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Encyclopedia > Punched card
A CTR census machine, utilizing a punched card system.
A CTR census machine, utilizing a punched card system.

A punch card or punched card (or punchcard or Hollerith card or IBM card), is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Now almost an obsolete recording medium, punched cards were widely used throughout the 19th century for controlling textile looms and in the late 19th and early 20th century for operating fairground organs and related instruments. It was used through the 20th century in unit record machines for input, processing, and data storage. Early digital computers used punched cards as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data, with offline data entry on key punch machines. Some voting machines have used punched cards. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... An aperture card is a type of punched card with a window into which a chip of microfilm is mounted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Punched card Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Punched card Metadata... The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR)[1] was incorporated on June 15, 1911 in Endicott, New York a few miles west of Binghamton. ... Paperboard is a paper-like material, usually over ten mils (0. ... Obsolescence is when a person or object is no longer wanted even though it is still in good working order. ... A recording medium is a physical material that holds information expressed in any of the existing recording formats. ... For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ... Fairground organ A fairground organ is a pipe organ which is not played from a keyboard, but rather by mechanical means such as music roll or book music, and designed originally to be used on a fairground or in the United States on a carousel or in a dance-hall... Before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical devices called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... In Computer Science, data is often distinguished from code, though both are represented in modern computers as binary strings. ... Data processing is any process that converts data into information. ... IBM 029 keypunch. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ...

Contents

History

Punched cards in use in a Jacquard loom.
Punched cards in use in a Jacquard loom.
Punched cards of a large dance organ
Punched cards of a large dance organ

Punched cards were first used around 1725 by Basile Bouchon and Jean-Baptiste Falcon as a more robust form of the perforated paper rolls then in use for controlling textile looms in France. This technique was greatly improved by Joseph Marie Jacquard in his Jacquard loom in 1801. A few decades later Charles Babbage launched the idea of the use of the punched cards as a way to control a mechanical calculator he designed. Herman Hollerith developed punched card data processing technology for the 1890 US census and founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896) which was one of three companies that merged to form Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR), later renamed IBM. IBM manufactured and marketed a variety of unit record machines for creating, sorting, and tabulating punched cards, even after expanding into computers in the late 1950s. IBM developed punch card technology into a powerful tool for business data-processing and produced an extensive line of general purpose unit record machines. By 1950, the IBM card and IBM unit record machines had become ubiquitous in industry and government. "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate," a generalized version of the warning that appeared on some punched cards, became a motto for the post-World War II era (even though many people had no idea what spindle meant). Close-up view of the punch cards used by Jacquard loom on display at the museum of science and industry. ... Close-up view of the punch cards used by Jacquard loom on display at the museum of science and industry. ... Jacquard loom on display at Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, which utilized holes punched in pasteboard, each row of which corresponded to one row of the design. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 621 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,013 × 2,909 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 621 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,013 × 2,909 pixels, file size: 1. ... A Dance organ is a mechanical organ designed to be used in a dance hall or ballroom. ... Basile Bouchon was a textile worker in Lyon who invented a way to control a loom with a perforated paper tape in 1725. ... For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jacquard loom on display at Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, which utilized holes punched in pasteboard, each row of which corresponded to one row of the design. ... Babbage redirects here. ... Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical devices called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A spindle (or colloquially, a spike) is an upright spike used to hold papers waiting for processing. ...


From the 1900s, into the 1950s, punched cards were the primary medium for data entry, data storage, and processing in institutional computing. According to the IBM Archives: "By 1937... IBM had 32 presses at work in Endicott, N.Y., printing, cutting and stacking five to 10 million punched cards every day."[1] Punched cards were even used as legal documents, such as U.S. Government checks and savings bonds. During the 1960s, the punched card was gradually replaced as the primary means for data storage by magnetic tape, as better, more capable computers became available. Punched cards were still commonly used for data entry and programing until the mid-1970s when the combination of lower cost magnetic disk storage, and affordable interactive terminals on less expensive minicomputers made punched cards obsolete for this role as well. However, their influence lives on through many standard conventions and file formats. The terminals that replaced the punched cards, the IBM 3270 for example, displayed 80 columns of text in text mode, for compatibility with existing software. Some programs still operate on the convention of 80 text columns, although fewer and fewer do as newer systems employ graphical user interfaces with variable-width type fonts. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Magnetic tape has been used for data storage for over 50 years. ... Disk Drive is the afternoon show on CBC Radio Two. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... Clemson Universitys library catalog displayed in a 3270 emulation program The IBM 3270 is a class of terminals made by IBM since 1972 (known as Display Devices) normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. ... A text mode program communicates with the user by only displaying text and possibly a limited set of predefined semi-graphical characters, which allow the drawing of rudimentary boxes around portions of text, either to highlight the content or to simulate widget or control interface objects found in GUI programs. ... GUI redirects here. ...


