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Encyclopedia > Puerto Rico
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico Coat of arms of Puerto Rico
Flag Coat of arms
MottoLatin: Joannes Est Nomen Eius
Spanish: Juan es su nombre
English: "His name is John"
Anthem"La Borinqueña"
Capital
(and largest city)
San Juan
Official languages Spanish and English[1]
Ethnic groups  Spanish, French, German, Irish, Italian, Corsican, Black, Taíno, Chinese
Demonym Puerto Rican
Government Republican three-branch government
 -  Head of State George W. Bush
 -  Federal Legislative Branch United States Congress

The statutory laws of the United States not locally inapplicable, ...shall have the same force and effect in Puerto Rico as in the United States.[2] For the island in the Caribbean that inspired this game, see Puerto Rico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Puerto_Rico. ... Flag of Puerto Rico (1995 - present) Flag of Puerto Rico (1952 - 1995) Pro-independence Flag (1892) The Flag of Puerto Rico was designed in 1894. ... The coat of arms of Puerto Rico were first granted by the Spanish Crown in 1511, and are the oldest arms still used in the New World. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... asBold textelashely doesnt have anyfriends no1 likes her she is a bitch. ... Image File history File links LocationPuertoRico. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The population of the island of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Native settlers, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Ricos status as a United States Commonwealth. ... For other uses, see San Juan. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Various factors during the mid-19th century contributed to the Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico; among those factors were the social-economic changes which came about in Europe as a result of the Second Industrial Revolution, political discontent and widespread crop failure due to long periods of drought, and crop... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

Puerto Rico sends a non-voting Resident Commissioner who serves a four-year term.
 -  Head of Government Aníbal Acevedo Vilá
Sovereignty United States sovereignty.[3] 
Area
 -  Total 9,104 km² (169th)
3,515 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 3,994,259 (127th in the world; 27th in U.S.)
 -  2000 census 3,913,054 
 -  Density 438/km² (21st in the world; 3rd in U.S.)
1,115/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $77.4 billion (N/A)
 -  Per capita $19,600 (N/A)
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Time zone AST (UTC-4)
 -  Summer (DST) No DST (UTC-4)
Internet TLD .pr
Calling code +1  spec. +1-787 and +1-939

Puerto Rico (IPA: /ˌpwertoˈriko/), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: "Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico" [literally, English: "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico"]), is a semi-autonomous territory of the United States located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands. The territory is composed of an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands and keys, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona. The main island of Puerto Rico is the smallest by land area but third largest by population among the four Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico). The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a nonvoting representative of the United States House of Representatives elected by Puerto Ricans every 4 years. ... The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ... Aníbal Salvador Acevedo Vilá (born February 13, 1962) is the eighth and current insular governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a semi-autonomous unincorporated territory of the United States. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... USD redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... The Atlantic Standard Time Zone (AST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .pr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Puerto Rico. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... +1 can mean: +1, a jargon term, appearing mostly in Russian blog comments, used to agree with the parent post and show support. ... The area codes (787) and (939) (as an overlay), are the local telephone area codes of Puerto Rico. ... The area code (939) for Puerto Rico, operates as an overlay for the original local (787) telephone area code. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... A cay (also spelled key, but both are pronounced alike as key [IPA: ]) is a small, low island consisting mostly of sand or coral. ... Nickname: Location within Puerto Rico Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Damaso Serrano López Area  - Total 348. ... Flag Seal Nickname: La Isla Chiquita (Little Island), Última Virgen (Last Virgin) Gentilic: Culebrenses Location Location of Culebra, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded October 27, 1880 Mayor Abraham Peña Nieves Political party PNP Senatorial district 8 - Carolina Representative district 36 Geographical characteristics Area Total 30. ... Mona Island redirects here. ... Location of the Greater Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean The islands of the Caribbean Sea, collectively known as the West Indies are sorted by size and location into the Bahamas (or Lucayan archipelago), the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ...


Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name.[4][5] The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as "La Isla del Encanto", which translated means "The Island of Enchantment." The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geography

Map of Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rico consists of the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands, including Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Desecheo, and Caja de Muertos. Of the latter five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round. Mona is uninhabited most of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. There are also many other even smaller islands including Monito and "La Isleta de San Juan" which includes Old San Juan and Puerta de Tierra. Location: Image of Puerto Rico taken by NASA. Caribbean, archipelago between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: Total: 9,104 km² Land: 8,959 km² Water: 145... Map of Puerto Rico. ... Map of Puerto Rico. ... Nickname: Location within Puerto Rico Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Damaso Serrano López Area  - Total 348. ... Flag Seal Nickname: La Isla Chiquita (Little Island), Última Virgen (Last Virgin) Gentilic: Culebrenses Location Location of Culebra, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded October 27, 1880 Mayor Abraham Peña Nieves Political party PNP Senatorial district 8 - Carolina Representative district 36 Geographical characteristics Area Total 30. ... Mona Island redirects here. ... Desecheo Island is located 20 km from the west coast of the main island of Puerto Rico, in the northeast of Mona Passage. ... Beach in Caja de Muerto Island Shot Caja de Muerto is an island south of Puerto Rico that is protected by the Federal Reserve of Natural Resourses, because of native turtle traffic. ... Monito Island is an unhabited island about 5 kilometers northwest of Mona Island. ... Main article: San Juan, Puerto Rico Map of Old San Juan. ... Puerta de Terra is a neighborhood of San Juan, Puerto Rico. ...


Puerto Rico has an area of 5,325 sq mi (13,790 km²), of which 3,425 sq mi (8,870 km²) is land and 1,900 sq mi (4,921 km²) is water.[6] The maximum length from east to west, from Punta Puerca to Punta Higuero, is 110 miles (180 km), and the maximum width from north to south, from Isabela to Punta Colón, is 40 miles (64 km).[7] Puerto Rico is larger than Delaware and Rhode Island combined, but slightly smaller than Connecticut. It is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south of the main island. The main mountain range is called "La Cordillera Central" (The Central Range). The highest elevation in Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta (4,390 feet; 1,338 m),[8] is located in this range. Another important peak is El Yunque, one of the highest in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with an elevation of 3,494 feet (1,065 m). The capital, San Juan, is located on the main island's north coast. This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... La Cordillera Central (The Central Mountain ranges) is the main mountainous range in Puerto Rico. ... Cerro de Punta is the highest Peak of Puerto Rico measuring 1,338 meters above sea level. ... This article refers to the mountain, for information on the forest typically called El Yunque see Caribbean National Forest. ... El Yunque National Forest, formerly known as the Caribbean National Forest, is located on the island of Puerto Rico. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see San Juan. ...


Geology

Main article: Geology of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks, overlain by younger Oligocene and more recent carbonates and other sedimentary rocks.[citation needed] Most of the caverns and karst topography on the island occurs in the northern region in the carbonates. The oldest rocks are approximately 190 million years old (Jurassic) and are located at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island. They may represent part of the oceanic crust and are believed to come from the Pacific Ocean realm. // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... In geology an intrusion is usually a body of igneous rock that has crystallized from a molten magma below the surface of the Earth. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... Carbonate is an anion with a charge of -2 and an empirical formula of CO32-. An aqueous solution of carbon dioxide contains a minute amount of H2CO3, called carbonic acid, which dissociates to form hydrogen ions and carbonate ions. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) The outside world viewed from a cave A cave is a natural underground void. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Age of oceanic crust Oceanic crust is the part of Earths lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. ...


Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates and is being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by their interaction. These stresses may cause earthquakes and tsunamis. These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean. The most recent major earthquake occurred on October 11, 1918 and had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale.[9] It originated off the coast of Aguadilla and was accompanied by a tsunami. Plate has several meanings: A plate electrode in a vacuum tube. ... ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... A Geologic Hazard is one of several types of adverse geologic conditions capable of causing damage or loss of property and life. ... Brick house in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico destroyed by the earthquake. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... Aguadilla is a small beach town in Northwest Puerto Rico. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...

Illustration of the Puerto Rico Trench.
Illustration of the Puerto Rico Trench.

The Puerto Rico Trench, the largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic, is located about 75 s (120 km) north of Puerto Rico in the Atlantic Ocean at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates.[10] It is 1,090 miles (1,754 km) long and about 60 miles (97 km) wide. At its deepest point, named the Milwaukee Deep, it is 27,493 feet (8,380 m) deep, or about 5.2 miles (8.38 km).[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1076, 330 KB)Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1076, 330 KB)Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. ... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... Milwaukee Deep is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, with a maximum depth of 28,232 feet (8605 meters) and is part of the Puerto Rico Trench. ...


Climate

Located in the tropics, Puerto Rico enjoys an average temperature of 82.4 °F (28 °C) throughout the year. The temperature does not change drastically with a change in season. The temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island. Hurricane season spans June to November. The all-time low in Puerto Rico has been 40 °F (4 °C), registered in Aibonito.[citation needed] A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... ... Aibonito is a small mountain town in Puerto Rico. ...


Puerto Rico has 17 lakes, all man-made,[11] and more than 50 rivers, most originating in the Cordillera Central. Rivers in the northern region of the island are typically longer and of higher water flow rates than those of the south, since the south receives less rain than the central and northern regions. For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This is a list of rivers in the U.S. Territory of Puerto Rico Aibonito River Añasco Big River Angeles River Anasco Big River Anon River Anton Ruiz River Apeadero River Arecibo Big River Arenas River Arroyata River Bairoa River Barbas River Barranquitas River Bauta River Bayagan River Blanco... In fluid dynamics, the volumetric flow rate, also volume flow rate and rate of fluid flow, is the volume of fluid which passes through a given volume per unit time (for example gallons per minute or squeaks per parsec). ...


Fauna

Main article: Fauna of Puerto Rico

Species endemic to the archipelago are 239 plants, 16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles, recognized as of 1998. Most of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island.[12] The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí, a small frog easily identified by the sound of its call, and from which it gets its name. Most Coquí species (13 of 17) live in the El Yunque National Forest, a tropical rainforest in the northeast of the island previously known as the Caribbean National Forest. El Yunque is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic to the island. It is also home to 50 bird species, including one on the top 10 endangered birds in the world, the Puerto Rican Amazon. Across the island in the southwest, the 10,000 acres (40 km²) of dry land at the Guánica Dry Forest Reserve contain over 600 uncommon species of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 endemic to Puerto Rico. A Common Coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui), arguably the most recognizable species of Puerto Ricos fauna The fauna of Puerto Rico is similar to other island archipelago faunas, with high endemism, and low, skewed taxonomic diversity. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Species See text Coquí is the common name for several species of small frogs native to the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, onomatopoeically named for the loud sound (sometimes reaching as high as 100 dB) the males make at night. ... El Yunque National Forest, formerly known as the Caribbean National Forest, is located on the island of Puerto Rico. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Yunque waterfall The Caribbean National Forest located in the island of Puerto Rico, and commonly known as El Yunque (named after the Taino Indian spirit Yuquiyú, and meaning Forest of Clouds) is the only tropical forest in the United States National Forrest System. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Binomial name Boddaert, 1783 Subspecies A. v. ...


