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Encyclopedia > Publishing

Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases authors may be their own publishers, meaning; originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Office Publisher 2003 Microsoft Office Publisher 2007 Editing Interface Microsoft Office Publisher (previously and commonly known as Microsoft Publisher) is a desktop publishing application from Microsoft. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other uses, see Content (disambiguation). ...


Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as websites, blogs, games and the like. For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ...


Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media. For other uses, see Print. ... Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of ebooks and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... Literary work is a generic term for texts such as fiction and non-fiction books, articles, screenplays, It is a term of art in copyright law. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A screenshot of a web page. ...


Publication is also important as a legal concept: (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published, and (3) for copyright purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Slander and Libel redirect here. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ...

A printing press in Kabul, Afghanistan.
A printing press in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...

The process of publishing

Submission by author or agent

Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers.


Writers often first submit a query letter or proposal. The majority of unsolicited submissions come from previously unpublished authors. When such manuscripts are unsolicited, they must go through the slush pile, in which acquisitions editors sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to the editorial staff. Established authors are often represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Just a comment, not intended for publication unless my question is found true. ... A literary agent is an agent that represents writers and their written works to publishers, theatrical producers and film producers and assists in the sale and deal negotiation of the same. ...


Acceptance and negotiation

Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates. For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The authors of traditional printed materials sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i.e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication -— mass-market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ...


The situation is slightly more complex if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French. The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment. This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Royalties usually range between 10-12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14.95 and the author receives 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14.95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances. An advance payment, or simply an advance, is the part of a contractually due sum that is paid in advance, while the balance will only follow after receipt on the counterpart in goods or services. ...


Editorial stage

Once the immediate commercial decisions are taken and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Publishers may maintain a house style, and staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers. Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications in various media. ... A publishing companys or periodicals house style is the collection of conventions in its manual of style. ... Copy editing is the process of an editor making formatting changes and other improvements to text. ... A fact checker is a person whose job consists of checking factual assertions made in news copy to determine whether they are correct. ...


Prepress

When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is design. This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. This process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading. All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... For other uses, see Print. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ...


The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and imprint are now all computerized. Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading. These may include PDF files. This article is about imprints in publishing. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...


Publishing as a business

Eslite Bookstore in Taiwan.

The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process described above. In smaller companies, editing, proofreading and layout might be done by freelancers. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... A subcontract is a contract that assigns part of an existing contract to a different party. ... A freelancer or freelance worker is a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer. ...


Dedicated in-house salespeople are rapidly being replaced by specialized companies who handle sales to bookshops, wholesalers and chain stores for a fee. This trend is accelerating as retail book chains and supermarkets have centralized their buying.


If the entire process up to the stage of printing is handled by an outside company or individuals, and then sold to the publishing company, it is known as book packaging. This is a common strategy between smaller publishers in different territorial markets where the company that first buys the intellectual property rights then sells a package to other publishers and gains an immediate return on capital invested. Indeed, the first publisher will often print sufficient copies for all markets and thereby get the maximum quantity efficiency on the print run for all. Book-packaging (or book producing) is a publishing method in which a publishing company outsources the myriad tasks involved in putting together a book—writing, researching, editing, illustrating, and even printing—to an outside company called a book-packaging company. ...


Some businesses maximize their profit margins through vertical integration; book publishing is not one of them. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a distributor who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis. It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... Distributor cap. ...


The advent of the Internet has therefore posed an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors and retailers. In 2005, Amazon.com announced its purchase of Booksurge and selfsanepublishing, a major print on demand operation. This is probably intended as a preliminary move towards establishing an Amazon imprint. One of the largest bookseller chains, Barnes & Noble, already runs its own successful imprint with both new titles and classics — hardback editions of out-of-print former best sellers. Similarly, Ingram Industries, parent company of Ingram Book Group (a leading US book wholesaler), now includes its own print-on-demand division called Lightning Source. Among publishers, Simon & Schuster recently announced that it will start selling its backlist titles directly to consumers through its website. Amazon. ... Print on demand (POD), sometimes mistakenly referred to as publish on demand, is a printing technology employed by publishers in which new copies of a book (or other document) are not printed until after an order for them has been received. ... This article is about imprints in publishing. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...


Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution and retail.


Academic publishing

Main article: Academic publishing

The development of the printing press represented a revolution for communicating the latest hypotheses and research results to the academic community and supplemented what a scholar could do personally. But this improvement in the efficiency of communication created a challenge for libraries which have had to accommodate the weight and volume of literature. Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


To understand the scale of the problem it can be pointed that approximately two centuries ago the number of scientific papers published annually was doubling every fifteen years. Today, the number of published papers doubles about every ten years. Modern academics can now run electronic journals and distribute academic materials without the need for publishers. Not surprisingly, publishers perceive this emancipation as a serious threat to their business. In reality, the interests of scholars and publishers have long been in conflict.


Today, publishing academic journals and textbooks is a large part of an international industry. The shares of the major publishing companies are listed on national stock exchanges and management policies must satisfy the dividend expectations of international shareholders. Critics claim that these standardized accounting and profit-oriented policies have come to the fore and now constrain more altruistic leanings. In contrast to the commercial model, there is non-profit publishing, where the publishing organization is either organised specifically for the purpose of publishing, such as a university press, or is one of the functions of an organisation such as a medical charity, founded to achieve specific practical goals. An alternative approach to the corporate model is open access, the online distribution of individual articles and academic journals without charge to readers and libraries. A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... A university press is an academic, nonprofit publishing house that is typically affiliated with a large research university. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ...