Today punched cards are obsolete, except for a few legacy systems and specialized applications. It has been suggested that Legacy code be merged into this article or section. ...

A typical blank punched card of the type used to store data.
A typical blank punched card of the type used to store data.

Image File history File links Punch-card-blue. ... Image File history File links Punch-card-blue. ...

Card formats

The early applications of punched cards all used specifically designed card layouts. It wasn't until around 1928 that punched cards and machines were made "general purpose". The rectangular, round, or oval bits of paper punched out are called chad (recently, chads) or chips (in IBM usage). Multi-character data, such as words or large numbers, were stored in adjacent card columns known as fields. A group of cards is called a deck. One upper corner of a card was usually cut so that cards not oriented correctly, or cards with different corner cuts, could be easily identified. Cards were commonly printed so that the row and column position of a punch could be identified. For some applications printing might have included fields, named and marked by vertical lines, logos, and more.

Standard 5081 card from a non-IBM manufacturer.

The most common printed punched card was the IBM 5081. Indeed, it was so common that other card vendors used the same number (see image at right) and even users knew its number. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 382 pixel Image in higher resolution (921 × 440 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: 5081 data processing card containing a line of DOS JCL code. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 382 pixel Image in higher resolution (921 × 440 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: 5081 data processing card containing a line of DOS JCL code. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


In addition to punching, printing, and handwriting, there were other methods used to record information on punched cards. Two examples were:

  • Mark sense (Electrographic) cards, developed by Reynold B. Johnson, had printed ovals that could be marked with an electrographic pencil. Card punches with an option to detect mark sense cards could then punch the corresponding information into the card.
Aperture card (details suppressed).
Aperture card (details suppressed).
  • Aperture cards have an aperture on the right side of the punched card. A 35 mm microfilm chip containing a microform image is mounted in the aperture inside of a clear plastic sleeve or secured over the aperture by an adhesive tape. Aperture cards are used for engineering drawings from all engineering disciplines. Information about the drawing, for example the drawing number, could be both punched and printed on the remainder of the card. Aperture cards have, for archival purposes, some advantages over digital systems, for example: 100 year lifetime, human readable, and no expense or risk in converting to the next digital format.[2]

Mark sense is a trade name used by IBM for punched card technology that allowed cards marked with a pencil to be converted into punched cards. ... Electrographic a term used for punched card technology that allowed cards marked with a pencil to be converted into punched cards. ... Reynold Johnson was an American inventor and computer pioneer. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 354 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 849 pixels, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 354 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 849 pixels, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... An aperture card is a type of punched card with a window into which a chip of microfilm is mounted. ... A roll of microfilm Microfiche Microforms are processed films that carry images of documents to users for transmission, storage, reading and printing. ...

Hollerith's punch card formats

The punched card Herman Hollerith patented on June 8, 1887 and used with mechanical tabulating machines in the 1890 U.S. Census, was a piece of cardboard about 90 mm by 215 mm (the same size as 1887 US paper currency), with round holes and 24 columns. This card can be seen at the Columbia University Computing History site.[3] Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an German-American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards in order to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Hollerith's 45 column punched cards are illustrated in Comrie's The application of the Hollerith Tabulating Machine to Brown's Tables of the Moon.[4]


UNIVAC 90-character punch card format

A blank Remington-Rand UNIVAC format card
A blank Remington-Rand UNIVAC format card

The Remington-Rand UNIVAC card format had round holes. There were 45 columns with 12 punch locations each, two characters to each column. For the 90-column card character codings, see Winter, Dik T.. 90-column Punched Card Code. Retrieved on October 20, 2006. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 377 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,551 × 731 pixels, file size: 705 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 377 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,551 × 731 pixels, file size: 705 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... UNIVAC serves as the catch-all name for the American manufacturers of the lines of mainframe computers by that name, which through mergers and acquisitions underwent numerous name changes. ...