History

Main article: History of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3000 and 2000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 430 BC and 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus...

Pre-Columbian era

Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center
Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center

The history of the archipelago of Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port") before the arrival of Christopher Columbus is not well known. What is known today comes from archaeological findings and from early Spanish accounts. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Iñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, 293 years after the first Spaniards arrived on the island.[13] Image File history File links Taino_Village. ... Image File history File links Taino_Village. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Viage a la América Fray Iñigo Abbad y Lasierra (1745 - 1813), born in Estadilla, Spain, was a Benedictian monk and the first historian to extensively document Puerto Ricos history, nationality and culture. ...


The first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen. An archaeological dig in the island of Vieques in 1990 found the remains of what is believed to be an Arcaico (Archaic) man (named Puerto Ferro man) dated to around 2000 BC. Between AD 120 and 400, the Igneri, a tribe from the South American Orinoco region, arrived. Between the 4th and 10th centuries, the Arcaicos and Igneri co-existed (and perhaps clashed) on the island. Between the 7th and 11th century the Taíno culture developed on the island, and by approximately 1000 AD had become dominant. This lasted until Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492.[14][15] The Ortoiroid people are first human settlers of the Caribbean. ... In the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Archaic period was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 BC to 1000 BC although as its ending is defined by the adoption of... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Orinoco (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ...


Spanish colony

When Christopher Columbus arrived in Puerto Rico during his second voyage on November 19, 1493, the island was inhabited by a group of Arawak Indians known as Taínos. They called the island "Borikén" or, in Spanish, "Borinquen".[16] Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist. Later the island took the name of Puerto Rico while the capital was named San Juan. In 1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León became the island's first governor to take office.[17] Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... For other uses, see San Juan. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Juan Ponce de León (c. ... Since 1949, the Governor of Puerto Rico is elected by the people of Puerto Rico to a four year term. ...

Garita at fort San Felipe del Morro
Garita at fort San Felipe del Morro

The Spanish soon colonized the island. Taínos were forced into slavery and were decimated by the harsh conditions of work and by diseases brought by the Spaniards. In 1494, The Spanish were attacked, but survived and won the battle.[citation needed] African slaves were introduced to replace the Indians. Puerto Rico soon became an important stronghold and port for the Spanish Empire. During the late 17th and early 18th centuries colonial emphasis was on the more prosperous mainland territories, leaving the island impoverished of settlers. By the early 18th century there were less than 10,000 Taíno Indians, who primarily inhabited the central mountainous region (Las Cordillas), the areas currently consisting of the municipalities of Orocovis, Morovis, Ciales, and Corozal. Sentinel Station - El Morro Castle File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sentinel Station - El Morro Castle File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Guerite at Fort de Chartres Garita at El Cañuelo A guerite is a type of sentry box. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Slave redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Image:Orocovis seal. ... Image:Morovis seal. ... Image:Corozal seal. ...


Various forts and walls were built over the centuries to protect the port of San Juan from European enemies — such as La Fortaleza, El Castillo San Felipe del Morro and El Castillo de San Cristóbal. France, The Netherlands and England made several attempts to capture Puerto Rico but failed to wrest long-term occupancy. La Fortaleza (or The Fortress in English) is the current residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico. ... Aerial view of El Morro. ... The Castillo de San Cristóbal is a Spanish fort in San Juan, Puerto Rico. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In 1809 a populist assembly based in Cádiz recognized Puerto Rico as an overseas province of Spain with the right to send representatives to the Spanish Court. The representative, Ramon Power y Giralt, died soon after arriving in Spain. These constitutional reforms were reversed soon afterwards when autocratic monarchy was restored. Nineteenth century reforms augmented the population and economy, and expanded the local character of the island. After the rapid gaining of independence by the South and Central American states in the first part of the century, Puerto Rico and Cuba became the sole New World remnants of the large Spanish empire. Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... The Cortes Generales (English: General Courts) is the Spanish legislature. ... Admiral Ramon Power y Giralt Admiral Ramon Power y Giralt (October 21, 1775 - June 10, 1813 born in San Juan, Puerto Rico), was, according to Puerto Rican historian Lidio Cruz Monclova, among the first native born Puerto Ricans to refer to himself as a Puerto Rican and to fight for... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...

The Original Lares Revolutionary Flag.
The Original Lares Revolutionary Flag.

Toward the end of the 19th century, poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as "Grito de Lares". It began in the rural town of Lares but was easily and quickly crushed when rebels moved to the neighboring town of San Sebastián. Leaders of this independence movement included Ramón Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican nation, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis. In 1897, Luis Muñoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to Charters of Autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roman Catholic Church of Lares and Monument to the Grito at the Plaza de la Revolución El Grito de Lares (The Cry of Lares)—also referred as the Lares uprising, the Lares revolt, Lares rebellion or even Lares Revolution—was the revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico on... Lares (pl. ... San Sebastián is a municipality of Puerto Rico. ... Ramón Emeterio Betances y Alacán (April 8, 1827 – September 16, 1898) was a Puerto Rican nationalist. ... Segundo Ruiz Belvis (May 13, 1829 – November 3, 1867) born in Hormigueros, Puerto Rico was a dedicated abolisionist who also fought for Puerto Ricos right to independence. ... Luis Muñoz Rivera Luis Muñoz Rivera (July 17, 1859 - November 15, 1916) was a poet, journalist and a politician from Barranquitas, Puerto Rico. ...


In 1898, Puerto Rico's first, but short-lived, autonomous government was organized as an 'overseas province' of Spain. The charter maintained a governor appointed by Spain, which held the power to annul any legislative decision, and a partially elected parliamentary structure. In February, Governor-General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government under the Autonomous Charter, which gave town councils complete autonomy in local matters. Subsequently, the governor had no authority to intervene in civil and political matters unless authorized to do so by the Cabinet. General elections were held in March and the autonomous government began to function on 17 July 1898.[18][19][20] is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Under United States sovereignty

On July 25, 1898 during the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States with a landing at Guánica. As an outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam to the U.S. under the Treaty of Paris.[21] Puerto Rico began the 20th century under the military rule of the U.S. with officials, including the governor, appointed by the President of the United States. The Foraker Act of 1900 had given Puerto Rico a certain amount of popular government, including a popularly-elected House of Representatives. By 1917, the Jones-Shafroth Act granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship - which they still hold — and provided for a popularly-elected Senate to complete a popularly-elected bicameral Legislative Assembly. Until the first gubernatorial election in 1948, the Presidency of the Senate and the Resident Commissioner seat in Congress were held by Puerto Rico's top politicians. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... Guánica is a municipality in southwestern Puerto Rico consisting of a land area of 37. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Foraker Act, also known as the Organic Act of 1900, established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. ... This act applies to the grant of citizenship to all citizens of Puerto Rico. ... // Possession of Citizenship U.S. citizens have the right to participate in the political system of the United States (with reservations for prisoners, ex-prisoners, and naturalized persons), are represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and are allowed to reside in the...


Many Puerto Ricans served in the United States Armed Forces beginning in World War I. Natural disasters, including a major earthquake, a tsunami (1918 Puerto Rico earthquake) and several hurricanes, and the Great Depression impoverished the island during the first few decades under American rule. Some political leaders demanded change; some, like Pedro Albizu Campos, led a nationalist movement in favor of independence (the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party). Albizu-Campos and other nationalists lead a revolt against the United States (known as The Jayuya Uprising). The revolt took place on October 30, 1950, in the town of Jayuya, and went on for three days. The United States declared martial law in Puerto Rico and sent the Puerto Rico National Guard to attack Jayuya. The town was attacked by land with infantry and artillery and by bombers of the U.S. Air Force. Don Pedro Albizu Campos served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government in Puerto Rico.[22] Luis Muñoz Marín initially favored independence, but saw a severe decline of the Puerto Rican economy and growing violence and uprisings, and opted to support the "commonwealth" option instead like some predecessors. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Brick house in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico destroyed by the earthquake. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Pedro Albizu Campos Pedro Albizu Campos (September 12, 1891 – April 21, 1965) born in Tenerías Village in Ponce, Puerto Rico was the son of Alejandro Albizu and Juana Campos. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party was first organized on September 17, 1922. ... The Jayuya Uprising, also known as the Jayuya Revolt or El Grito de Jayuya, refers to the revolt against the Government of the United States in Puerto Rico which occured on October 30, 1950 in the town of Jayuya, Puerto Rico. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jayuya is a municipality of Puerto Rico named after the Taino Cacique Hayuya. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... Atlanta redirects here. ... For the airport of the same name, see Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport. ...


The internal governance changed during the latter years of the RooseveltTruman administrations, as a form of compromise led by Muñoz Marín and others. It culminated with the appointment by President Truman in 1946 of the first Puerto Rican-born governor, Jesus T. Piñero. In 1947, the U.S. granted the right to democratically elect the governor of Puerto Rico. Muñoz Marín became the first elected governor in the 1948 general elections, and served for 16 years, until 1964. FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Order: 1st Puerto Rican to be appointed governor by the government of the United States Term of Office: 1946–1949 Predecessor: Rexford Guy Tugwell Successor: Luis Muñoz Marín (1949) Date of Birth: April 6, 1897 Date of Death: November 16, 1952 Place of Birth: Carolina, Puerto Rico Profession... The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ...


On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate President Harry S Truman. That year, the Truman Administration allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their local constitution.[23] A local constitution was approved by a Constitutional Convention on February 6, 1952, approved by Congress and President Truman on July 3 of that year and proclaimed by Gov. Muñoz Marín on July 25, 1952, the anniversary of the 1898 arrival of U.S. troops. Puerto Rico adopted the name of Estado Libre Asociado (literally translated as "Free Associated State"), officially translated into English as Commonwealth, for its body politic, the name customarily used to denote the current relationship with the U.S.[24][25] During the 1950s Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operación Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap"), an offshoot of FDR's New Deal, which aimed to transform Puerto Rico's economy from agriculture-based to manufacturing-based. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Griselio Torresola (1925 – November 1, 1950) born in Jayuya, Puerto Rico, was one of two Puerto Rican Nationalists who attempted to assassinate United States President Harry Truman. ... Oscar Collazo (1914 – February 21, 1994) born in Florida, Puerto Rico, was one of two Puerto Ricans who attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman. ... The assassination attempt on Harry S. Truman occurred on November 1, 1950. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is the controlling government document of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico at the Commonwealth level. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the terminology of the United States insular areas, a Commonwealth is an organized territory or colony that has established with the Federal Government a more highly developed relationship, which may be embodied in a written mutual agreement. ... Body politic or body corporate and politic means a state or one of its subordinate civil authorities, such as a: province prefecture county municipality city district etc. ... Operation Bootstrap (Operación Manos a la Obra) is the name given to the ambitious projects which industrialized Puerto Rico in the mid-20th century. ...


