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Encyclopedia > Public transport

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Public transport, public transportation, public transit or mass transit comprise all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. While the above terms are generally taken to include rail and bus services, wider definitions might include scheduled airline services, ferries, taxicab services etc. — any system that transports members of the general public. A further restriction that is sometimes applied is that transit should occur in continuously shared vehicles, which would exclude taxis that are not shared-ride taxis. Mass transit refers to public transport. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1321 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Public transport ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1321 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Public transport ... Skytrain approaching Sala Daeng Station Skytrain leaving Asok Station Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) or Skytrain (Thai: รถไฟฟ้า, rot fai fa, meaning sky train) is the elevated metro system in Bangkok, Thailand, operated by Bangkok Mass Transit System Public Company Limited (BTSC) under a concession granted by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration... railroads redirects here. ... Autobus redirects here. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


The term public transport is preferred in the British Isles and most Commonwealth countries, whereas public transportation, public transit or mass transit are used most often in North America. The term transit is less likely to include long-distance forms of public transportation, such as long-distance or commuter railroads, inter-city buses, or intercity railways. This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Commuting is the process of travelling from a place of residence to a place of work. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Inter-city rail services are train services which cover larger distances than commuter trains. ...


Public transport is usually regulated as a common carrier and is usually configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. The majority of transit passengers are traveling within a local area or region between their homes and places of employment, shopping, or schools.[citation needed] A common carrier is an organization that transports persons or goods, and offers its services to the general public. ... Reservation may refer to: Reservation, a tract of land set apart for a special purpose: an area for indigenous peoples to live in: Indian reservation Indian reserve (in Canada) Reservation, an area where hunting animals is not permitted. ...


In general

Early trolley car in Newton, Massachusetts.
Early trolley car in Newton, Massachusetts.

In many parts of the western world the private car currently dominates, however in major western urban areas with good public transport systems and where the private car ownership and use is discouraged, and also in the developing world, where private car ownership is prohibitively expensive, then walking, (motor)cycling, and public transport offer well-used alternatives. Many modern cities are investing in public transport initiatives to increase the attractiveness and usage of public transport. A popular transport mode in the developing world, and increasingly in the western world, is the share taxi (mini-bus, jitney etc) that run on flexible or semi-flexible routes. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nickname: Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1688 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor David B. Cohen (Dem) Area  - City  18. ... Occident redirects here. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... A minibus is a motor vehicle that is designed to less persons than a bus. ... Jitney may mean: A form of share taxi found in the United States and Canada. ...


Public transport can offer significant advantages in areas with higher population densities, due to its smaller physical and environmental footprint per rider and the problems associated with mass private car ownership and use (high parking charges and high levels of traffic congestion). This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


However, road-based public transport risks being considerably slower than private vehicles if it get held up in general traffic congestion and to compound this scheduled transport vehicles have to make frequent stops to board additional passengers and an individual trip may require one or more transfers. Transport Authorities wishing to increase the attractiveness and use of public transport often respond by increasing use of dedicated or semi-dedicated travel lanes (grade-separated, elevated, or depressed rights-of-way) and traffic light preempts and many other measures. Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ...


The term rapid transit, is often used to distinguish modes of transit possessing a dedicated right of way and having frequent, continuous service. Still, rapid transit often fails to live up to the name, as there are no firm guidelines as to how fast transit must be to be rapid.[1] Light rail is another form of public transit, comprising of a tram or trolley operating on a rail line. “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


History

Conveyances for public hire are as old as the first ferries, and the earliest public transport was water transport, for on land people walked or rode an animal. This form of transport is part of Greek mythology — corpses in ancient Greece were always buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... (Non-human) animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human animals (also known as beasts of burden) for the movement of people and goods. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Michelangelos rendition of Charon. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


Some historical forms of public transport are the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route from inn to inn, and the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, which was a feature of canals from their 17th-century origins. Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking on a special road along the canal, the tow-path. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Nantes, France, in 1826. Autobus redirects here. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ...


