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Encyclopedia > Puerto Rican American
Puerto Rican people
Total population

7,100,000 (est.) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Regions with significant populations
Puerto Rico[1]:
   3,623,392 (2000)

United States[2]:
   3,406,178 (2000)

Languages
Spanish, English
Religions
Roman Catholic, Protestantism
Related ethnic groups
Cubans, Dominicans

The Puerto Rican People or Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens originating from Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans are largely the descendants of native Taíno Indians, Spaniards and African slaves. Other groups that have settled in Puerto Rico are Lebanese, Scots, Corsican, Irish, French, German, Chinese, and people from other West Indian islands. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The reconstruction of Taino village, Cuba The Taíno are pre-Colombian indigenous inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and some of the Lesser Antilles. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... In the 19th century hundreds of Corsican families left their homeland, the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea, and emigrated to the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...

Contents

Background and History

Some Puerto Ricans also refer to themselves as "Boricua." This term comes from the word "Boriken" (Borínquen) which was what the Taíno Indians, the native people who inhabited the island of Puerto Rico at the time of the Spanish colonization, called the island of Puerto Rico. However, as in other parts of the North & South American continents and the Caribbean, the native peoples soon diminished in number due to exploitation, warfare, suicide and to their lack of immunity to the diseases that the European settlers brought with them. Measles, chicken pox, mumps, influenza and even the common cold proved fatal for the Taínos in Puerto Rico and surrounding Caribbean islands. Boricua a word of origin from Boriken (or Boriquén, Borinquen, or Borinquén) used by the original Taino Indian population to refer to Puerto Rico before the coming of the Spanish, which translated as The Valiant People of the Sacred House. The word has come to identify any resident... The reconstruction of Taino village, Cuba The Taíno are pre-Colombian indigenous inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and some of the Lesser Antilles. ...


So much was this the case that by the early 1500s, very few Taínos existed on the island and the Spanish (like the French, the English, the Dutch and the Portuguese) in their efforts to establish colonies on the islands of Cuba, La Hispaniola and Puerto Rico quickly began to import Sub-Saharan African slaves as the Portuguese had already done in other American colonies.


In the 16th century a significant part of Puerto Rican culture began when large numbers of African slaves began to be imported along with sugar cane from the Canary Islands. Of the Spanish colonists, thousands of Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands emigrated to Puerto Rico especially during the 18th and 19th centuries where whole villages and towns were founded by Canarian immigrants that their descendants formed the majority of the Spanish population. Later, waves of Corsican immigrants settled in Puerto Rico along with, French, Dutch, Chinese and German immigrants. In recent times, Puerto Rico has been the destination for immigrants from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, South America and Spain. So many immigrants have settled in Puerto Rico to vastly outnumber the native Taíno population originally recorded on the island to the extent that figures claiming Taíno ancestry among present day islanders are greatly exaggerated. While Taíno culture survives in place names and words borrowed and incorporated into Spanish, on the whole, Puerto Rican culture is largely Spanish European with a blend of African, the same way it is in Cuba and some parts of Latin America like Panama and the caribbean coast of Colombia and Venezuela. World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... The Canaries is the nickname of Norwich City FC. The Canaries is also the nickname of Hitchin Town F.C.. Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... The Canaries is the nickname of Norwich City FC. The Canaries is also the nickname of Hitchin Town F.C.. Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Corsica (Corsican: Corsica, French: Corse) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily, Sardinia, and Cyprus). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Puerto Rico under United States rule

On July 25, 1898 at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico, being a colony of Spain, was invaded by the United States of America with a landing at Guánica. Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, along with Cuba and the Philippines, to the United States under the Treaty of Paris (1898) [3]. July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (only 432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War was a conflict... Guánica is a municipality in southwestern Puerto Rico consisting of a land area of 37. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. ...


During the decades of the 1930's and 40's, there was heavy migration from Puerto Rico to the continental U.S.A. in search of better economic conditions. In 1945 there were 13,000 Puerto Ricans living in New York City - by 1955 there were 700,000, and by the mid-1960s there were over a million. It can be said that the Puerto Ricans have both immigrated and migrated to New York. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area...