Now Puerto Rico has become a major tourist destination and a leading pharmaceutical and manufacturing center. Yet it still struggles to define its political status. Three locally-authorized plebiscites have been held in recent decades to decide whether Puerto Rico should pursue independence, enhanced commonwealth status, or statehood. The relationship with the U.S. has remained unchanged due to narrow victories by commonwealth supporters over statehood advocates in the first two plebiscites, and an unacceptable definition of commonwealth by the pro-statehood leadership on the ballots in the third. In the latest status referendum of 1998, the "none of the above" option won over Statehood, a rejection by Commonwealthers of the definition of their status on the ballots, with 50.2% of the votes. Support for the pro-statehood party, Partido Nuevo Progresista (PNP) and the pro-commonwealth party, Partido Popular Democrático (PPD) remains about equal. The only registered pro-independence party, the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño (PIP), usually receives 3-5% of the electoral votes, though there are several smaller independence groups like the Partido Nacionalista de Puerto Rico ("Puerto Rican Nationalist Party"), el Movimiento Independentista Nacional Hostosiano ("National Hostosian Independence Movement"), and the Macheteros - Ejercito Popular Boricua ("Boricua Popular Army"). The New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico —or Partido Nuevo Progresista de Puerto Rico (PNP) in Spanish— is a political party that campaigns for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. ... The Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico —or Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico (PPD) in Spanish— is a political party that stands for Puerto Rico to be a free associated state of the United States, which is also known as a commonwealth status. ... The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Spanish: Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a Puerto Rican political party that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. ... Ejercito Popular Boricua logo. ...


On 25 October 2006, the Puerto Rico State Department conferred Puerto Rican Citizenship to Juan Mari Brás[26] . The Puerto Rico Supreme Court and the Puerto Rican Secretary of Justice determined that the Puerto Rican citizenship exists and was recognized in the Constitution of Puerto Rico, as in the Insular Cases (Casos Insulares in Spanish) of 1901 through 1922 of the U.S. Supreme Court. Since the summer of 2007, the Puerto Rico State Department has developed the protocol to grant the Puerto Rican citizenship to Puerto Ricans.[27] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juan Mari Brás (born December 2, 1925 in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican independence advocate who founded the Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP). ... The Insular Cases are several U.S. Supreme Court cases decided early in the 20th century. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...


Demographics

Demographic distribution

Whites redirects here. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Note that this classification is now considered incorrect and should not be used in everyday writing. ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... In April of 1990, Daniel K. Akaka became the first native Hawaiian and Chinese American to serve in the United States Congress as a Senator from the State of Hawaii. ... Pacific Islands (or Pacific Person, pl: Pacific People, also called Oceanic[s]), is a geographic term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania. ... The population of the island of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Native settlers, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Ricos status as a United States Commonwealth. ...

Population and racial makeup

During the 1800s hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families arrived in Puerto Rico, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain (mainly from Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands) and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America. Other settlers included Irish, Scots, Germans, Italians and thousands others who were granted land by Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 ("Royal Decree of Graces of 1815"), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land. This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century. A census conducted by royal decree on September 30, 1858, gives the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at this time: 300,430 identified as Whites; 341,015 as Free colored; and 41,736 as Slaves.[citation needed] More recently, Puerto Rico has become the permanent home of over 100,000 legal residents who immigrated from not only Spain, but from Latin America: Argentines, Cubans, Dominicans, Colombians and Venezuelans. Various factors during the mid-19th century contributed to the Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico; among those factors were the social-economic changes which came about in Europe as a result of the Second Industrial Revolution, political discontent and widespread crop failure due to long periods of drought, and crop... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian has special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... This article is about the country. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... The Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 is a legal order approved by the Spanish Crown in the early half of the 19th Century to encourage Spaniards and later Europeans of non-Spanish origin to settle and populate the colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the term used for people of African descent in North America. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history. Starting soon after WWII, poverty, cheap airfare and promotion by the island government caused waves of Puerto Ricans to move to the continental United States, particularly to New York City, New York; Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Camden, New Jersey; Chicago, Illinois; Springfield and Boston, Massachusetts; Orlando, Miami and Tampa, Florida; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Hartford, Connecticut; Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles, California. This trend continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... New York, New York redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ... “Paterson” redirects here. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... Boston redirects here. ... Orlando redirects here. ... Miami redirects here. ... Tampa redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Hartford redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...

Royal Decree of Graces, 1815

In the 2000 U.S. Census Puerto Ricans were asked to indicate in which racial categories they consider themselves to belong; 80% described themselves as "white"; 8% as "black"; 12% as "mulatto" and 0.4% as "American Indian or Alaska Native".[29][30] (The U.S. Census does not consider Hispanic a race, and asks if a person considers himself Hispanic in a separate question.) Image File history File links Real_Cédula_de_Gracia. ... Image File history File links Real_Cédula_de_Gracia. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ... Note that this classification is now considered incorrect and should not be used in everyday writing. ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ...


A recent study of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 800 Puerto Ricans found that 61.1% had Amerindian maternal mtDNA, 26.4% African, and 12.5% Caucasian.[31] Conversely, patrilineal input, as indicated by the Y chromosome, showed that 70% of all Puerto Rican males have inherited Y chromosome DNA from a male European ancestor, 20% from a male African ancestor, and fewer than 10% from a male Amerindian ancestor. This suggests that the largest components of the Puerto Rican genetic pool are European/Caucasian, Amerindian, and African, in descending order. Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...


According to the year 2000 US Census, there were almost four million inhabitants in the Island.


Language

The official languages of the commonwealth are Spanish and English. Spanish is the primary language of Puerto Ricans, and English is taught as a second language in public and private schools from elementary levels to high school.[32] Particularly, the Spanish of Puerto Rico, has evolved into having many peculiarities that diferentiates it from the language as spoken in other Spanish-speaking countries. This is mainly due to the influences from ancestral languages, such as those from the Taínos and Africans, and more recently from the English language influece resulting from its relation with the United States. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1991, Governor Rafael Hernández Colón signed a law declaring Spanish as the sole official language of the island's government. While some applauded this decision (mainly members of the political parties supporting commonwealth-status and independence), others opposed it, including statehood supporters. As a result of his actions, the People of Puerto Rico won the Literature's Prince of Asturias Award in 1991, which is awarded annually to those who defend and contribute to the growth of the Spanish language.[33] Upon his election as governor in 1993, pro-statehood former Governor Pedro Rosselló overturned the law enacted by his predecessor and again established both English and Spanish as official languages. Rafael Hernández Colón (born October 24, 1936 in Ponce, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican politician who was the fourth Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for three non-consecutive terms (1973-1977, 1985-1993). ... The Prince of Asturias Awards (in Spanish: Premios Príncipe de Asturias) is a series of annual prizes given in Spain by the Fundación Príncipe de Asturias to individuals from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, or public affairs. ... Pedro Juan Rosselló González, M.D. (IPA: ) [pronounced “roh-seh-yóh”] (born April 5, 1944 in San Juan, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican politician who was the sixth Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from 1993 to 2001. ...


Religion

The Roman Catholic Church has been historically the dominant religion in Puerto Rico. The first dioceses in the Americas was erected in Puerto Rico in 1511.[34] All municipalities in Puerto Rico have at least one Catholic church (building), most of which are located at the town center or "plaza". The presence of various Protestant denominations has increased under American sovereignty, making modern Puerto Rico interconfessional. Protestantism was suppressed under the Spanish regime, but encouraged under American rule of the island. Catholic Church redirects here. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... There are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the United States Government, but Puerto Rico has 78 municipalities at the second order. ...


Taíno religious practices have been rediscovered/reinvented to a degree by a handful of advocates. Various African religious practices have been present since the arrival of African slaves. In particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santeria and/or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe (sometimes called an African belief system, but rather a way of Bantu lifestyle of Congo origin) find adherence among a few individuals who practice some form of African traditional religion. There are Jehova's Witnesses, Adventist, Evangelic and "Pentecostal" too. The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. ... Lukumí or Regla de Ocha, most widely known as Santeria, is a set of related religious systems that fuse Catholic beliefs with traditional Yorùbá beliefs. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning hunter) live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Brazzaville) to Luanda, Angola. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Palo Monte. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ...


Economy

In the early 1900s the greatest contributor to Puerto Rico's economy was agriculture and its main crop was sugar. In the late 1940s a series of projects codenamed Operation Bootstrap encouraged a significant shift to manufacture via tax exemptions. Manufacturing quickly replaced agriculture as the main industry of the island. Puerto Rico is classified as a high income country by the World Bank.[35][36] The Economy of Puerto Rico is one of the most dynamic in the Caribbean region. ... Operation Bootstrap (Operación Manos a la Obra) is the name given to the ambitious projects which industrialized Puerto Rico in the mid-20th century. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


Economic conditions have improved dramatically since the Great Depression due to external investment in capital-intensive industries such as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and technology. Once the beneficiary of special tax treatment from the U.S. government, today local industries must compete with those in more economically depressed parts of the world where wages are not subject to U.S. minimum wage legislation. In recent years, some U.S. and foreign owned factories have moved to lower wage countries in Latin America and Asia. Puerto Rico is subject to U.S. trade laws and restrictions. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


Also, starting around 1950, there was heavy migration from Puerto Rico to the Continental United States, particularly New York City, in search of better economic conditions. Puerto Rican migration to New York displayed an average yearly migration of 1,800 for the years 1930-1940, 31,000 for 1946-1950, 45,000 for 1951-1960, and a peak of 75,000 in 1953.[37] As of 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that more people of Puerto Rican birth or ancestry live in the US than in Puerto Rico.[38] The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Tourism is an important component of Puerto Rican economy supplying an approximate $1.8 billion. In 1999, an estimated 5 million tourists visited the island, most from the U.S. Nearly a third of these are cruise ship passengers. A steady increase in hotel registrations since 1998 and the construction of new hotels and new tourism projects, such as the Puerto Rico Convention Center, indicate the current strength of the tourism industry. Tourist redirects here. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... The Puerto Rico Convention Center (PRCC) —or Centro de Convenciones de Puerto Rico in Spanish— is a convention center in San Juan, Puerto Rico owned by the government of Puerto Rico and managed by SMG. It is the largest convention center in the Caribbean and the most technologically advanced...