Modern public transport

Public transportation can usefully be classified in a variety of ways. Firstly by the required infrastructure (Road, rail, water and air). Alternatively by whether vehicles are used simultaneously by strangers (buses and trains) or not (taxi, car-hire, bicycle hire). Finally systems by the applicability of a fixed timetable or flexible routing and timing. In reality none of these classifications can be rigidly applied; there are vehicles that operate across different infrastructure (such as the guided bus), they are systems that are sometimes private and sometimes shared with strangers (various shared taxi services) and finally their are vehicles that run on semi-rigid timetables (some modern paratransit systems).


Road

Bush taxi
Bush taxi
A motorway interchange at Faizabad (Islamabad, Pakistan)
A motorway interchange at Faizabad (Islamabad, Pakistan)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x808, 1039 KB) Cameroonian bush taxi of the minibus type. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x808, 1039 KB) Cameroonian bush taxi of the minibus type. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 492 KB) Summary Own image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 492 KB) Summary Own image. ... Autobus redirects here. ... This article is about high-capacity bus transit systems. ... An articulated trolleybus in Arnhem, Netherlands A trolleybus (also known as electric bus, trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... For other uses, see Coach. ... A Volvo articulated bus in contract service for Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, operated by Virginia Overland Transportation, an urban-suburban bus line, in 2003 A transit bus (also known as a commuter bus) in the United States is usually operated by an urban-suburban bus line, a governmental... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... A bush taxi (French taxi de brousse or taxi brousse) is an automobile used for public transportation, particularly in West and Central Africa. ... Colectivo is the name given in Argentina to public transportation vehicles, especially those of Argentinas capital city, Buenos Aires. ... ... Jeepneys are a popular means of public transportation in the Philippines. ... Jitney may mean: A form of share taxi found in the United States and Canada. ... A fully-loaded matatu. ... Maxi taxis are private, owner-operated minibuses in Trinidad and Tobago that are used in public transport. ... Volkswagen minibus A minibus is a motor vehicle that is designed to carry fewer people than a full-size bus. ... Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. ... A city songthaew in Ubon Ratchathani A songthaew { Thai สองแถว, literally two rows, if pronounced wrong can sound like two feet), also known in English as a baht bus, is a passenger vehicle in Thailand adapted from a pick-up or a larger truck. ... A vehicle for hire is a vehicle providing public transportation, which transports one or more passengers between locations of the passengers choice. ... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ... In the United Kingdom, a hackney carriage is a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in the London Metropolitan Area or by the local authority in other parts of the country. ... For the song from the band: Brand New, see Limousine (MS Rebridge). ... Japanese rickshaw (jinrikisha), 1886. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... Rickshaw in Delhi, 2005 Velotaxi (Germany), 2005 Asian Rickshaw, 2005 Cycles Maximus, UK A velotaxi, also known as a pedicab, cycle rickshaw or trishaw (from tricycle rickshaw), is a human-powered vehicle for hire, usually with one or two seats for carrying passengers in addition to the driver. ... A Seattle Vanpool Vanpools can be used to capture little unsuspecting children to be taken off to be raped, beaten, and/or kidnapped. ... For the 1996 film, see Carpool (film). ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... White bicycles for free use, in Hoge Veluwe national park, the Netherlands Community bicycle programs (also known as Yellow bicycle programs, White bicycle programs, bike sharing, public bike or free bike) are one variation on an international movement to provide environmentally friendly transportation options to citizens. ...

Rail

Main article: Rapid transit
Further information: Funicular

“Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Image File history File links London Underground, interior of a train at the Jubilee Line, 24. ... Image File history File links London Underground, interior of a train at the Jubilee Line, 24. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ... London Transport Portal The Jubilee Line is a line on the London Underground (the Tube), in England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 475 KB) Summary Picture from www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 475 KB) Summary Picture from www. ... The San Diego Trolley is a trolley-style light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego, California. ... San Diego State University (SDSU), founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area (generally the City and County of San Diego), and is part of the California State University system. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A people mover is a fully-automated light rail or tram system. ... A people mover is a fully-automated light rail or tram system. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of... Rack railway track using Von Roll system rack. ... The L[1], variously, if perhaps incorrectly, styled L, El, EL, or L, is the rapid transit system that serves Chicago, Illinois in the United States. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The San Diego Trolley is a trolley-style light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego, California. ... MetroLink is a light rail transit system in the Greater St. ... Transrapid at the Emsland test facility Transrapid maglev in Shanghai Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a radically new form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles via electro-magnetic energy. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... A rubber-tyred train of the Paris Métro. ... Where most trains have a driver’s cab, ART Mark II trains give passengers a large picture window through which they can see where the train is going. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colorful straddle-beam monorail A monorail is a single rail serving as a track for a wheeled vehicle; also, a vehicle traveling on such a track. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...