A somewhat related development is open source publishing, which is participatory group editing, as exemplified by various wiki projects, such Wikipedia, Wikiversity, and Citizendium. Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Wiki wiki redirects here. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... The Citizendium (pronounced the citizens compendium of everything) is an English-language online wiki-based free encyclopedia project spearheaded by Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia. ...


Tie-in publishing

Technically, radio, television, cinemas, VCDs and DVDs, music systems, games, computer hardware and mobile telephony publish information to their audiences. Indeed, the marketing of a major film often includes a novelization, a graphic novel or comic version, the soundtrack album, a game, model, toys and endless promotional publications. A novelization (or novelisation in British English) is a work of fiction that is written based on some other media story form rather than as an original work. ...


Some of the major publishers have entire divisions devoted to a single franchise, e.g. Ballantine Del Rey Lucasbooks has the exclusive rights to Star Wars in the United States; Random House UK (Bertelsmann)/Century LucasBooks holds the same rights in the United Kingdom. The game industry self-publishes through BL Publishing/Black Library (Warhammer) and Wizards of the Coast (Dragonlance, Forgotten Realms, etc). The BBC has its own publishing division which does very well with long-running series such as Doctor Who. These multimedia works are cross-marketed aggressively and sales frequently outperform the average stand-alone published work, making them a focus of corporate interest.[1] For the tabletop games, see Warhammer Fantasy and Warhammer 40,000. ... The current edition Dragonlance logo, as seen on all books published in the more recent times. ... It has been suggested that Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the television series. ...


Independent publishing alternatives

See also Alternative media Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ...


Writers in a specialized field or with a narrower appeal have found smaller alternatives to the mass market in the form of small presses and self-publishing. More recently, these options include print on demand and ebook format. These publishing alternatives provide an avenue for authors who believe that mainstream publishing will not meet their needs or who are in a position to make more money from direct sales than they could from bookstore sales, such as popular speakers who sell books after speeches. Authors are more readily published by this means due to the much lower costs involved. The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Small press is a term often used to describe publishers who typically specialize in genre fiction, or limited edition books or magazines. ... Self-publishing is the publishing of books or other media by those who have written them. ... Print on demand (POD), sometimes mistakenly referred to as publish on demand, is a printing technology employed by publishers in which new copies of a book (or other document) are not printed until after an order for them has been received. ... An eBook (also: e-book, ebook) is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. ... A bookstore. ...


References

  1. ^ Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" , 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN 0 7141 1447 2
  • Epstein, Jason. Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future.
  • Schiffrin, André (2000). The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read.
  • Ugrešić, Dubravka (2003). Thank You for Not Reading.

Jason Epstein is a key figure in the popularisation of the trade paperback. ... André Schiffrin is an author and was director of publishing at Pantheon Books for nearly thirty years. ... Dubravka Ugrešić is a noted Croatian writer who lives in the Netherlands. ...

See also

Publishing on specific contexts: The Association of American Publishers is the national trade association of the U.S. book publishing industry. ... Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation) is a commonly used term among media critics, policy makers, and others to characterize ownership structure of mass media industries. ... This is a list of publishers in English. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Open access publishing is the publication of material in such a way that it is available to all potential users without financial or other barrier. ... Open publishing is a process of creating news or other content that is transparent to the readers. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Self-publishing is the publishing of books or other media by those who have written them. ... A vanity press or vanity publisher is a book printer which, while claiming to be a publisher, charges the writer a fee in return for publishing his or her books, or otherwise makes most of its money from the author rather than from the public. ... Write redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Zine This article needs cleanup. ...

Publishing tools: Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... Scientific literature is the totality of publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the sciences and social sciences. ... The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) monitors both the number and type of books published per country per year as an important index of standard of living and education, and of a countrys self-awareness. ... Writing circles are groups of like-minded people needing support for their work, either through writing critiques, workshops or classes, or just encouragement. ...

Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Stub, for web template + template engine + standards (of plugs and languages) The basic process on the system: content (from database), and presentation specifications (from web template), producing (through the template engine) web pages. ... Mobile publishing is the act of making something public through mobile phones. ...

External links

Look up publishing, publisher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Links
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Copy refers to written material, in contrast to photographs or other elements of layout, in a large number of contexts, including magazines, advertising, and book publishing. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... A literary agent is an agent that represents writers and their written works to publishers, theatrical producers and film producers and assists in the sale and deal negotiation of the same. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications in various media. ... Book design refers to the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... For other uses, see Print. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography (281 words)
Most sources were published between 1990 and 2006; however, a limited number of key sources published prior to 1990 were also included.
An article about the development and utilization of SEPB was published in The Journal of Electronic Publishing.
In memory of Paul Evan Peters (1947-1996), founding Executive Director of the Coalition for Networked Information, whose visionary leadership at the dawn of the Internet era fostered the development of scholarly electronic publishing.
Publishing (1320 words)
This course introduces the student to copyright and literary property rights, publishing contracts, First Amendment considerations in publishing, the publishing torts (including libel, invasion of privacy and right of publicity), and legal considerations in advertising, marketing and distribution of books and magazines.
A practical overview of electronic publishing is provided with particular emphasis on content development, storage/retrieval software, on-line marketing and advertising, legal considerations, data security, etc. Opportunities for marketing and distributing electronic products and information services on-line and in electronic book form will be explored.
This course stresses academic publishing and introduces the student to the principles and practices of scholarly, professional, college textbook and reference publishing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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