See also: Tourism in Puerto Rico

Puerto Ricans had a per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $19,600 for 2007,[39] By comparison, the poorest state of the Union, Mississippi, had a per capita GSP (nominal) of $24,062 in 2006. The United Nation's Human Development Index ranking is not regularly available for Puerto Rico, though the UN Development Program assigned it a .942 score in 1998, which would place it among the top 15 countries in the HDI rankings.[40] Tourism has been an important money revenue industry for Puerto Rico for a very long time. ... GDP redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

See also: List of countries by Human Development Index

On May 1, 2006, the Puerto Rican government faced significant shortages in cash flows, which forced the closure of the local Department of Education and 42 other government agencies. All 1,536 public schools closed, and 95,762 people were furloughed in the first-ever partial shutdown of the government in the island's history.[41] On May 10, 2006, the budget crisis was resolved with a new tax reform agreement so that all government employees could return to work. On November 15, 2006 a 5.5% sales tax was implemented. Municipalities are required by law to apply a municipal sales tax of 1.5% bringing the total sales tax to 7%.[42] This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2006 Puerto Rico budget crisis is a political, economic, and social crisis that saw much of the government of Puerto Rico shut down after it ran out of funds near the end of the 2005-2006 fiscal year. ...

See also: 2006 Puerto Rico budget crisis

The 2006 Puerto Rico budget crisis is a political, economic, and social crisis that saw much of the government of Puerto Rico shut down after it ran out of funds near the end of the 2005-2006 fiscal year. ...

Government and Politics

Puerto Rico has a republican form of government,[43] subject to U.S. jurisdiction and sovereignty.[3] Its current powers are all delegated by the U.S. Congress and lack full protection under the U.S. Constitition. The Government of Puerto Rico is a commonwealth within the United States consisting of a national and state government and 78 administrative sub-divisions called municipalities. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Puerto Rico's head of state is the President of the United States. The government of Puerto Rico, based on the formal republican system, is composed of three branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The Executive branch is headed by the Governor, currently Mr. Anibal Acevedo Vila. The Legislative branch consists of a bicameral Legislative Assembly made up of a Senate upper chamber and a House of Representatives lower chamber. The Senate is headed by the President of the Senate, currently Mr. Kenneth McClintock, while the House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker of the House, currently Mr. Jóse Aponte Hernandez. The Judicial branch is headed by the Chief Justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, currently Mr. Federico Hernandez Denton. The legal system is a mix of the civil law and the common law systems. The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years. Members of the Judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the "advice and consent" of the Senate. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ... An bal Acevedo Vil (born 1962) is the eight and current Democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico is the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. ... Seal of the Senate of Puerto Rico. ... The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, larger than the Senate. ... Kenneth McClintock, President of the Senate of Puerto Rico. ... Jose Fernando Aponte Hernández (born January 19, 1958), is an accountant and the President of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Federico Hernández Denton (Born April 12, 1944) is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. ...


Puerto Rico has limited representation in the U.S. Congress in the form of a nonvoting delegate, formally called a Resident Commissioner. The current Resident Commissioner is Mr. Luis Fortuño. The current Congress had returned the Commissioner's power to vote in the Committee of the Whole, but not on matters where the vote would represent a decisive participation.[44] Puerto Rico although have elections governed by the Federal Election Commission;[45][46] Like the Resident Commissioner election and the US Presidential Primary or Caucus of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.[47][48][49][50] By the reason that the United States Constitution on the Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 just grant presidential electors to the states (with the exception allowed by the Twenty-third Amendment (1961): that grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia) is not granted presidential electors to Puerto Rico in the United States Electoral College. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a nonvoting representative of the United States House of Representatives elected by Puerto Ricans every 4 years. ... Luis Fortuño, Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico Luis G. Fortuño (born October 31, 1960) is a corporate lawyer and politician from Puerto Rico affiliated with the New Progressive Party and the United States Republican Party. ... In the United States House of Representatives, the Committee of the Whole, short for Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, is a parliamentary device in which the House of Representatives is considered one large Congressional committee. ... The Federal Election Commission (or FEC) is an independent regulatory agency that was founded in 1975 by the United States Congress to regulate the campaign finance legislation in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Two of the United States Constitution Article Two of the United States Constitution creates the executive branch of the government, comprising the President and other executive officers. ... Amendment XXIII in the National Archives Amendment XXIII was the twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution which permits the District of Columbia to choose Electors for President and Vice President. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent...


As Puerto Rico is not an independent country, it hosts no embassies. It is host, however, to Consulates from 42 countries, mainly from the Americas and Europe. Most consulates are located in San Juan. While the Papal Nuncio in Washington, D.C., serves as the Vatican State's ambassador to the U.S. and the ecclesiastical liaison to the American Roman Catholic Church, the Holy See has designated the Papal Nuncio in the Dominican Republic as the ecclesiastical liaison to the Roman Catholic Church in Puerto Rico. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Consulate redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Administrative divisions

As an unincorporated territory of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have any first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. government, but has 78 municipalities at the second level. Mona Island is not a municipality, but part of the municipality of Mayagüez.[39] Municipalities are subdivided into wards or barrios, and those into sectors. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a four year term. There are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the United States Government, but Puerto Rico has 78 municipalities at the second order. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Mona Mona (a. ... Nickname: Location within the island of Puerto Rico Coordinates: , Country Territory Founded July 19 1760 Government  - Mayor José Guillermo Rodríguez Rodríguez (PPD)  - Senatorial dist. ... Look up barrios in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


The municipality of San Juan (previously called "town"), was founded first, in 1521, San Germán in 1570, Coamo in 1579, Arecibo in 1614, Aguada in 1692 and Ponce in 1692. An increase of settlement saw the founding of 30 municipalities in the 18th century and 34 in the 19th. Six were founded in the 20th century; the last was Florida in 1971.[51] San Germán is the name of a city in south-west Puerto Rico, near Mayagüez and Cabo Rojo. ... Coamo is a municipality in south central Puerto Rico, about 30 minutes away by car from Ponce. ... Arecibo is a municipality in Puerto Rico named after the Taino Cacique Arasibo. ... Flag Seal Nickname: La Villa de Sotomayor, Villa de San Francisco de Asís de la Aguada, El Pueblo Playero, La Ciudad del Vaticano Gentilic: Aguadeños Location Location of Aguada, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded 1739 Mayor Hon. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Gentilic: Ponceños Location Location of Ponce, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded 1692 Mayor Francisco Zayas Seijo Political party PPD Senatorial district 5 - Ponce Representative district 24, 25 Geographical characteristics Area Total 501. ... Florida is a municipality of Puerto Rico. ...


Political parties

As unincorporated territory dependent on the U.S. since 1898, with commonwealth since 1952, the ideology of Puerto Ricans is represented by its political parties, which stand for three distinct future political scenarios that are non-conformist regarding Puerto Rico's territorial or colonial status: (1) those who favor an autonomous, sovereign bilateral relationship with the United States (so-called "improved"/"enhanced" U.S. commonwealth outside the U.S. Constitution's "Territorial Clause" or Free Associated Republic status); (2) those that favor that Puerto Rico's national independence should be recognized by the U.S., as a full-fledged sovereign republic within the concert of the international community at-large; and, (3) those who favor Puerto Rico's entry into the U.S. as a full-fledged state of the federated union, by becoming its 51st state. The Popular Democratic Party (PPD) seeks to maintain the island's "association" status as a commonwealth, improved commonwealth and/or seek a true free sovereign-association status or Free Associated Republic, and has won a plurality vote in referendums on the island's status held over six decades after the island was invaded by the U.S. (The fairness of most referendums has been impugned by one or two of the opposition parties.) The New Progressive Party (PNP) seeks statehood. The Puerto Rican Independence Party and the Nationalist Party seek independence, albeit through different means. The Nationalist Party, for example, does not participate in elections held every four years. Although they maintain close relations and are considered allies within an otherwise rather divided Puerto Rican Independence Movement, the Puerto Rican Independence Party, on the other hand, does participate in nation-wide gubernatorial elections held every four years since 1948. Political parties in Puerto Rico lists political parties in Puerto Rico. ... PPD logo and accompanying motto: Bread, Land, Freedom. The Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico, PPD) is a political party that supports the continuation of Puerto Ricos current status as a free associated state of the United States, which is also... For other uses, see New Progressive Party (disambiguation). ... This article is about a hypothetical U.S. state. ... The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Spanish: Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a Puerto Rican political party that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. ... National Party or Nationalist Party can refer to several political parties, including: Australia - National Party of Australia, Nationalist Party of Australia Bangladesh - Bangladesh National Party, National Party, National Party (Manju), National Party (Naziur) Bohemia - National Party Britain - British National Party, Cornish Nationalist Party, Constitutional Movement Canada - National Party of Canada... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Spanish: Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a Puerto Rican political party that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. ...


Political Status

Main articles: Politics of Puerto Rico and Political status of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is not an independent country, but a “non incorporated territory” of the United States. According to the United States Supreme Court, an unincorporated territory is “a territory appurtenant and belonging to the United States, but not a part of the United States.” [52] This is true today, even after the Federal Relations Act of 1950 and the Constitution of 1952 which gave Puerto Rico substantially more authority to regulate local affairs.[53] Thus, the Island is subject to the Congress’ plenary powers under the “territorial clause” of Article IV, sec. 3, of the U.S. Constitution’s.[54] Politics of Puerto Rico takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic system, whereby the Governor of Puerto Rico is head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...


Furthermore, United States federal law is applicable to Puerto Rico, even though Puerto Rico is not a state of the American Union and has no voting representative in the United States Congress. By virtue of the Federal Relations Act of 1950 all federal laws that are “not locally inapplicable” are automatically the law of the land in Puerto Rico.[55]


Estado Libre Asociado

In 1950, the U.S. Congress granted Puerto Ricans the right to organize a constitutional convention, contingent on the results of a referendum, where the electorate would determine if they wished to organize their own government pursuant to a constitution of their own choosing. Puerto Ricans expressed their support for this measure in a 1951 referendum, which gave voters a yes-or-no choice for the commonwealth status, defined as a 'permanent association with a federal union' but not choice for independence or statehood. A second referendum was held to ratify the constitution, which was adopted in 1952. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Before approving the new constitution, the Constitutional Convention specified the name by which the body politic would be known. On February 4, 1952, the convention approved Resolution 22 which chose in English the word "Commonwealth", meaning a "politically organized community" or "state," which is simultaneously connected by a compact or treaty to another political system. The convention adopted a translation into Spanish of the term, inspired by the Irish saorstát (Free State) of "Estado Libre Asociado" (ELA) to represent the agreement adopted "in the nature of a compact" between the people of Puerto Rico and the United States. Literally translated into English the phrase Estado Libre Asociado means "Associated Free State." Body politic or body corporate and politic means a state or one of its subordinate civil authorities, such as a: province prefecture county municipality city district etc. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the terminology of the United States insular areas, a Commonwealth is an organized territory or colony that has established with the Federal Government a more highly developed relationship, which may be embodied in a written mutual agreement. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ...


