )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
dagger ( ) ( )
degrees ( ° )
interrobang ( )
number sign ( # )
prime ( )
tilde ( ~ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical bar/vertical line/pipe ( | ) ( ¦ ) The roman ampersand at left is stylised, but the italic one at right reveals its origin in the Latin word An ampersand (&, &, &), also commonly called an and sign, is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... a asterisk in eurostyle font An asterisk (*) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... At sign in Arial font A commercial at is the symbol @; also called an at symbol, an at sign, or just at, and sometimes mistakenly called an ampersand (& is the ampersand). ... First introduced in 1960 by Bob Bemer, the backslash, , is a typographical mark (glyph) used chiefly in computing. ... In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below: This is the text of a list item. ... Caret may mean: the ASCII character ^ (0x5E hex), called circumflex accent in the Unicode standard the Unicode character ‸ (U+2038), the actual caret of the Unicode standard in Windows API terminology, it means text insertion point indicator (whereas the word cursor is reserved for mouse pointer) This is a disambiguation... A dagger (†, †, U+2020) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... This article describes the typographical or mathematical symbol. ... The interrobang () is a seldom-used, non-standard English-language punctuation mark intended to combine the functions of a question mark and an exclamation point. ... Number sign in Arial font Number sign is the preferred Unicode name for the glyph or symbol # (Do not confuse with ♯ (Sharp)). The name was chosen from several used in the United States and Canada. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, â„™. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, ′) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... Vertical bar, or pipe is the name of the ASCII character at position 124 (decimal). ...

The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist or linguistician. ...

  1. in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i.e. using punctuation marks
  2. with reference to a given writing, the particular usage of punctuation marks made in that document (examples: a bad, good punctuation; to revise, to fix the punctuation)

Punctuation marks are symbols that do not correspond to either phonemes (sounds) of a language nor to lexemes (words and phrases), but which serve to indicate the structure and organization of a writing, as well as, usually, intonation and pauses to be observed when reading it aloud. See orthography. In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... Definition A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are the same in basic meaning. ... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ...


The rules of punctuation vary with language, location, register, and time, and are constantly evolving. Certain aspects of punctuation are a stylistic, and thus the author's, choice. A separate consideration should be reserved to tachigraphic language forms such as those used in chats and telephonic short messages. An English language bibliography may be found at the end of this article. In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Online chat can refer to any kind of communication over the internet, but is primarily meant to refer to direct 1 on 1 chat or chat rooms, using tools such as instant messenger applications—computer programs, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and possibly MUDs, MUCKs, MUSHes and MOOes. ... SMS arrival notification on a Siemens phone Short Message Service (SMS) is a service available on most digital mobile phones that permits the sending of short messages (also known as text messages, or more colloquially SMSes, texts or even txts) between mobile phones, other handheld devices and even landline telephones. ...

Contents


Commonly used punctuation marks

Some common examples used by English and other languages using the Roman alphabet are listed below (with their Unicode preferred names, where appropriate). The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Because of the limited number of characters available in ASCII, many of these punctuation characters have also been given specialized meanings in different computing contexts. The colon in URLs and the commercial at in e-mail addresses are examples of this kind of use. For other uses, see ASCII (disambiguation). ... Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a science that deals with the original sense of computing mathematical calculations. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a string of characters conforming to a standardized format, which refers to a resource on the Internet (such as a document or an image) by its location. ... Not to be confused with commercial art. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The individual articles listed below include information on use and misuse in English and provide examples:

The following typographical symbols or glyphs are not true punctuation marks: An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek αποστροφος προσωδια, the accent of elision) ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which is shorter, and which has quite different uses. ... For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ... An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... Opening (inverted) and closing question marks The question mark (also known as an interrogation point, query, or eroteme) is a punctuation mark that replaces the full stop at the end of an interrogative sentence. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ... British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the United Kingdom and those used elsewhere. ... A semicolon ( ; ) is a type of punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ... British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the United Kingdom and those used elsewhere. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... Interword separation is the set of symbol or spacing conventions used by the orthography of a script to separate words. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... These are the astrological glyphs as most commonly used in Western Astrology A glyph is a specific symbol representing a semantic or phonetic unit of definitive value in a writing system. ...