Ethnical and Cultural Identity

In the 2000 U.S. Census Puerto Ricans were asked to identify which racial category with which they personally identify. 95.8% answered with only one choice. The breakdown is as follows: 80.5% described themselves as "white"; 8.0% described themselves as "Black"; and only 0.4% described themselves as "Native American" [4]. These figures demonstrate that racial terms are relative, not absolute, and highlight the potential for confusion when they are used in a definitive and distinct way. About 95% of the population consider themselves to be Puerto Rican (regardless of race or skin color). 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ...


Demographics Background

During the 1800s, hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families, along with thousands of immigrants from the Canary Islands as well as numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America, arrived in Puerto Rico. Other settlers have included Irish, Scots, Germans, and many others who were granted land from Spain during the Cédula de Gracias of 1815 , which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land. A census conducted by royal decree on September 30,1858, gives the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at this time, Whites 300,430, Free colored 341,015, Slaves 41,736, Unclassified 127, this census also clearly verifies Puerto Rico's diverse Ancestral heritage. More recently Puerto Rico has become the permanent home of over 100,000 legal residents who immigrated from not only Spain, but from Latin America as well. Argentines, Cubans, Dominicans, Colombians, Panamanians and Venezuelans can also be accounted for as settlers. The variety of surnames which exist in Puerto Rico suggests widespread immigration to the island from many regions of the world. Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1805 - 1815). ... In the 19th century hundreds of Corsican families left their homeland, the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea, and emigrated to the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. ... The Canaries is the nickname of Norwich City FC. The Canaries is also the nickname of Hitchin Town F.C.. Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... The Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 is a legal order approved by the Spanish Crown in the early half of the 19th Century to encourage Spaniards and later Europeans of non-Spanish origin to settle and populate the colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico. ...


Language

The language of almost 98% of the archipelago Puerto Ricans is Spanish. Official languages are Spanish and English. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In 1991, Governor Rafael Hernández Colón signed a law declaring Spanish as the sole official language of the island's government. Upon signing this law into effect, English had lost its status as an official second language. While many applauded the governor's decision, mainly members of the parties supporting commonwealth-status and independence, statehood supporters saw it as a threat to their ideology. The signing of the law also brought the island acclaim, as the people of Puerto Rico won the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award in literature in 1991. The award is given annually to individuals and organizations worldwide for their defense and contribution to the growth of the Spanish language by Principe Felipe of Spain [5]. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rafael Hernández Colón (born October 24, 1936 in Ponce, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican politician who was the fourth democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico for three non-consecutive terms (1973-1977, 1985-1993). ... The Prince of Asturias Awards (in Spanish: Premios Príncipe de Asturias) is a series of annual prizes given in Spain by the Fundación Príncipe de Asturias to individuals from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, or public affairs. ... Felipe, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) born January 30, 1968), is the third child of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain. ...


Upon his election as governor in 1993, Governor Pedro Rosselló overturned the law and re-established English as an official language. This was seen by many as a move by the pro-statehood governor to move the island closer to statehood, something that never came about under his two consecutive four-year terms. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Pedro Juan Rosselló González [pronounced “roh-seh-yóh”] (born April 5, 1944 in San Juan, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican politician who was the sixth Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from 1993 to 2001. ...


There have been proposals to make Spanish the official constitutional language (making it almost impossible English to become co-official), but they have not been passed into law.


Religion

The Roman Catholic religion has been historically dominant and is the religion of the majority of Puerto Ricans (census: 70%), although the presence of Protestant, Latter-Day Saint (Mormon) and Jehovah's Witnesses denominations has increased under American sovereignty, making modern Puerto Rico an interconfessional country. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the most-recognized architectural symbol of Mormonism For other uses, see Mormon (disambiguation). ...


References

    See also


    Puerto Rican
    immigration
    and
    migration series

     
     

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