In 1967, the Legislative Assembly tested the political interests of the Puerto Rican people by passing a plebiscite Act that provided for a vote on the status of Puerto Rico. This constituted the first plebiscite by the Legislature for a choice on three status options. Puerto Rican leaders had lobbied for such an opportunity repeatedly, in 1898, 1912, 1914, 1919, 1923, 1929, 1932, 1939, 1943, 1944, 1948, 1956, and 1960. The Commonwealth option, represented by the PDP, won with an overwhelming majority of 60.4% of the votes. The Statehood Republican Party and the Puerto Rico Independence Party boycotted the vote. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


After the plebiscite, efforts in the 1970s to enact legislation to address the status issue died in Congressional committees. In the 1993 plebiscite, in which Congress played a more substantial role, Commonwealth status was again upheld.[56] In the 1998 plebiscite, all the options were rejected when 50.3% of voters chose the "none of the above" option, favoring the commonwealth status quo by default.[57]


International status

On November 27, 1953, shortly after the establishment of the Commonwealth, the General Assembly of the United Nations approved Resolution 748, removing Puerto Rico's classification as a non-self-governing territory under article 73(e) of the Charter from UN. But the General Assembly did not apply its full list of criteria to Puerto Rico to determine if it has achieved self-governing status. According to the White House Task Force on Puerto Rico's Political Status in its December 21, 2007 report, the U.S., in its written submission to the UN in 1953, never represented that Congress could not change its relationship with Puerto Rico without the territory's consent.[58] It stated that the U.S. Justice Department in 1959 reiterated that Congress held power over Puerto Rico pursuant to the Territorial Clause[59] of the U.S. Constitution.[58] In a 1996 report on a Puerto Rico status political bill, the "U.S. House Committee on Resources stated that PR's current status does not meet the criteria for any of the options for full self-government". It concluded that PR is still an unincorporated territory of the U.S. under the territorial clause, that the establishment of local self-government with the consent of the people can be unilaterally revoked by the U.S. Congress, and that U.S. Congress can also withdraw the U.S. citizenship of PR residents of PR at any time, for a legitimate Federal purpose.[60] The application of the Constitution to Puerto Rico is limited by the Insular Cases. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... A United Nations General Assembly Resolution is voted on by all member states of the United Nations in the General Assembly and requires a simple majority(50% of all votes plus one) to pass (with the exception of important questions which require two-thirds majority) Notable General Assembly resolutions 1947... Map of the countries in the UN list:  current  former The United Nations maintains a list of territories that do not govern themselves. ... The U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources, or Natural Resources Committee (often referred to as simply Resources, as in Hes on Resources) is a Congressional committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Insular Cases are several U.S. Supreme Court cases decided early in the 20th century. ...


Political status within the United States

Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a 'Commonwealth' and Puerto Ricans enjoy a degree of administrative autonomy similar to that of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans are statutory U.S. citizens, but since Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory and not a U.S. state, the U.S. Constitution does not enfranchise U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico does participate in the internal political process of both the Democratic and Republican parties in the U.S., accorded equal-proportional representation in both parties, and delegates from the islands vote in each party's national convention. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is the controlling government document of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico at the Commonwealth level. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... An incorporated territory of the United States is a specific area under the jurisdiction of the United States, over which the United States Congress has determined that the United States Constitution is to be applied in its entirety, in the same manner as it applies to the individual U.S... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ...


Taxes

Puerto Rico is classified by the U.S. government as an independent taxation authority by mutual agreement with the U.S. Congress. Contrary to common misconception, residents of Puerto Rico pay U.S. federal taxes: import/export taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes, etc. Most residents do not pay federal income tax but pay federal payroll taxes (Social Security and Medicare), and Puerto Rico income taxes. But federal employees, or those who do business with the federal government, Puerto Rico-based corporations that intend to send funds to the U.S. and others also pay federal income taxes. Because the cutoff point for income taxation is lower than that of the U.S. IRS code, and because the per-capita income in Puerto Rico is much lower than the average per-capita income on the mainland, more Puerto Rico residents pay income taxes to the local taxation authority than if the IRS code were applied to the island. Residents are eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement. But Puerto Rico is excluded from Supplemental Security Income (SSI), receives less than 15% of the Medicaid funding it would be allotted as a state, while Medicare providers receive less-than-full state-like reimbursements for services rendered to beneficiaries in Puerto Rico, even though the latter paid fully into the system. FairTax Flat tax Tax protester arguments Constitutional Statutory Conspiracy Taxation by country Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        The federal government of the United States imposes a progressive tax on the taxable income of individuals, partnerships, companies, corporations, trusts, decedents estates... This article is the current Taxation Collaboration of the Month. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ...


Military Service

Puerto Ricans may enlist in the U.S. military. Since becoming statutory United States citizens in 1917, Puerto Ricans have been included in the compulsory draft whenever it has been in effect. Puerto Ricans have participated in all U.S. wars since 1898, most notably World War II, the Korean and Vietnam wars, as well as the current Middle Eastern conflicts. The participation of Puerto Ricans in World War II as members of the United States armed forces included guarding U.S. military installations in the Caribbean and active combat participation in both the European and Pacific theatres of the war. ...


Recent developments on status

The nature of Puerto Rico's political relationship with the U.S. is the subject of ongoing debate in Puerto Rico, the United States Congress, and the United Nations.[61][62] In 2005 and 2007, two reports on this matter were issued by the U.S. President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status.[63] [58] The Popular Democratic Party (PPD), champion of Puerto Rico's current Commonwealth status, has challenged the reports' conclusions, stating that it had been under the impression that in 1953 Puerto Rico enacted a "new constitution that was entered into in the nature of a pact between the American and the Puerto Rican people" that was recognized by the UN (subject to continued monitoring). The Popular Democratic Party administration also holds the view that "if the Task Force and the Bush Administration stand by their 2005 conclusions (which occurred on Dec. 21, 2007), then for over 50 years the U.S. government has perpetuated a 'monumental hoax' on the people of Puerto Rico, on the people of the United States and on the international community." [64] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico —or Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico (PPD) in Spanish— is a political party that stands for Puerto Rico to be a free associated state of the United States, which is also known as a commonwealth status. ... The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ...


On the other hand, the White House Task Force on Puerto Rico's Political Status in its December 21, 2007 report, argues that it is not breaking new ground. The United States Department of Justice affirmed the Commonwealth's territorial status in 1959, shortly after the enactment of Public Law 600. The U.S. Supreme Court has held that Puerto Rico remains fully subject to the authority of Congress under the Territory Clause[59] of the U.S. Constitution (See, e.g., Harris v. Rosario, 446 U.S. 651 1980). The report also explains that the U.S. in its official written submission to the UN in 1953, never represented that Congress could not change its relationship with Puerto Rico without the territory's consent, prior to the official submission, the U.S. representative to the UN indicated orally that common consent would be needed to make changes to the relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States.[58] The remaining two-major parties New Progressive Party and the Puerto Rican Independence Party welcomed the recommendations of both reports.[65] Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico —or Partido Nuevo Progresista de Puerto Rico (PNP) in Spanish— is a political party that campaigns for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. ... The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Spanish: Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a Puerto Rican political party that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. ...


According to a December 2005 report by the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status, it is not possible "to bind future (U.S.) Congresses to any particular arrangement for Puerto Rico as a Commonwealth".[63] This determination was based on articles in the U.S. Constitution regarding territories. Prominent leaders in the pro-statehood and pro-independence political movements agree with this assessment. The Legislative Branch, controlled by the opposing New Progressive Party (PNP), supported the White House Report's conclusions and has supported bills introduced by Reps. Jose Serrano (D-NY) and Luis Fortuño (R-PR) and Sens. Ken Salazar (D-CO) and Mel Martinez (R-FL) to provide for a democratic referendum process among Puerto Rico voters. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... José Enrique Serrano (born October 24, 1943) is a New York politician. ... Luis Fortuño, Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico Luis G. Fortuño (born October 31, 1960) is a corporate lawyer and politician from Puerto Rico affiliated with the New Progressive Party and the United States Republican Party. ... Kenneth Lee Salazar (born March 2, 1955) is an American politician, rancher, and environmentalist from the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Melquíades Rafael Mel Martínez (born October 23, 1946) is a Cuban-American, who is currently the junior United States Senator from Florida and the General Chairman of the Republican Party. ...


The Popular Democratic Party (PPD) announced a commitment to challenge the task force's report and validate the current status in all international forums including the United Nations. It also rejects any "colonial or territorial status" as a status option, and vows to keep working for the enhanced Commonwealth status that was approved by the PPD in 1998 which included sovereignty, an association based on "respect and dignity between both nations", and common citizenship.[66] In an unprecedented letter sent by the Governor of Puerto Rico to the U.S. Secretary of State and the Co-Chairs of the White House's Presidential Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status, Governor Acevedo Vilá stated:[67][68]

"My Administration's position is very clear: if the Task Force and the Bush Administration stand by their 2005 conclusions, then for over 50 years the U.S Government has perpetuated a 'monumental hoax' on the people of Puerto Rico, on the people of the United States and on the international community. If the 2005 report articulates the new official position of the United States, the time has come now for the State Department to formally notify the United Nations of this new position and assume the international legal consequences. You cannot have a legal and constitutional interpretation for local, political purposes and a different one for the international community. If it is a serious, relevant document, the report must have international consequences. Alternatively, the Task Force may review and amend the 2005 conclusions to make them consistent with legal and historical precedent, and therefore allow future status developments based on a binding compact."[69]

On December 21, 2007, the Bush Administration's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status reiterated and confirmed that Puerto Rico continues to be a territory of the U.S. under the plenary powers of the U.S. Congress,[65][58] a position shared by the remaining two major parties: New Progressive Party and the Puerto Rican Independence Party.[65] The New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico —or Partido Nuevo Progresista de Puerto Rico (PNP) in Spanish— is a political party that campaigns for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. ... The Puerto Rican Independence Party (Spanish: Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, PIP) is a Puerto Rican political party that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from the United States. ...


Culture

Kapok tree (Ceiba), the national tree of Puerto Rico
Kapok tree (Ceiba), the national tree of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rican culture is a mix of four cultures, African (from the slaves), Taíno (Amerindians), Spanish, and more recently, North American. From Africans, the Puerto Ricans have obtained the "bomba and plena", a type of music and dance including percussions and maracas. From the Amerindians (Taínos), they kept many names for their municipalities, foods, musical instruments like the güiro and maracas. Many words and other objects have originated from their localized language. From the Spanish they received the Spanish language, the Catholic religion and the vast majority of their cultural and moral values and traditions. From the United States they received the English language, the university system and a variety of hybrid cultural forms that developed between the U.S. mainland and the island of Puerto Rico. The University of Puerto Rico was founded in 1903, five years after the island became part of the U.S. La escuela del Maestro Cordero by Puerto Rican artist Francisco Oller. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 214 KB) Kapok planted in the Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 214 KB) Kapok planted in the Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bomba (disambiguation). ... Plena is a folkloric genre native of Puerto Rico. ... Maracas Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... The güiro is a percussion instrument consisting of an open-ended, hollow gourd with parallel notches cut in one side. ... Maracas Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... Founded in 1903, the University of Puerto Rico (Universidad de Puerto Rico in Spanish, UPR) is the oldest and largest university system in Puerto Rico. ...