IBM 80 column punch card format

Card from a Fortran program: Z(1) = Y + W(1)
Card from a Fortran program: Z(1) = Y + W(1)

This IBM card format, designed in 1928,[5] had rectangular holes, 80 columns with 12 punch locations each, one character to each column. Card size was exactly 7-3/8 inch by 3-1/4 inch (187.325 by 82.55 mm). The cards were made of smooth stock, 0.007 inch (0.178 mm) thick. There are about 143 cards to the inch. In 1964, IBM changed from square to round corners.[6] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1687x809, 475 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Punch card ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1687x809, 475 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Punch card ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


The lower ten positions represented (from top to bottom) the digits 0 through 9. The top two positions of a column were called zone punches, 12 (top) and 11. Originally only numeric information was coded, with 1 punch per column indicating the digit. Signs could be added to a field by overpunching the least significant digit with a zone punch: 12 for plus and 11 for minus. Zone punches had other uses in processing as well, such as indicating a master record. The binary representation of decimal 149, with the lsb highlighted. ...


Later, codes were introduced for upper-case letters and special characters. A column with 2 punches (zone [12,11,0] + digit [1-9]) was a letter; 3 punches (zone [12,11,0] + digit [2-4] + 8) was a special character. The introduction of EBCDIC in 1964 allowed columns with as many as 6 punches (zones [12,11,0,8,9] + digit [1-7]). IBM and other manufacturers used many different 80-column card character codings.[7][8] EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...

Binary punch card.
Binary punch card.

For some computer applications, binary formats were used, where each hole represented a single binary digit (or "bit"), every column (or row) was treated as a simple bitfield, and every combination of holes was permitted. For example, the 704/709/7090/7094 series scientific computers treated every row as two 36-bit words, usually in columns 1-72, ignoring the last 8 columns (the 72 columns used were selectable using a control panel). Other computers, such as the IBM 1130 or System/360, used every column. For operator and visitor amusement, in binary mode, cards could be punched where every possible punch position had a hole: these were called "lace cards" (such cards lacked structural strength and generally could not be further processed by unit record machines). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1654x798, 559 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): IBM 1130 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1654x798, 559 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): IBM 1130 ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... The IBM 700/7000 series was a series of incompatible large scale (mainframe) computer systems made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s. ... Plugboard. ... IBM 1130 Console, restoration in progress. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... A lace card from the early 1970s. ...


The 80-column card format dominated the industry, becoming known as just IBM cards, even though other companies made cards and equipment to process them.


IBM 51 column punch card format

This IBM card format was a shortened 80-column card; the shortening sometimes accomplished by tearing off, at a perforation, a stub from an 80 column card. These cards were used in some retail and inventory applications.


IBM Port-A-Punch

From the IBM Archive: IBM's Supplies Division introduced the Port-A-Punch in 1958 as a fast, accurate means of manually punching holes in specially scored IBM punched cards. Designed to fit in the pocket, Port-A-Punch made it possible to create punched card documents anywhere. The product was intended for "on-the-spot" recording operations -- such as physical inventories, job tickets and statistical surveys -- because it eliminated the need for preliminary writing or typing of source documents..[9] Unfortunately, the resulting holes were "furry" and often caused problems with the equipment used to read the cards.


IBM Votomatic

The Votomatic vote recorder, a punch card voting machine originally developed in the mid 1960s.
The Votomatic vote recorder, a punch card voting machine originally developed in the mid 1960s.

From the IBM Archive (1965): In the privacy of the voting booth, the IBM Votomatic was used to register selections on a specially designed punched card ballot..[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Punch cards received considerable notoriety in 2000 when their uneven use in Votomatic style systems in Florida was alleged to have affected the outcome of the U.S. presidential election. Invented by Joseph P. Harris, Votomatic was manufactured under license by IBM. William Rouverol, who built the prototype and wrote patents, stated that after the patents expired in 1982, lower quality machines had appeared on the market. The machines used in Florida had five times as many errors as a true Votomatic, he said.[11] This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ...


Punch-card-based voting systems, the Votomatic system in particular, use special cards where each possible hole is pre-scored, allowing perforations to be made by the voter pressing a stylus through a guide in the voting machine. These pre-perforated cards are called Port-A-Punch cards (above). One notorious problem with this system is the incomplete punch; this can lead to a smaller hole than expected, or to a mere slit in the card, or to a mere dimple in the card, or to a hanging chad. This technical problem was claimed by the Democratic Party to have influenced the 2000 U.S. presidential election in the state of Florida; critics claimed that punch-card voting machines were primarily used in Democratic areas and that hundreds of ballots were not read properly or were disqualified due to incomplete punches, which allegedly tipped the vote in favor of George W. Bush over Al Gore. Electronic voting machine by Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Chads are paper particles created when holes are made in a computer punched tape or punch card. ... Map The U.S. presidential election of 2000 took place on Election Day, Tuesday, November 7. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


Other punch-card voting systems use a metal hole-punch mechanism that does not suffer nearly as much from this fault, although most states have eliminated punch-card voting systems of all types after the 2000 Florida experience.


