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Encyclopedia > Public works
Look up Public works in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Public works are the construction or engineering projects carried out by the state on behalf of the community. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles to develop economical solutions to technical problems, creating products, facilities, and structures that are useful to people. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern a society, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... A community usually refers to a group of people who interact and share certain things as a group, but it can refer to various collections of living things sharing an environment, plant or animal. ...

Contents

Overview

The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. The term public infrastructure refers only to the infrastructural capital involved in these activities. Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, as a social science, studies human choice behavior and how it affects the production, distribution, and consumption of scarce resources. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Public infrastructure means any infrastructural capital under public ownership - that is, any such capital asset that is not firm-specific infrastructure. ... Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ...


An internal improvement is some constructible object, via which, a nation can improve its economic infrastructure. Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, as a social science, studies human choice behavior and how it affects the production, distribution, and consumption of scarce resources. ...


Examples of internal improvements are: airports, canals, dams, dikes, pipelines, railroads, roads, tunnels, and artificial harbours. The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... A dyke (or dike) is a stone or earthen wall constructed as a defence or as a boundary. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A road ascends a mountainside using hairpin bends in the French Alps. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ...


Public works is a slightly broader term, it can include such things as: mines, schools, hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment centers. It is often used interchangeably with municipal infrastructure, e.g. urban infrastructure which is often, in big-city contexts, just called infrastructure. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption or for industrial use. ... Sewage (or domestic wastewater) treatment is the process of removing contaminants from sewage. ... Municipal infrastructure typically includes transportation, sewer, reservoir, potable water supply systems, police stations and local jails, and other infrastructural capital - the built environment - under the jurisdiction of local government. ... Infrastructure is the set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework for supporting the entire structure. ...


Utility of investment

In some cases, it is argued that internal improvements can be used to reduce unemployment. Opponents of internal improvement programs argue that such projects should be undertaken by the private sector, and not the public sector. However, in the private sector entrepreneurs bear their own losses and so private sector firms are generally unwilling to undertake projects that will result in losses. Since it is politically unpopular for governments to use public revenues to bail out private firms that lose money, many times the preferred alternative is to have governments undertake unprofitable projects directly. Consequently, almost all significant infrastructure in the U.S., including the Transcontinental Railroad, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Interstate highway system, were created through federal investment -- through private subcontractors. An 1837 political cartoon about unemployment in the United States. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... A transcontinental railroad is a railway that crosses a continent, typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... TVA logo The Tennessee Valley Authority is a New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ...


Cost overrun and demand shortfall

Cost overruns and demand shortfalls frequently haunt public works projects. The main causes of cost overrun and demand shortfall are optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation (Flyvbjerg et al. 2002, 2005). Reference class forecasting was developed to curb optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation and thus arrive at more accurate cost and demand estimates. Optimism bias is the demonstrated systematic tendency for people to be over-optimistic about the outcome of planned actions. ...


Sources and further reading

  • Bent Flyvbjerg, Mette K. Skamris Holm, and Søren L. Buhl (2002), "Underestimating Costs in Public Works Projects: Error or Lie?" Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 68, no. 3, 279-295.
  • Bent Flyvbjerg, Mette K. Skamris Holm, and Søren L. Buhl (2005), "How (In)accurate Are Demand Forecasts in Public Works Projects?" Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 71, no. 2, 131-146.

See also

[[ Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... Infrastructural capital refers to any physical means of production or means of protection beyond that which can be gathered or found directly in nature, i. ... The Public Works Administration of 1933 was a New Deal agency that made contracts with private firms for construction of public works. ... Look up Opera Publica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual cost over budget. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Public Works Online: (179 words)
Public Works serves industry professionals, consulting engineers, and contractors who design, construct, operate, maintain, and rehabilitate public works and infrastructure projects and programs in cities, counties, states, utilities, and special districts.
Our third annual survey of the use of AEC firms by public agencies shows that the importance of the relationship between public works departments, continues to play a key role in the ability of infrastructure managers to meet the needs of their communities.
PUBLIC WORKS magazine invites entries to the Public Works Department of the Year competition.
Public works - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (389 words)
Public works are the construction or engineering projects carried out by the state on behalf of the community.
The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics.
Public works is a slightly broader term, it can include such things as: mines, schools, hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment centers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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