Much of the Puerto Rican culture centers on the influence of music. Like the country as a whole, Puerto Rican music has been developed by mixing other cultures with its own unique flavor. Early in the history of Puerto Rican music, the influences of African and Spanish traditions were most noticeable. However, the cultural movements across the Caribbean and North America have played a vital role in the more recent musical influences that have arrived to Puerto Rico. [70][71] For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ...


The official symbols of Puerto Rico are the bird, Reinita mora (Spindalis portoricensis), the flower, Flor de Maga (Thespesia grandiflora), and the tree, Ceiba or Kapok (Ceiba pentandra). The unofficial animal and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the Coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui). Other popular symbols of Puerto Rico are the "jíbaro" , the "countryman", and the carite. Binomial name Spindalis portoricensis H. Bryant, 1866 The Puerto Rican Spindalis (Spindalis portoricensis) or Reina Mora (name in Spanish) is a bird endemic to the island of Puerto Rico. ... Flor de Maga Flor de Maga is Puerto Ricos Official National Flower. ... Binomial name (L.) Gaertn. ... Coquí is the common name for a small tree frog endemic to Puerto Rico. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also: Cuisine of Puerto Rico

The cuisine of Puerto Rico has its roots in the cuisine of Spain and West Africa. ...

Sports

Main article: Sports in Puerto Rico
Juan Evangelista Venegas, first Puerto Rican to win an Olympic medal
Juan Evangelista Venegas, first Puerto Rican to win an Olympic medal

Puerto Rico possesses Olympic teams for both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics, as well as having international representation in many other sporting events including the Pan-American Games, the Caribbean World Series, and the Central American and Caribbean Games, of which, Mayagüez will host the upcoming 2010 event. Puerto Rican athletes have won 6 medals (1 silver, 5 bronze) in Olympic competition, the first one in 1948 by boxer Juan Evangelista Venegas. Puerto Rican professional tennis player Beatriz "Gigi" Fernández won two gold medals in Olympic tennis doubles competitions representing the United States Olympic Team. International Master, Julio Kaplan played for the Puerto Rico National Chess Team in four straight Chess Olympiads and, while representing Puerto Rico in 1967, he became World Junior Chess Champion putting him at the top of the World for chess competition among those under-20.[72] Sports in Puerto Rico can be traced from the ceremonial competitions amongst the pre-Columbian Native Americans of the Arawak also known as Taíno tribes which inhabited the island to the modern era in which sports activities consist of an organized physical activity or skill carried out with a... Image File history File links Venegas. ... Image File history File links Venegas. ... Juan Evangelista Venegas born c. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... A runner carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. ... The Pan American Games are a multi-sport event, held every four years between competitors from all nations of the Americas. ... Caribbean World Series logo The Caribbean World Series of Professional Baseball — or Serie del Caribe del Béisbol Profesional in Spanish — is an annual baseball tournament, usually played during the month of February, before the MLB trainings season in Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico or Venezuela. ... The Central American and Caribbean Games are the oldest continuing regional games. ... Mayagüez (pronounced Mah-yah-GWEHZ) is the third largest city of Puerto Rico. ... Juan Evangelista Venegas born c. ... Amarilys Gigi Fernández (born October 22, 1964) is a former professional Puerto Rican tennis player. ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ... Julio Kaplan (born 25 July 1950, Argentina) an American chess master. ... This article or section should include material from Chess tournament history The Chess Olympiad is a chess event which has been officially organised by FIDE since 1927 and takes place every second year. ... The World Junior Chess Championship is an under-20 event (players must have been under 20 years old on the 1st of January in the year of competition). ...

Juan "Pachín" Vicéns, first and only Puerto Rican to be named "Best Basketball Player in the World"
Juan "Pachín" Vicéns, first and only Puerto Rican to be named "Best Basketball Player in the World"

Although boxing, basketball, and volleyball are popular, traditionally baseball is the most popular sport. Puerto Rico has its own professional baseball league which operates as a winter league. No major league franchise or affiliate plays in Puerto Rico; however, San Juan hosted the Montreal Expos for several series in 2003 and 2004 before they moved to Washington, D.C. and became the Washington Nationals. Puerto Rico has participated in the World Cup of Baseball winning 1 gold (1951), 4 silver and 4 bronze medals. Famous Puerto Rican baseball players include Roberto Clemente and Orlando Cepeda, enshrined in the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1973 and 1999, respectively, as well as other pioneer record-breakers such as Luis Arroyo.[73][74] Puerto Rican world champions in professional boxing include Miguel Cotto, Felix Trinidad, Daniel Santos, Kermit Cintron, Wilfredo Benitez, and Wilfredo Gomez. Puerto Rico, despite being a small island, has had more World boxing champions than any other country, besides the United States. See: list of Boxing world champions. Image File history File linksMetadata Pachin90. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pachin90. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... This article is about the sport. ... This article describes the now defunct Canadian baseball team. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Major league affiliations National League (1969–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 42 Name Washington Nationals (2005–present) Montreal Expos (1969-2004) Other nicknames The Nats Ballpark Nationals Ballpark (2008–present) RFK Stadium 2005-2007 Hiram Bithorn Stadium[3] (San Juan) (2003-2004) Olympic Stadium (Montreal) (1977... The World Cup of Baseball is a tournament in which national baseball teams from around the world compete for the position of top national team in the world. ... Roberto Clemente Walker (August 18, 1934 – December 31, 1972) was a professional baseball player and a former Major League Baseball right fielder. ... Orlando Manuel Cepeda Penne (born September 17, 1937 in Ponce, Puerto Rico) is a former Major League Baseball first baseman and right-handed batter who played with the San Francisco Giants (1958–66), St. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... Luis Enrique Tite Arroyo, born on February 18, 1927 in Peñuelas, Puerto Rico, is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. ... Miguel Cotto (born October 29, 1980 in Caguas, Puerto Rico) is a professional boxer. ... Félix Tito Trinidad Jr. ... Daniel Santos (born October 10, 1975 in San Juan, Puerto Rico) is an Puerto Rican boxer, who won a bronze medal in the Welterweight Division at the 1996 Summer Olympics. ... Kermit Cintron (born October 22, 1979) is a Puerto Rican boxer who is from Carolina. ... Wilfred Benitez (born September 12, 1958), also known popularly as Wilfredo Benitez, is a Puerto Rican boxer. ... Wilfredo Gómez (born October 29, 1956) is a former boxer and three time world champion. ... The list of Boxing world champions from Puerto Rico is the following: 1 Sixto Escobar (PR) 118 2 Carlos Ortiz (PR) 140 & 135 3 Jose Chegui Torres (PR) 175 4 Angel Espada (PR) 147 5 Alfredo Escalera (PR) 130 6 Samuel Serrano (PR) 130 7 Wilfredo Bénitez (PR) 140...


Juan "Pachín" Vicens, was one of Puerto Rico's most distinguished amateur basketball players, becoming the first Puerto Rican to receive the distinction of becoming the world's most distinguished player in a team sport, when he was named "Best Basketball Player in the World" in the 1959 World Championship in Chile.[75] Basketball players that played in the National Basketball Association include Ramon Rivas, Ramon Ramos Carlos Arroyo, Jose Juan Barea and José Ortiz. Juan Pachín Vicens (b. ... Carlos Alberto Arroyo Bermudez (born July 30, 1979 in Fajardo, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican professional basketball player. ... José Juan Barea (born June 26, 1984 in Mayagüez) is a Puerto Rican professional basketball player. ... José Rafael Ortíz (born October 25, 1963 in Aibonito, Puerto Rico) —better known as Piculín or Picu— is a retired Puerto Rican professional basketball player. ...


On August 8, 2004, became a landmark date for Puerto Rico's national Olympic team when the basketball team of Puerto Rico defeated the U.S. basketball team in Athens, Greece, the defending gold medalist and basketball powerhouse in Olympic play.[76] On September 29, 2005, Major League Baseball (MLB) announced that San Juan's Hiram Bithorn Stadium would be one of the sites of the opening round as well as the second round of the newly formed World Baseball Classic, a 16-country tournament featuring top players, which was held in San Juan in March 2006. Puerto Rico fielded its own team in that event, composed mostly of MLB players, which were favored in the opening round but were eliminated in the second round. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 2004 Summer Olympic Games) The Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, commonly known as the 2004 Summer Olympics were the 28th Summer Olympic Games. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... The Hiram Bithorn Stadium (Estadio Hiram Bithorn in Spanish) is a baseball stadium in San Juan, Puerto Rico, operated by the municipal government of the city of San Juan. ... The World Baseball Classic, sometimes abbreviated WBC, is an international baseball tournament, first held in March 2006. ...


Professional wrestling has enjoyed much popularity in Puerto Rico for a long time. Matches have been televised since the 1960s, and multiple, non-televised matches are held each week across the island. The World Wrestling Council is the main wrestling promoter in Puerto Rico. Famous Puerto Rican wrestlers have included Barrabas, Carlos Colon and his son, Carlito, Los Invaders, Savio Vega, Pedro Morales, and Los Super Médicos. Many World Wrestling Entertainment stars, such as Randy Savage and Ric Flair have fought in Puerto Rico. Women's wrestling has been gaining popularity in Puerto Rico since the 1990s. For the video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... The World Wrestling Council is one of Puerto Ricos two main professional wrestling promotions, the other one being the International Wrestling Association. ... Give us Barabbas!, from The Bible and its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons, 1910 In the Christian narrative of the Passion of Jesus, Barabbas, according to some texts Jesus bar-Abbas, (Aramaic Bar-abbâ, son of the father), was the insurrectionary whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover... Carlos Colon (born July 18, 1945 in Santa Isabel, Puerto Rico) better known in the Puerto Rican professional wrestling circles as Carlitos Colon, is considered by many to be the greatest wrestler ever from Puerto Rico. ... Carlos (Carly) Colón, Jr. ... Savio Vega (born Juan Rivera August 10, 1966 in Vega Alta, Puerto Rico) is a former professional wrestler for what was then the World Wrestling Federation. ... Pedro Morales (born October 22, 1942 in Culebra, Puerto Rico)[1] is a retired, Puerto Rican professional wrestler. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Randall Mario Poffo (born November 15, 1952 in Columbus, Ohio) better known by his ring name Macho Man Randy Savage, is a former American professional wrestler. ... Richard Morgan Fliehr[2] (born on February 25, 1949 in Minneapolis, Minnesota[2]) better known by his ring name Ric Flair , is a legendary American professional wrestler of iconic staus signed to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) on its SmackDown! brand. ...