Also related are diacritical marks (or diacritics), which serve to distinguish among similar sounds using the same primary letter symbol, or to clarify emphasis or tone. The roman ampersand at left is stylised, but the italic one at right reveals its origin in the Latin word An ampersand (&, &, &), also commonly called an and sign, is a logogram representing the conjunction and. ... a asterisk in eurostyle font An asterisk (*) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below: This is the text of a list item. ... At sign in Arial font A commercial at is the symbol @; also called an at symbol, an at sign, or just at, and sometimes mistakenly called an ampersand (& is the ampersand). ... A dagger (†, †, U+2020) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... Number sign in Arial font Number sign is the preferred Unicode name for the glyph or symbol # (Do not confuse with ♯ (Sharp)). The name was chosen from several used in the United States and Canada. ... This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, ℙ. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, ′) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... The underscore _ is the character with ASCII value 95. ... Vertical bar, or pipe is the name of the ASCII character at position 124 (decimal). ... For the socioeconomic meaning, see social inequality. ... For the socioeconomic meaning, see social inequality. ... The section sign (§; Unicode U+00A7, HTML entity §) is a typographical character used mainly to refer to a particular section of a document, such as a legal code. ... A pilcrow. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


Each script, and each language within a script, can have its own set of punctuation marks and usage conventions.


East Asian punctuation

Also see the article Japanese typographic symbols

Chinese and Japanese use a different set of punctuation marks from Western languages. These only came into use relatively recently, the ancient forms of these languages having no punctuation at all. Traditional poetry and calligraphy maintains this punctuation-free style. Geographic scope of East Asia East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ...


Nearly all of the punctuation marks used are larger than their Western counterparts, and occupy a square area that is the same size as the characters around them. These punctuation marks are called "fullwidth" to contrast them from "halfwidth" Western punctuation marks.


Japanese and Traditional Chinese can be written horizontally or vertically, while Simplified Chinese is rarely written vertically. Some punctuation marks adapt to this change in direction: the parentheses, curved brackets, square quotation marks (Japanese and Traditional Chinese), book title marks (Chinese), ellipsis mark, dash, and wavy dash (Japanese) all rotate themselves 90 degrees when used in vertical rather than horizontal text. The three underline-like punctuation marks in Chinese (proper noun mark, wavy book title mark, and emphasis mark) rotate and shift to the left side of the text in vertical script. (Shifting to the right side of the text is also possible, but this is outmoded and can clash with the placement of other punctuation marks.) Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Chinese calligraphy by Song Dynasty scholar Su Shi. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... An underline is a horizontal line placed below a portion of text to show emphasis, or for titles of longer works (books, movies, etc. ...


Major differences between Western and Chinese/Japanese punctuation marks include:

  • Some punctuation marks are similar in use to their equivalent Western ones. The only difference is in size: they are fullwidth instead of halfwidth:
  • Other punctuation marks are more different, whether in shape or usage:
    • The Chinese and Japanese full stop is a fullwidth small circle (。). Its Chinese name is 句号 (jùhào). In horizontally-written Japanese the full stop is placed in the same position as it would be in English; in vertical writing it is placed below and to the right of the last Character. In Chinese the full stop is always after the last character.
    • In Japanese and Traditional Chinese, the double and single quotation marks are fullwidth 『 』 and 「 」. The double quotation marks are used when embedded within single quotation marks: 「...『...』...」.
      • In Traditional Chinese, Western-style quotation marks, “” and ‘’ can also be used for horizontal texts. In Simplified Chinese, only the Western-style quotation marks are used. Here, the single quotation marks are used when embedded within double quotation marks: “...‘...’...”. These quotation marks are fullwidth in printed matter, but share the same codepoints as the Western quotation marks in Unicode, so they require a Chinese-language font to be displayed correctly.
    • In Chinese, the fullwidth comma (,), called 逗號/逗号 (dòuhào), has the same shape as the Western comma. In Japanese, the fullwidth comma (、) is shaped like a teardrop with the narrow sharp end pointing top-left and round end pointing bottom-right; it may be depicted on your computer in another font.
    • Chinese also has a repetition comma called 頓號/顿号 (dùnhào), which must be used instead of the regular comma when separating words constituting a list. It is identical to the Japanese fullwidth comma (、). In Japanese, either the regular fullwidth comma (、) or a fullwidth middle dot (・) is used for this purpose.
    • Both Chinese and Japanese use a middle dot to separate words in a foreign name, since native first and last names in Chinese or Japanese are not separated using any punctuation or spaces. For example, "Leonardo da Vinci" in Simplified Chinese: "列奥纳多·达·芬奇", in Japanese: "レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ". Japanese always uses the fullwidth middle dot (・). In Chinese, the middle dot is also fullwidth in printed matter, but the halfwidth middle dot (·) is used in computer input, which is then rendered as fullwidth in Chinese-language fonts.
    • For emphasis, Chinese and Japanese use emphasis marks instead of italic type. Each emphasis mark is a single dot (in Chinese) or dash (in Japanese) placed under each character to be emphasized (for vertical text, the dot is placed to the left hand side of each character). Although frequent in printed matter, emphasis marks are rare online, as they cannot be represented as plain text, are not supported by HTML and most word processors, and otherwise inconvenient to input. In Japanese, these emphasis marks are called bōten or wakiten.
    • For book titles, Chinese uses fullwidth double book title marks, 《 book title》, and fullwidth single book title marks, 〈book title〉. The latter is used when embedded within the former: 《...〈...〉...》; in Traditional Chinese, the latter is also used for articles in or sections of a book. In Japanese, book titles are marked out using double quotation marks 『 』. (Italic type is never used in Chinese or Japanese.)
    • A proper noun mark (an underline) is occasionally used in Chinese, such in teaching materials and some movie subtitles. For consistency in style, a wavy underline (﹏﹏) is used instead of the regular book title marks whenever the proper noun mark is used in the same text. When the text runs vertically, the proper name mark is written as a line to the left of the characters (to the right in some older books).
    • In Chinese, the ellipsis is written with six dots (not three) occupying the same space as two characters (……) in the center of the line. Similarly, the dash is written so that it occupies the space of two characters (——) in the center of the line. There should be no breaking in the line. The Japanese ellipsis is also properly written as six dots, not three.
    • When connecting two words to signify a range, Chinese generally uses a fullwidth dash occupying the space of one character (—, e.g. 1月—7月 "January to July"), while Japanese generally uses a fullwidth wavy dash occupying the space of one character (~, e.g. 1月~7月 "January to July"). The wavy dash is also sometimes used in Chinese and Korean.
    • Whilst Western languages use a narrow space between each letter, and a wider space between words, Chinese and Japanese use a narrow space both between characters and between words. In this way it somewhat resembles the scriptio continua of ancient Greek and Latin.
      • There are a small number of exceptions. In Japanese, a fullwidth space is often used where a colon or comma would be used in English: 大和銀行 大阪支店 (Yamato Bank, Osaka Branch). The fullwidth space is extremely rare in modern-day Chinese, but in archaic usage it may be used as an honorific marker. A modern example, found in Taiwan, is that of referring to Chiang Kai-shek as 先總統 蔣公 (Late President, Lord Chiang), where the space is an honorific marker for 蔣公; this use is also still current in very formal letters or other old-style documents. (The full width space is also sometimes used purely for spacing purposes, such as in some Chinese bibles, where the character for God, "神", replaces the characters for Lord Above, "上帝", which was the term used in early translations.)
      • Also, when Chinese is written entirely in Hanyu Pinyin or when Japanese is written entirely in kana, spaces are always introduced to assist in reading.
    • Japanese uses iteration marks, the most common of which being 々, to indicate a repeated character. Chinese uses the iteration mark in informal or calligraphic writing, but never in careful writing or printed matter.
    • There is no equivalent of the apostrophe in Chinese or Japanese.

Korean, the third member language of CJK, currently uses mostly Western punctuation. An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... Opening (inverted) and closing question marks The question mark (also known as an interrogation point, query, or eroteme) is a punctuation mark that replaces the full stop at the end of an interrogative sentence. ... A semicolon ( ; ) is a punctuation mark. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... Various brackets in Arial See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ... Various brackets in Arial See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ... A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... In typography, a typeface consists of a co-ordinated set of grapheme (i. ... A middle dot is one of several types of dots that occur in the middle of a character space, such as the examples in the following table. ... Leonardo da Vinci (Vinci, Italy, April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519, Cloux, France) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: an architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... In typography, italic type refers to cursive typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. ... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... In typography, italic type refers to cursive typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. ... An underline is a horizontal line placed below a portion of text to show emphasis, or for titles of longer works (books, movies, etc. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Production of teletext subtitles A subtitle can refer to one of two things: an explanatory or alternate title of a book, play or film, in addition to its main title, or textual versions of a film or television programs dialogue that appear onscreen. ... For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which is shorter, and which has quite different uses. ... Scriptio continua (Continuous script in Latin) is a classical style of writing without spaces between words or sentences, with all the text in upper case, and with no punctuation, like this: NEQVEPORROQVISQUAMESTQVIDOLOREMIPSVMQVIADOLORSITAMETCONSECTETVRADIPISCIVELIT NOBODYLIKESPAINFORITSOWNSAKEORLOOKSFORITANDWANTSTOHAVEITJVSTBECAVSEITISPAIN Which in normal modern style is: Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Shangdi or Shang Ti (Wade-Giles) (上帝, pinyin Shàngdì), literally translated, Lord Above or Sovreign Above, in Chinese culture, is the name used both in traditional Chinese religion as well as Christianity for a supreme deity. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Iteration marks (Jp. ... CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ...