IBM 96 column punch card format

A System/3 punch card.
A System/3 punch card.

In the early 1970s IBM introduced a new, smaller, round-hole, 96-column card format along with the IBM System/3 computer. These cards had tiny (1 mm), circular holes, smaller than those in paper tape. Data was stored in six-bit binary-coded decimal code, with three rows of 32 characters each, or 8-bit EBCDIC, with the two extra holes located in the top rows. For the 96-column card character codings, see Winter, Dik T.. 96-column Punched Card Code. Retrieved on October 20, 2006. Download high resolution version (863x718, 40 KB)System 3 punch card This is a digital photograph I took on August 11, 2004 of an IBM System 3 punch card. ... Download high resolution version (863x718, 40 KB)System 3 punch card This is a digital photograph I took on August 11, 2004 of an IBM System 3 punch card. ... A System 3 punch card. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary sequence. ... EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...


Punched Card Manufacturing

IBM's Fred M. Carroll[12] developed a series of rotary type presses that were used to produce the well-known standard tabulating cards, including a 1921 model that operated at 400 cards per minute (cpm). Later, he developed completely different press capable of operating at speeds in excess of 800 cpm, and it was introduced in 1936.[13][1] Carroll's high-speed press, containing a printing cylinder, revolutionized the manufacture of punched tabulating cards.[14] It is estimated that between 1930 and 1950, the Carroll press accounted for as much as 25 per cent of the company's profits[15]


Discarded printing plates from these card presses, each printing plate the size of an IBM card and formed into a cylinder, often found use as desk pen/pencil holders, and even today are collectable IBM artifacts (every card layout[16] had its own printing plate).


IBM initially required that its customers use only IBM manufactured cards with IBM machines, which were leased, not sold. IBM viewed its business as providing a service and that the cards were part of the machine. In 1932 the government took IBM to court on this issue, IBM fought all the way to the Supreme Court and lost; the court ruling that IBM could only set card specifications. In another, 1955, case IBM signed a consent decree requiring, amongst other things, that IBM by 1962 have no more than 1/2 the punched card manufacturing capacity in the United States. Tom Watson Jr.'s decision to sign this decree, where IBM saw the punched card provisions as the most significant point, completed the transfer of power to him from Thomas Watson, Sr.[15] DECREE - The judgment or sentence of a court of equity which corresponds to the judgment of a court of law. ... Thomas John Watson, Sr. ...


Ongoing cultural impact of punch cards

While punch cards have not been widely used for a generation, the impact was so great for most of the 20th century that they still appear from time to time in popular culture. For example:

  • The Simpsons - Episode 3F20, "Much Apu About Nothing" - Apu's doctoral dissertation was the world's first computer program to play perfect tic-tac-toe. Bart Simpson ruined it years later by plucking a random punch card out of the box along with several others while commenting, "Hey, what's this one do?" Apu promptly pitched it into the trash.
  • In an episode of Futurama, Bender starts a dating service, and one client punches out dots from a punch card to decide what he wants in a girl, then Bender stuffs it into his front compartment.
  • Sculptor Maya Lin designed a controversial public art installation at Ohio University that looks like a punch card from the air. [1] [2]
  • Do Not Fold, Bend, Spindle or Mutilate: Computer Punch Card Art - a mail art exhibit by the Washington Pavilion in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.


An artifact of this early implicit standard is that most character-based terminals display 80 characters per row. Even now, the default size for character interfaces such as the MS-DOS command prompt in Windows remains set at 80 columns. Simpsons redirects here. ... Much Apu About Nothing is the 23rd episode of The Simpsons seventh season. ... This article is about the television series. ... Visitors at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Ying Lin (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 5, 1959) is an American artist who has become known for her work in sculpture and landscape art. ... La Joute by Jean-Paul Riopelle, an outdoor kinetic sculpture installation with fire jets, fog machines, and a fountain in Montreal. ... Ohio University (OU) is a public university located in Athens, Ohio that is situated on a 1,800 acre (7. ...


Standards

  • ANSI INCITS 21-1967 (R2002), Rectangular Holes in Twelve-Row Punched Cards (formerly ANSI X3.21-1967 (R1997)) Specifies the size and location of rectangular holes in twelve-row 3-1/4 inch wide punched cards.
  • ANSI X3.11 - 1990 American National Standard Specifications for General Purpose Paper Cards for Information Processing
  • ANSI X3.26 - 1980/R1991) Hollerith Punched Card Code
  • ISO 1681:1973 Information processing - Unpunched paper cards - Specification
  • ISO 6586:1980 Data processing - Implementation of the ISO 7- bit and 8- bit coded character sets on punched cards. Defines ISO 7-bit and 8-bit character sets on punched cards as well as the representation of 7-bit and 8-bit combinations on 12-row punched cards. Derived from, and compatible with, the Hollerith Code, ensuring compatibility with existing punched card files.