The Puerto Rico Islanders soccer team, founded in 2003, plays in the United Soccer Leagues First Division, which constitutes the second tier of soccer in North America. Puerto Rico is also a member of FIFA and Concacaf but the national team has so far failed to qualify for the World Cup final tournament. Puerto Rico Islanders are a Puerto Rican association football team, founded in 2003. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The United Soccer Leagues First Division (often referred to as simply, USL-1) is a professional mens soccer league in North America. ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about an international football organization. ... CONCACAF (the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football) is the continent-wide governing body for football in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football (soccer) competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA...


Road running is a very popular sport and recreational activity across the island. Almost each weekend several road running events are held across the island. The most successful Puerto Rican road runner is Jorge "Peco" Gonzalez, who won several gold medals at the Central American and Caribbean Games and Pan American Games. Road running in a U.S. Air Force marathon Fun Runners taking part in the Bristol Half Marathon Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and cross country running). ... Jorge Peco Gonzalez (born c. ... The Central American and Caribbean Games are the oldest continuing regional games. ... The Pan American Games are a multi-sport event, held every four years between competitors from all nations of the Americas. ...


Transportation

Tren Urbano at Bayamón Station

All cities and towns in Puerto Rico are interconnected by a system of roads, freeways, expressways, and highways maintained by the Highways and Transportation Authority and patrolled by the Police of Puerto Rico. The island's metropolitan area is served by a public bus transit system and a metro system called Tren Urbano (in English: Urban Train). Other forms of public transportation include sea-born ferries (that serve Puerto Rico's archipielago, composed of various substantially-populated islands) as well as "Carros Públicos" (Mini Bus), similar to jitney service on the United States. Transportation in Puerto Rico Railways: total: 96 km narrow gauge: 96 km 1. ... Tren Urbano at Bayamón Station File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tren Urbano at Bayamón Station File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... Puerto Rico Police car, Paseo de la Princesa, Old San Juan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... San Juans Tren Urbano – Phase I Service Route and Stations. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... Jitney may mean: A form of share taxi found in the United States and Canada. ...


The island's main airport, Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, is located in Carolina and is a major hub in the Caribbean. The most recently renovated airport in the west of Puerto Rico is that of the former Ramey Military airbase in Aguadilla, Rafael Hernandez Airport, which has made it easier to explore the towns of the newly created tourism area known as "Porta del Sol." The main port of the island San Juan Port. , SJU redirects here. ... Nickname: Gentilic: Carolinenses Location Location of Carolina, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Coordinates , , Government Founded Mayor José Aponte, Jr. ... A North American Airlines Boeing 757 parked at the Rafael Hernández Airport, with Fed Ex and Tradewinds jets nearby. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... San Juan Port. ...

Part of the San Juan Port that divides Old San Juan from the modern downtown, "New San Juan"
Part of the San Juan Port that divides Old San Juan from the modern downtown, "New San Juan"

Various U.S. laws that govern the domestic and domestic-foreign-domestic transportation of merchandise and passengers by water between two points in the U.S. have been extended to Puerto Rico since the initial years of U.S.'s claim over the sovereignty of the island. For example, Jones Act of 1920 mandates that vessels that are U.S.-built, U.S.-crewed, U.S.-citizen owned and appropriately U.S.-documented by the Coast Guard must be used to transport any merchandise or persons shipped entirely or partly by water between U.S. points—directly or indirectly via foreign points. Strictly construed, the Jones Act refers only to Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (46 USC 883; 19 CFR 4.80 and 4.80(b)), which has come to bear the name of its original sponsor, Sen. Wesley L. Jones. Image File history File links [[1]] (PD) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links [[1]] (PD) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Jones Act is a popular title to two separate pieces of United States Federal legislation. ... For the 1916 law the concerned the Philippines, see Jones Act (Philippine Islands) The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (commonly known as the Jones Act) is a United States Federal statute that requires U.S.-flagged vessels to be built in the United States, owned by U.S. citizens, and... Wesley Livsey Jones (1863 - 1932) was an American politician, who served as a United States Senator from Washington. ...


Another law, enacted in 1886, requires essentially the same standards for the transport of passengers between U.S. points, directly or indirectly transported through foreign ports or foreign points (46 App. USC 289; 19 CFR 4.80(a)). But, since the mid-1980s, as part of a joint effort between the cruise ship industry that serves Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican politicians (such as then Resident Commissioner Baltasar Corrada del Río) obtained a limited exception since no U.S. cruise ships that were Jones Act-eligible were participating in said market. A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... Baltasar Corrada del Río (born April 12, 1935) is a former politician from Puerto Rico. ...


The application of these coastwise shipping laws and their imposition on Puerto Rico resulted in a serious restriction of free trade and have been a source of controversy due to the apparent contradictory rhetoric involving the U.S. government's sponsorship of free trade policies around the world while its own national shipping policy (Cabotage Law) is essentially mercantilist and based on notions foreign to free-trade principles. The maritime Coastwise Shipping Laws -or Merchant Marine Act of 1920- (commonly referred to as the Jones Act as it was sponsored by U.S. Senator Wesley L. Jones) is a United States Federal statute that regulates maritime commerce in U.S. waters and between U.S. ports. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Cabotage is the transport of goods or passengers between two points in the same country. ... Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. ...