Water

Metro Transit ferry, Halifax. Fare is $2.00 CAD. Each vessel carries 400 people.
Metro Transit ferry, Halifax. Fare is $2.00 CAD. Each vessel carries 400 people.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1884x1470, 423 KB) A Metro Transit ferry in Halifax, NS. Taken by SimonP I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1884x1470, 423 KB) A Metro Transit ferry in Halifax, NS. Taken by SimonP I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version... Metro Transit is a Canadian public transport agency operating buses and ferries in Nova Scotias Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM). ... Motto: E Mari Merces(Latin) From the Sea, Wealth Coordinates: , Country Province Established April 1, 1996 Government  - Type Regional Municipality  - Mayor Peter Kelly  - Governing body Halifax Regional Council  - MPs List of MPs Alexa McDonough Geoff Regan Michael Savage Peter Stoffer (Bill Casey) (Gerald Keddy) (Peter MacKay)  - MLAs List of MLAs... “C$” redirects here. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... It has been suggested that Catamaran History be merged into this article or section. ... For the band, see Hovercraft (band). ... A New York Water Taxi docks at Pier 11 near Wall Street. ...

Air

An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ...

Sloped or vertical

Portland Aerial Tram car descends towards the growing South Waterfront district in Portland, Oregon.
Portland Aerial Tram car descends towards the growing South Waterfront district in Portland, Oregon.

Some of these types are often not for use by the general public, e.g. elevators in offices and apartment buildings, buses for personnel or school children, etc. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 4377 KB) The Portland Aerial Tram car Jean descends from the Marquam Hill station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 4377 KB) The Portland Aerial Tram car Jean descends from the Marquam Hill station. ... The Portland Aerial Tram is an aerial tramway under construction in Portland, Oregon. ... The South Waterfront (or SoWa) is a new high-rise neighborhood under construction in Portland, Oregon on former brownfield industrial land south of downtown. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... An Aerial tramway in Italy. ... Tochal gondola lift carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain,Tehran, Iran. ... An aerial lift is a means of transport in which gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of a cable. ... Hunter Mountain chairlift A chairlift in Bad Hofgastein, Austria A chairlift (technically, an elevated passenger ropeway), is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and usually over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs. ... Conveyor transport is the broad category of transport that includes modes developed from the idea of a conveyor belt. ... Escalators at Canary Wharf, London. ... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of... Tochal gondola lift carry tourists and skiers to Tochal mountain,Tehran, Iran. ...


Transport Interchanges

Of critical importance to attractive and successful public transport is the design of the transport interchanges where people access the system and interchange between different vehicles. These transport interchanges range for extensive multi-modal interchanges such as found at major airports to the humble bus stop.

Stations are an important aspect of any public transportation system. Specific types include: Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 617 KB)inside Gare du Nord, 2004-09-14. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 617 KB)inside Gare du Nord, 2004-09-14. ... Main entrance to the Gare du Nord The Gare du Nord (English: North Station) is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCFs main line network in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

In addition one can alight from and usually board a taxi at any road where stopping is allowed. Some fixed-route buses allow getting on and off at suitable unmarked locations along that route, typically called a hail-and-ride section. An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer from ground transportation to the facilities that allow them to board airplanes. ... A bus stop or omnibus stop is a designated place where a public transport bus stops for the purpose of allowing passengers to board or leave the bus. ... Exterior open entrance to a metro station (Tribunal station in Madrid) A metro station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, often known by names such as metro and subway. It is often underground or elevated. ... a park-and-ride bus in Oxford Park and ride terminals are public transport stations that allow commuters to drive short distances in their personal automobiles to catch a ride on a bus or railroad system (usually classified as light rail or the heavier commuter rail). ... A Ship terminal can be A Container terminal A Port A Harbor Category: ... A ferry slip is a specialized docking facility that receives a ferryboat. ... For architectural piers, see Pier (architecture). ... Metung Wharf on Bancroft Bay, Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia A wharf is a fixed platform, commonly on pilings, roughly parallel to and alongside navigable water, where ships are loaded and unloaded. ... A taxi stand (also called taxi rank, cab stand, or hack stand) is a queue area on a street or on private property where taxicabs line up to wait for passengers. ... Terminal Station was also the name of a railway station in Chattanooga, Tennessee; see Chattanooga Choo Choo. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... Luas stop at Harcourt in Dublin, Ireland A tram stop is a place designated for a tram to stop in order to have passengers board or leave it. ...