See also

IBM 029 keypunch. ... Punch card from a Fortran program. ... Edge-notched cards, or McBee cards, were a manual data storage and manipulation technology invented in 1896 and used for specialized data storage and cataloging applications through much of the 20th century. ... Computing hardware has been an important component of the process of calculation and computer data storage since it became useful for numerical values to be processed and shared. ... A Music Roll is used to operate a Mechanical organ or Orchestrion and contains the music to be played. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... Brian De Palma (born Brian Russell DePalma on September 11, 1940 in Newark, New Jersey) is a controversial American film director, best known for directing the Al Pacino classic Scarface, and the Academy Award-winning The Untouchables. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Lubar, Steve (May 1991). "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate": A cultural history of the punch card. Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
  • Jones, Douglas W.. Punched Cards. Retrieved on October 20, 2006. (Collection shows examples of left, right, and no corner cuts.)
  • VintageTech - a U.S. company that converts punched cards to conventional media
  • Dyson, George (March 1999). "The Undead". Wired magazine 7 (3). Retrieved on October 2006.  article about modern-day use of punch cards
  • Williams, Robert V. (2002). "Punched Cards: A Brief Tutorial". IEEE Annals - Web extra. Retrieved on October 30, 2006. 
  • UNIVAC Punch Card Gallery (Shows examples of both left and right corner cuts.)
  • IBM Punch Card Systems in the U.S. Army
  • Cardamation - a U.S. company still supplying punch-card equipment and supplies as of 2007.
  • Still working Tabulating machines and punch-card equipment in a German computer museum

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... October 2006 was a month that began on a Sunday. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b | IBM Archive: Endicott card manufacturing
  2. ^ LoTurco, Ed (January, 2004). "The Engineering Aperture Card: Still Active, Still Vital". EDM Consultants.
  3. ^ Columbia University Computing History: Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator
  4. ^ Plates from: Comrie, L.J. (1932). "The application of the Hollerith Tabulating Machine to Brown's Tables of the Moon". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 92 (7): 694-707. 
  5. ^ IBM Archive: 1928.
  6. ^ IBM Archive: Old/New-Cards.
  7. ^ Winter, Dik T.. 80-column Punched Card Codes. Retrieved on October 20 06, {{{accessyear}}}.
  8. ^ Jones, Douglas W.. Punched Card Codes. Retrieved on February 20 07, {{{accessyear}}}.
  9. ^ IBM Archive: Port-A-Punch
  10. ^ IBM Archive: Votomatic
  11. ^ (Winter 2001) "IGS Votomatic Prototype Goes to the Smithsonian". Institute of Governmental Studies, Public Affairs Report 42 (4). University of California, Berkeley. 
  12. ^ IBM Archives/Business Machines: Fred M. Carroll
  13. ^ IBM Archives: Fred M. Carroll
  14. ^ IBM Archives: (IBM) Carroll Press
  15. ^ a b Belden, Thomas; Belden, Marva (1962). The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson. Little, Brown & Company. 
  16. ^ IBM Archives:1939 Layout department

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “GFDL” redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Punch card - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1871 words)
In that year, punched cards were made a standard size, exactly 7-3/8 inch by 3-1/4 inch (187.325 by 82.55 mm), dimensions almost identical to the large-sized notes used as U.S. currency until 1929.
The punch cards were 7 and 3/8 inches long by 3 and 1/4 inches high and were 0.007 inch thick with one of the upper corners cut at an angle.
Punch card based voting systems, the Votomatic system in particular, use special cards where each possible hole was pre scored, allowing perforations to be made by the voter pressing a stylus through a guide in the voting machine.
Punch card - definition of Punch card in Encyclopedia (1474 words)
In that year, punched cards were made a standard size, exactly 7-3/8 inch by 3-1/4 inch (187.325 by 82.55 mm), reportedly corresponding to the US currency of the day, though some sources characterise this assertion as urban legend.
There were also cards with all the punch positions perforated so data could be punched out manually, one hole at a time, with a device like a blunt pin with its wire bent into a finger-ring on the other end.
In this binary mode, cards could be made in which every possible punch position had a hole: these were called "lace cards." For example, the IBM 700/7000 series scientific computers treated every row as two 36-bit words, in columns 1-72, ignoring the last 8 columns.
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