See also

. ... Puerto Rico The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3000 and 2000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 430 BC and 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Unlike other immigrations, the majority of the African immigration to Puerto Rico was a result of the slave trade. ... Various factors during the mid-19th century contributed to the Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico; among those factors were the social-economic changes which came about in Europe as a result of the Second Industrial Revolution, political discontent and widespread crop failure due to long periods of drought, and crop... The French immigration to Puerto Rico during the 18th and 19th century came about as a result of various economic and political situations which occurred in Louisiana (USA), Saint Domingue (Haiti) and in Europe. ... During the mid-19th century, hundreds of German families fled Europe and immigrated to the New World in search of a better life. ... In the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. ... El Grito de Lares (or The Cry of Lares in English) —also referred as the Lares uprising, the Lares revolt, or the Lares rebellion— refers to the revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico which occurred on September 23, 1868, in the town of Lares, Puerto Rico. ... The Foraker Act, also known as the Organic Act of 1900, established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. ... This act applies to the grant of citizenship to all citizens of Puerto Rico. ... Puerto Rico The recorded military history of Puerto Rico encompasses the period from the 16th century, when Spanish conquistadores battled native Tainos, to the present employment of Puerto Ricans in the United States Armed Forces in the military campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq. ... The Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii can be traced to the year 1899, when Puerto Ricos sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes. ... It can be said that the Puerto Ricans have both immigrated and migrated to New York. ... The participation of Puerto Ricans in World War II as members of the United States armed forces included guarding U.S. military installations in the Caribbean and active combat participation in both the European and Pacific theatres of the war. ... The Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center (Centro Ceremonial Indigena de Tibes) in Ponce, Puerto Rico, is one of the most important archeological discoveries made in the Antilles. ... One of the least known roles played by Puerto Rican women has been that of revolutionists and soldiers. ... Politics of Puerto Rico takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic system, whereby the Governor of Puerto Rico is head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Government of Puerto Rico is a commonwealth within the United States consisting of a national and state government and 78 administrative sub-divisions called municipalities. ... The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Puerto Rico to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Seal of the Senate of Puerto Rico. ... The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, larger than the Senate. ... The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is the highest court of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, having the ultimate judicial authority within Puerto Rico to interpret and decide questions of local commonwealth law. ... Political parties in Puerto Rico lists political parties in Puerto Rico. ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... There are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the United States Government, but Puerto Rico has 78 municipalities at the second order. ... Mona Island redirects here. ... Desecheo Island is located 20 km from the west coast of the main island of Puerto Rico, in the northeast of Mona Passage. ... Puerto Rican dry forests are a subset of tropical and subtropical broadleaf dry forests. ... Yunque waterfall The Caribbean National Forest located in the island of Puerto Rico, and commonly known as El Yunque (named after the Taino Indian spirit Yuquiyú, and meaning Forest of Clouds) is the only tropical forest in the United States National Forrest System. ... This is a list of rivers in the U.S. Territory of Puerto Rico Aibonito River Añasco Big River Angeles River Anasco Big River Anon River Anton Ruiz River Apeadero River Arecibo Big River Arenas River Arroyata River Bairoa River Barbas River Barranquitas River Bauta River Bayagan River Blanco... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ... This is a list of companies from Puerto Rico. ... Operation Bootstrap (Operación Manos a la Obra) is the name given to the ambitious projects which industrialized Puerto Rico in the mid-20th century. ... Tourism has been an important money revenue industry for Puerto Rico for a very long time. ... USD redirects here. ... The 2006 Puerto Rico budget crisis is a political, economic, and social crisis that saw much of the government of Puerto Rico shut down after it ran out of funds near the end of the 2005-2006 fiscal year. ... The United States Census Bureau has defined three Combined Statistical Area (CSA),[1] eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),[2] and five Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs)[3] for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. ... The population of the island of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Native settlers, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Ricos status as a United States Commonwealth. ... Islam in Puerto Rico: 2004 official data estimated there are 5,091 Muslims in Puerto Rico, representing about 0. ... The Mita Congregation is a Christian congregation based in Puerto Rico whose doctrine is based on the Bible and whose foundation is the Holy Trinity. ... Before the island of Puerto Rico came under United States sovereignty in 1898, Protestantism was proscribed; the only worshipping congregation was an Anglican one, for British merchants, in the town of Ponce. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Puerto Rico is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The following is a list of national holidays in Puerto Rico. ... La escuela del Maestro Cordero by Puerto Rican artist Francisco Oller. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Famous Puerto Rican artists (in alphabetical order): Myrna Báez (1931-present) Félix Bonilla Norat (1912-1992) José Campeche (1751-1809) Elizam Escobar (1948-present) Ramón Frade (1875-1954) Domingo García (1932-present) Luis Hernández Cruz (1936-present) Lorenzo Homar (1913-2004) Rosa Irigoyen (1951-present... The history of the Puerto Rican literature dates back to the 17th century when Puerto Ricans started telling stories and poems using the oral tradition of Coplas and Decimas. ... The cuisine of Puerto Rico has its roots in the cuisine of Spain and West Africa. ... The music of Puerto Rico has been influenced by African and European (especially Spanish) forms, and has become popular across the Caribbean and in some communities worldwide. ... Pop culture in Puerto Rico, it can be said, has been historically affected both by the political changes the island has gone through, and by the changes in popular culture around the world. ... The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, it was founded in 1957 by the world renowned musician Pablo Casals. ... This is a list of notable Puerto Rican buildings and structures. ... Aerial view of El Morro. ... La Fortaleza (or The Fortress in English) is the current residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico. ... A Common Coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui), arguably the most recognizable species of Puerto Ricos fauna The fauna of Puerto Rico is similar to other island archipelago faunas, with high endemism, and low, skewed taxonomic diversity. ... Puerto Rican Spindalis (Reina Mora in Spanish), the national bird of Puerto Rico. ... Coquí Puerto Rican Boa This is a list of the amphibians and reptiles of the archipelago of Puerto Rico. ... This is a list of the endemic fauna of Puerto Rico. ... . ... Binomial name Eleutherodactylus jasperi Drewry & Jones, 1976 The Golden coquí (Eleutherodactylus jasperi; Spanish: Coquí dorado) is a rare and possibly extinct leptodactylid frog species endemic to Puerto Rico. ... Binomial name Sphaerodactylus micropithecus Schwartz, 1977 The Monito Gecko is an endangered gecko endemic to the island of Monito in the archipelago of Puerto Rico belonging to the Sphaerodactylus genus of the Gekkonidae family of reptiles. ... // Puerto Rican Crested Anole The Puerto Rican Crested Anole, (Anolis cristatellus cristatellus) is a type of Anole, (A-no-lee). ... Binomial name Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri Barbour, 1937 The Mona Ground Iguana is an endemic reptile of the Mona Island, Puerto Rico. ... -1... Binomial name Boddaert, 1783 Subspecies A. v. ... Vieques Island from air. ... Flag of Puerto Rico (1995 - present) Flag of Puerto Rico (1952 - 1995) Pro-independence Flag (1892) The Flag of Puerto Rico was designed in 1894. ... Puerto Rico Police car, Paseo de la Princesa, Old San Juan. ... This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series. ... This is a list of phrases, words, and slang used in Puerto Rico. ... A Chinese Puerto Rican is a person who was born in Puerto Rico, but whose ancestors came from China. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 1. ... This list of Puerto Ricans includes people who were born in Puerto Rico, people who are of Puerto Rican ancestry, and many long-term residents and/or immigrants whove made Puerto Rico their home, who are significantly notable for their life and/or work. ... Scouting in Puerto Rico has a long history, from the 1920s to the present day, serving thousands of youth and volunteers in four programs, Cub Scouting, Boy Scouts, Venturing (Boy Scouts of America) and Exploring (Boy Scouts of America), with more than 300 units spread all over the island. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Nancy Morris (1995), Puerto Rico: Culture, Politics, and Identity, Praeger/Greenwood, p. 62, ISBN 0275952282, <http://books.google.com/books?id=vyQDYqz2kFsC&pg=RA1-PA62&lpg=RA1-PA62&dq=%22puerto+rico%22+official+language+1993&source=web&ots=AZKLran6u3&sig=8fkQ9gwM0B0kwVYMNtXr-_9dnro>
  2. ^ United States Code TITLE 48 - TERRITORIES AND INSULAR POSSESSIONS, Sec. 734
  3. ^ a b US Department of State. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty
  4. ^ Allatson, Paul. Key Terms in Latino/a Cultural and Literary Studies, p. 47. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1405102500.
  5. ^ Dictionary: Taino Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean Retrieved: February 21, 2008. (Based on the encyclopedia "Clásicos de Puerto Rico", 2nd. edition. Ed. Cayetano Coll y Toste. Publisher: Ediciones Latinoamericanas, S.A., 1972.).
  6. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico#Geography
  7. ^ Welcome to Puerto Rico!, topuertorico.org, <http://www.topuertorico.org/descrip.shtml>. Retrieved on 2007-12-30
  8. ^ Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 9, 2006.
  9. ^ Earthquake History of Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  10. ^ a b Uri ten Brink. Explorations: Puerto Rico Trench 2003 - Cruise Summary and Results. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  11. ^ Los Lagos de Puerto Rico (Spanish)
  12. ^ Island Directory.
  13. ^ Abbad y Lasierra, Iñigo. Historia Geográfica, Civil y Natural de la Isla de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico. 
  14. ^ Vieques Island - What lies beneath.
  15. ^ Brief Chronology of Puerto Rico (PDF).
  16. ^ Today, Puerto Ricans are also known as Boricuas, or people from Borinquen.
  17. ^ Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was the first appointed governor but he never arrived on the island.
  18. ^ USA Seizes Puerto Rico.
  19. ^ History. topuertorico.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  20. ^ Chronology of Puerto Rico in the Spanish-American War.
  21. ^ Treaty of Paris (1898)
  22. ^ García, Marvin. Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos. National-Louis University. Retrieved on April 28, 2006.
  23. ^ Act of July 3, 1950, Ch. 446, 64 Stat. 319.
  24. ^ Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - in Spanish (Spanish).
  25. ^ Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - in English (English translation).
  26. ^ Comunicado de Prensa, Departamento de Estado Concederá Certificacion de Ciudadania de Puerto Rico al Licenciado Juan Mari Bras, 25 de Octubre de 2006. Retrieved: February 24, 2008.
  27. ^ Ciudadanía de Puerto Rico (Spanish). Departamento de Estado, Estado del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  28. ^ U.S. Census Bureau; Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2008-01-27
  29. ^ Puerto Rico. The Dispatch Online (25 June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  30. ^ Puerto Rico DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000.
  31. ^ Martínez Cruzado, Juan C. (2002). The Use of Mitochondrial DNA to Discover Pre-Columbian Migrations to the Caribbean:Results for Puerto Rico and Expectations for the Dominican Republic. KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology [On-line Journal], Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed. Available at: http://www.kacike.org/MartinezEnglish.pdf [Date of access: 25 September, 2006]
  32. ^ Description of Puerto Rico by Topuertorico.org.
  33. ^ Fundación Príncipe de Asturias
  34. ^   "Porto Rico". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  35. ^ Data and Statistics of Country Groups of the World Bank
  36. ^ Income report for Puerto Rico by the World Bank.
  37. ^ Latino/a Education Network Service, retrieved 5 February 2007
  38. ^ Anglelo Falcón, "Atlas of Stateside Puerto Ricans", Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration, published 6 December 2004, retrieved 5 February 2007
  39. ^ a b Puerto rico fact Sheet, Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico, 2007, <http://www.gdb-pur.com/economy/factsheet/documents/PR.Eco.Fact.Sheet.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-12-21
  40. ^ Puerto Rico (United States). islands.unep.ch. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  41. ^ Rodríguez, Magdalys. "No hubo acuerdo y el gobierno amaneció cerrado", El Nuevo Día. Retrieved on 2006-05-01. (Spanish)
  42. ^ Miguel Díaz Román. "Incierto el impacto del nuevo tributo", El Nuevo Día, 2006-11-15. Retrieved on 2006-11-15. (Spanish) 
  43. ^ Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Article I, Section 2
  44. ^ Rules of the House of Representatives
  45. ^ Puerto Rico Primary Election Report Notice
  46. ^ 2008 Presidential Primary Dates and Candidates Filling Datelines for Ballot Access
  47. ^ 2008 Republican presidential primaries
  48. ^ 2008 Democratic presidential primaries and caucuses
  49. ^ Results of the 2008 Republican presidential primaries
  50. ^ Results of the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries
  51. ^ LinktoPR.com - Fundación de los Pueblos.
  52. ^ Downes v. Bidwell 182 U.S. 244, 287 (1901); Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298 (1922).
  53. ^ See, Efrén Rivera-Ramos, The Legal Construction of Identity: The Judicial and Social Legacy of American Colonialism in Puerto Rico (APA, 2001).
  54. ^ U.S. Const. art. IV, § 3, cl. 2 (“The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States...”).
  55. ^ 39 Stat. 954, 48 USCA 734 “The statutory laws of the United States not locally inapplicable, except as hereinbefore or hereinafter otherwise provided, shall have the same force and effect in Porto Rico as in the United Status…".
  56. ^ For complete statistics of these plebiscites, see Elections in Puerto Rico:Results.
  57. ^ Elections in Puerto Rico: 1998 Status Plebiscite Vote Summary. electionspuertorico.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  58. ^ a b c d e Report by the President's task force on Puerto Rico's Status (December 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-24.
  59. ^ a b Art. IV, Sec. 3, clause 2, U.S. Constitution
  60. ^ Puerto Rico Status Field Hearing. Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, 105th Congress (April 19, 1997). Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  61. ^ Keith Bea (May 25, 2005). Political Status of Puerto Rico: Background, Options, and Issues in the 109th Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  62. ^ Department of Public Information, United Nations General Assembly (13 June 2006). "Special committee on decolonization approves text calling on United States to expedite Puerto Rican self-determination process". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  63. ^ a b Report by the President's task force on Puerto Rico's Status (December 2005). Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  64. ^ Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá, Chief of Government and President of the Popular Democratic Party, in a letter sent to U.S. President George W. Bush's President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status (formally addressed to the Co-Chairs of the Bush Administration's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status); October 23, 2007
  65. ^ a b c U.S. hardens position on Puerto Rico ("EE.UU. endurece posición sobre Puerto Rico"); Jesús Dávila - El Diario La Prensa; December 22, 2007
  66. ^ Independence Hearing by the Puerto Rico Herald.
  67. ^ Prensa Latina, Nestor Rosa-Marbrell, November 20, 2007; last verified on December 1st, 2007
  68. ^ El Gobernador pide a Rice que enmiende el informe sobre el estatus político de P.Rico; Yahoo News; November 19, 2007 - Last verified, December 1st, 2007.
  69. ^ Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá's letter to U.S. President George W. Bush's President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status (formally addressed to the Co-Chairs of the Bush Administration's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status); October 23, 2007; retrieved December 26, 2007.
  70. ^ Giovannetti, Jorge L. "Popular Music and Culture in Puerto Rico: Jamaican and Rap Music as Cross-Cultural Symbols." In Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in the Americas, ed. Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida F. Jáquez, 81-98.
  71. ^ Puerto Rican Music TV
  72. ^ World Junior Chess Championship
  73. ^ Baseball Hall of Fame entry for Roberto Clemente accessed on September 30, 2007
  74. ^ Baseball Hall of Fame entry for Orlando Cepeda accessed on September 30, 2007
  75. ^ Gems, Gerald R. (2006). The Athletic Crusade: Sport And American Cultural Imperialism. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803222165. 
  76. ^ BBC Sports - Olympics 2004.
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Further reading

  • Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. ISBN 0-201-52396-5.
  • Burnett, Christina Duffy and Marshall, Burke, Foreign in a Domestic Sense, Duke University Press, 2001.

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  • Puerto Rico is at coordinates 18°14′N 66°00′W / 18.23, -66 (Puerto Rico)Coordinates: 18°14′N 66°00′W / 18.23, -66 (Puerto Rico)
World map of dependent territories. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... 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Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... 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Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular United States possessions: All of these islands are in the Pacific Ocean except Navassa Island... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ...

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