In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been placed on intermodal transport facilities. These are intended to help passengers move from one mode (or form) of transportation to another. An intermodal station may service air, rail, and highway transportation for example.

One of the challenges of intermodal transport is changing between modes. ...

Public transport vs. cars in different countries

Toronto Transit Commission streetcar by night
Toronto Transit Commission streetcar by night

In the Western world, public transport and car advocates have been debating which mode of transport is the best. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In the United States, cars have been the norm since the 1960s and public transport is almost non-existent in many places, even in large cities. There are only a few cities where public transport is in good condition, like New York City. In the 2000s, many US cities realized that widespread car usage caused serious problems, such as urban sprawl. In response to this, cities have begun to make their city centres more enticing to discourage urban sprawl, cancelling expressways and restoring or improving public transport in many places with new rail transit projects under construction. For Inter-city transport within the United States the car and the airplane dominate except in the Northeast Corridor, a densely populated string of cities, which has the busiest train line in the USA, including the popular Acela Express train service operated by Amtrak. Elsewhere trains and buses (such as the Greyhound) are seen as a distress purchase. Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... An expressway is a divided highway, usually 4 lanes or wider in size, where direct access to adjacent properties has been eliminated. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... Most of the NEC (those sections shown in red, except Boston to the Rhode Island state line) is owned by Amtrak. ... Acela Express (often called simply Acela, leading to early confusion with the Acela Regional and Acela Commuter) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via New York City, Baltimore, and Philadelphia along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... This article is about the breed of dog. ...


In Europe the situation has always been better. Denser urban structure has forced countries to utilize public transport. Cities experienced their fastest periods of growth before cars were invented and/or widespread, so they are designed for walking, cycling and tram or bus usage. A tradition of public transport and light transport culture remains even today, even while living standards have escalated in Europe and other Western countries. There are many countries that have made substantial efforts to encourage people to use public transport. France has built an extensive TGV network, built light rail, reassigned road lanes from cars to light transport in city centres and car usage and its social status has decreased there [1]. Nordic Countries are known for having high status and high quality public transport. Sweden has created the Länstrafik system through state subsidies in order to offer good transport services to places where it isn't profitable in business terms. In Finland, the public transport tradition is working best in Helsinki, while other cities, towns and municipalities weren't as keen to keep their public transport up and working a couple decades ago. Recently the public transportation networks in other bigger Finnish towns and cities like Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Kuopio and Lahti have been developed more quickly. There is a similar system of subsidized public transport in remote areas of Finland as Sweden's Länstrafik. At the same time, city centres have weakened because of new suburban shopping centres and the construction of ringroads. Urban sprawl and growing car usage has been a problem for the Helsinki region in the 2000s as well. Train services are popular and in good working order in Europe. There are even high speed trains and night trains crossing many countries. Germany's AIRail Service has even replaced some airline routes. For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... A sign on the Hampton Roads Beltway in Virginia, United States, traveling on the outer loop (counterclockwise). ... AiRail Service is offered by Deutsche Bahn AG in cooperation with Lufthansa German Airlines, American Airlines, and Emirates. ...


In Asia the population density is so high that widespread car usage is very hard to sustain. Japan, a very rich country, has known this for decades and its citizens use rail transit very heavily. It is very costly and difficult to use a car there. The same is true for Singapore. China has historically used a lot of bicycles and mopeds, but car usage is growing quickly and is causing a lot of problems like traffic jams and pollution, but there are numerous rail transit projects under construction in China today.


In most of Africa people traffic problems aren't huge there due to low income levels and therefore people don't often have options other than walking, animal transport, share taxi and public transport where it exists. Where income level similar transport problems arise. A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ...