Like Classical Chinese, traditional Mongolian employed no punctuation at all. But now, as it uses the Cyrillic alphabet, its punctuations are similar, if not identical, to Russian. Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Other scripts

In ancient forms of Roman script, the interpunct served to separate words. ... An interpunct is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...


Ethiopian languages, including Amharic, Tigrinya, Ge'ez, and Afaan Oromo, make use of the following punctuation marks:

  • space () (resembles an English colon)
  • comma () (resembles an English colon with a line on top)
  • sentence end () (resembles four dots at the corners of an imaginary square)
  • semicolon () (resembles an English colon with two small horizontal lines, one above and one below)
  • colon () (resembles an English colon with a small horizontal line between the dots)
  • preface colon () (resembles an English colon with a small horizontal line between the dots but more to the right than in the semicolon)
  • question mark () (three dots in a vertical line)
  • paragraph separator () (seven dots: three in a vertical line flanked by two vertical lines of two dots each, appearing as the corners of a hexagon with a dot in the center)

See also Ethiopic Script.


Originally Sanskrit had no punctuation. In the 1600s, Sanskrit and Marathi, both written in the Devanagari script, started using the vertical bar (|) to end a line of a verse and double vertical bars (||) to end the verse. Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ...


Arabic — written from right to left — uses a reversed question mark: ؟. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


In Greek, the question mark is written as a sign resembling the English semi-colon.


Legal issues

A patent has been granted for two new punctuation marks, the question comma and the exclamation comma. [1] A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and...


Further reading

Eats, Shoots and Leaves: A Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation is a short nonfiction book written by Lynne Truss, the former host of the BBC Cutting a Dash radio program. ... Lynne Truss is a British writer and journalist. ... Robert Allen is a British lexicographer who has written, edited, and published a wide range of books about the English language. ... Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 - 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on usage, notable for both Fowlers Modern English Usage (first published 1926) and his work on the Concise Oxford Dictionary. ... Sir Ernest Gowers (1880 - 1966) was a British civil servant, now best known for work on style guides for the writing of the English language. ...

See also

An emoticon, sometimes called a smiley, is a sequence of printable characters such as :), ^_^, or :-) or a small image that is intended to represent a human facial expression and convey an emotion. ... Typographical syntax, also known as orthotypography, is the field of microtypography that defines the meaning and rightful usage of typographical signs, notably punctuation marks, and various elements of layout such as flushing and indentation. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ...

External links

  • 標點符號的種類 (Types of Punctuation Marks) Chinese punctuation marks and their names (In Chinese)
  • 中華人民共和國國家標準標點符號用法 (The People's Republic of China's National Standards on the Usage of Punctuation Marks) (In Chinese)
  • Japanese Punctuation Marks
  • Grammar & Punctuation Learning Resource

  Results from FactBites:
 
Punctuation handout.html (0 words)
In elementary school, we still often learn how punctuation is used by thinking of how a sentence is spoken (thus, the injunction to use a comma when you pause).
There are six kinds of punctuation used with quotation marks: (1) comma and period, (2) question mark and exclamation point, (3) semicolon and colon.
The punctuation that indicates intonation (rising for a question mark, emphatic for an exclamation point) goes inside or outside of quotation marks depending on whether the intonation applies to the quoted words or the sentence of which the quoted words are part.
Punctuation Marks: Little Explorers Picture Dictionary (527 words)
Punctuation marks are symbols that are used in sentences and phrases to make the meaning clearer.
A colon is a punctuation mark that is used to introduce a list in a sentence or a quote, to separate two major parts of a sentence, to indicate a ratio (such as 1:2) or a time (8:15).
A dot is a tiny speck or a period.
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