Environmental impact

Emissions from road vehicles account for over 50% of U.S. air pollution. For every passenger mile traveled, public transportation uses less than one half of the fuel of private automobiles, producing 5% as much carbon monoxide and less than 8% as much as the other pollutants that create smog (such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides). Scientists estimate that public transportation already reduces emissions of carbon dioxide, which contributes to global climate change, by over 7.4 million tons annually. If Americans were to use public transportation at equivalent rates as Europeans, scientists estimate that U.S. dependence on imported oil would decrease by more than 40% and that carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by more than 25%. [2] [3] However, in almost all cases, public transit systems in the United States have had almost no impact on the number of drivers. [4] Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


See also

This page describes fuel efficiency in means of transportation. ...

Economic impact

Development generated since 1985, when Alewife station opened in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Development generated since 1985, when Alewife station opened in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

All cities need functioning transport systems that are able to get people into and out of the commercial and retail areas and provide the opportunity for general personal mobility and one of the main aims of a good public transport system it to provide sufficient capacity to allow large quantities of people to move around. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1460x779, 299 KB) New development at en:Alewife (MBTA station), en:Cambridge, Massachusetts, view with T sculpture. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1460x779, 299 KB) New development at en:Alewife (MBTA station), en:Cambridge, Massachusetts, view with T sculpture. ... T sign and top of glass pyramid from roof-level parking deck of Alewife Station, September 2004 Alewife Station, located at the intersection of Alewife Brook Parkway and Cambridgepark Drive in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a local intermodal transportation hub. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ...


The economic costs of a congested transport system, be it a public transport system or a private car based transport system can be measured and can seriously detract from the attractiveness of an area for business and for residents [2].


Since 1995 public transportation ridership in the US has risen 21% – more than the same period's increase in roadway vehicle miles or airline passenger miles. [3] and several U.S. states that were considered bastions of highway-only thinking, such as Colorado and Utah, had approved major public transportation investments by 2005.


Detractors point out that public transit rarely covers its operating costs through fares (though this may be a misleading statement, since part of a freeway's "operating" cost, that of owning and maintaining vehicles, is tacitly covered by its private users). No transit agency in the U.S. has achieved this for several decades [4]; as of 2003, U.S. transit operators obtained only 32.6% of their operating funding from fares, the rest coming primarily from government subsidies [5]. At times, transit unions have staged strikes, which have the potential to bring a public-transit led city to a virtual standstill.


Increase of Real Estate Value around transit stations

Well designed transit systems can have a major positive impact on real estate prices. The Hong Kong metro MTR generates a profit by redeveloping land around its stations. Much public opposition to new transit construction protests the impact on neighbourhoods of the new economic development public transportation attracts. This article is about the metro system in Hong Kong. ...


Transit oriented development attempts to maximize the economic and environmental benefits of public transit investments by encouraging greater development density within walking distance of stations. Few localities have the ability to seize and reassign development rights to a private transit operator, as Hong Kong has done. Transit-oriented development (TOD) refers to residential and commercial areas designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership. ... Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner...


Funding

A Community Transit bus located in Lynnwood, WA
A Community Transit bus located in Lynnwood, WA
A Volvo articulated bus in contract service for Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, operated by Virginia Overland Transportation, an urban-suburban bus line, in 2003
A Volvo articulated bus in contract service for Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, operated by Virginia Overland Transportation, an urban-suburban bus line, in 2003

Public transport systems generally rely on government subsidy to supplement fare collections, though a few systems are run as unsubsidized commercial enterprises or are entirely paid for by governments. The percentage of revenue from passenger charges is known as the farebox recovery ratio. Transit systems earn incidental revenue from their unused real estate, in the form of parking fees, leasing space to shops and vendors, advertising, and lately, leasing their tunnels and rights-of-way to carry fiber optic communication lines. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A Mississauga Transit bus in Mississauga Ontario. ... Virginia Commonwealth University, or VCU, is a large public American research university with its main campuses located in downtown Richmond, Virginia. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Virginia Overland Transportation was a organization in Virginia in the United States which operated urban-suburban bus lines in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ... An Urban-suburban bus line is a bus service the majority of whose passengers use the buses for traveling a distance no more than forty miles, measured one way, on the same day, between their residences and their places of employment, stores, or schools. ... Farebox recovery ratio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Advert redirects here. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ...


Some systems are owned and operated by a government agency; other transportation services may be commercial, but receive greater benefits from the government compared to a normal company, e.g.,

  • direct payments to run unprofitable services.
  • government bailouts if the company is likely to collapse (often applied to airlines).
  • tax advantages, e.g., aviation fuel is typically not taxed.
  • reduction of competition through licensing schemes (often applied to taxi and airline services.)
  • allowing use of state-owned infrastructure without payment or for less than cost-price (may apply for railways).

One reason many cities spend large sums on their public transport systems is that heavy automobile traffic congests city streets and causes air pollution. It is believed that public transport systems alleviate this, but reducing car traffic is not always assured. An aviation fuel truck. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ...


Some city councils fund public transport infrastructure to promote business and economic growth, or to regenerate deprived ares of the city. Examples of public transport planned according to this philosophy are the Docklands Light Rail and Crossrail projects in London. In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport system for the redeveloped Docklands area of eastern London. ... For other uses, see Crossrail (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Some government officials believe that use of taxpayer capital to fund mass transit will ultimately save taxpayer money in other ways, and therefore, state-funded mass transit is a benefit to the taxpayer. Since lack of mass transit results in more traffic, pollution, and road construction to accommodate more vehicles, all costly to taxpayers, providing mass transit will therefore alleviate these costs.


Another reason for subsidies for public transit are the provision of mobility to those who reject its use on convenience, environmental or safety grounds and those who cannot afford or are physically incapable of using an automobile.


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, MTR Corporation Limited and KCR Corporation are given the rights to utilise lands near stations, depots or tracks for property development. Profits from land development cover the partial cost of construction, but not operation, of the urban rail systems. Similar arrangements are available to the ferry piers of franchised ferry service providers. Franchised bus operators are exempted from paying tax on diesel. For MTR as a metro system, see MTR. This article is about the operator of the system. ... ...


United States

In the United States, operations of most public transit services are financially subsidized by local and state governments, who provide matching funds to receive up to 80% capital grant aid from the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation[citation needed]. This agency administers programs which provide funding and support services to state and local agencies which operate a wide range of public transportation services. It has been suggested that Transportation in Alaska be merged into this article or section. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... matching funds is a term used to describe the requirement or condition that a generally minimal amount of money or services-in-kind originate from the beneficiaries of financial amounts, usually for a purpose of charitable or public good. ... The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) within the U.S. Department of Transportation provides financial and technical assistance to the local transit systems. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ...


These include local urban and suburban bus and paratransit services, light rail, heritage streetcar systems, cable car, subway, rapid transit, and commuter rail services. Autobus redirects here. ... Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... A heritage streetcar system in the United States combines light rail efficiency with Americas nostalgia interests. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... A Virginia Railway Express locomotive in push-pull commuter service (www. ...


Special rural transportation programs of the FTA and some state governments provide assistance for bus and para-transit services in some areas. New York City has the most extensive transit system in the country, operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority MTA. About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area. MTA FactsArlington, Texas (pop. 360,000) is the largest city in the United States without conventional fixed-route public transportation. (Arlington operates a demand responsive paratransit service( Handitran.)) The transportation system of New York City is an unparalleled cooperation of unique, complex, and grandiose systems of infrastructure. ... Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas (USA) within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area. ...


Ticket systems

Adult octopus fare card used in Hong Kong.
Commuter tickets of Japanese railways.
Commuter tickets of Japanese railways.
New York City subway token, now obsolete.
New York City subway token, now obsolete.
See also: Fare and Category:Fare collection systems

Different arrangements for fare collection are in use. Depending on the type, fares: Download high resolution version (992x671, 95 KB)New picture of front of Octopus card. ... Download high resolution version (992x671, 95 KB)New picture of front of Octopus card. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 121 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 121 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • must be bought in advance, one cannot physically enter the railway platform, vehicle, etc. without passing a turnstile, fare gate or ticket inspector (usually found in a metro).
  • must be bought in advance as a voucher for a user-determined amount of money, which is encoded on a ticket or smartcard by electronic, magnetic, or optical means. A fare is deducted automatically each time the ticket is used — either just upon system entry, or at both entry and exit where the fare is variable by distance. The latter is often found in newer systems.
  • must be bought in advance, checked by a conductor or Revenue Protection Inspector etc., upon entry (usually found on buses in North America and Western Europe, and on commuter rail systems).
  • must be bought in advance, checked randomly by a ticket controller (proof-of-payment system, usually found in Europe and occasionally the United States).
  • can be bought both in advance or during the ride, with the fare sometimes being higher in the latter case, see also Conductor; in this case purchase in advance is often possible at major stations, but usually not at a typical tram or bus stop.

Passengers may be issued with a paper ticket, metal or plastic token, or an electronic card. A railway platform is a section of pathway, alongside rail tracks at a train station, metro station or tram stop, at which passengers may board or alight from trains or trams. ... This article is about the pedestrian gate. ... A smart card, or integrated circuit(s) card (ICC), is defined as any integrated circuitry embedded into a flat, plastic body. ... A train Conductor // The Conductor is the railway employee charged with the management of a freight, passenger, or various other types of train, and is also the direct supervisor of the trains Train Crew (brakeman, flagman, ticket collector, assistant conductor, on board service personnel). ... Revenue Protection Inspectors (RPIs) or Revenue Protection Officers (RPOs) patrol different forms of public transport, particularly trains, in the United Kingdom issuing penalty fares to passengers who travel without a valid ticket. ... A ticket controller is a person who randomly checks tickets on public transport in systems where one can enter the vehicle without being checked. ... Proof-of-payment is a fare collection approach used on many public transportation systems. ... A train Conductor // The Conductor is the railway employee charged with the management of a freight, passenger, or various other types of train, and is also the direct supervisor of the trains Train Crew (brakeman, flagman, ticket collector, assistant conductor, on board service personnel). ... A bus stop or omnibus stop is a designated place where a public transport bus stops for the purpose of allowing passengers to board or leave the bus. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Token coins. ...


Multi-use tickets

Special tickets (other than for a single ride at the regular price) include:

  • passes for unlimited travel within a period of time.
  • passes for unlimited travel during a given number of days that can be chosen within a longer period of time (e.g. 8 days within a month).
  • multi-ride tickets.
  • discount tickets valid for someone with a discount pass, etc.
  • season tickets.
  • Citycards and Sightseeing Passes. Free public transport tickets are included.

Passes may be for a particular route (in both directions), or for a whole network.


Electronic fare card

Electronic fare cards are designed to be read by a computer input device and include: This article is about the machine. ...

  • Mobile payment — uses a passenger's cell phone as a payment device.
    • In Europe, it is still considered to be in its early development, but has been implemented as an SMS based supplementary fare charging system in Zagreb and Helsinki.
    • SMS Ticket service (2005) for KTX Family CardSouth Korea
    • Mobile Suica (2006) and other Osaifu-Keitai (phones with embedded microprocessors like smartcards) compliant applications, such as Mobile e-card (2005) — Japan
    • Mobile T-money (2006)

A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Bart can refer to: A diminutive of Bartholomew Barts is the frequently used abbreviation for St Bartholomews Hospital in the City of London. ... Common Stored Value Tickets is a system of plastic magnetically sensitive cards used to pay for fares on the MTR and KCR railway systems in Hong Kong. ... Main article: Transportation in New York City Metrocard Gold 1997-Present, accepted as fare payment on all MTA and Bee-Line subways and buses, on AirTRAIN JFK, and PATH Trains. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Metropass is the Toronto Transit Commissions monthly fare pass. ... Passnet ) is the name for the stored-fare system using magnetic cards of the 22 members of the Passnet Association in the Kantō region of Japan. ... Map of Japan with the Greater Tokyo Area highlighted The Greater Tokyo Area is a large metropolitan area in Japan consisting of most of the Japanese prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Tokyo (at the center). ... A smart card, or integrated circuit(s) card (ICC), is defined as any integrated circuitry embedded into a flat, plastic body. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Andante is a public transport ticketing system used in Porto and was the first fully contactless mass transit ticketing system used in the world. ... Oporto redirects here. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... The more permanent CharlieCard, which was distributed by Customer Service Agents starting December 4, 2006. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Chicago Card Plus The Chicago Card and the Chicago Card Plus are contactless smart cards used by riders of the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) and Pace to electronically pay for bus and train fares in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA and the surrounding suburbs. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... A standard adult EZ-Link card. ... Obverse side of a standard adult EasyCard. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... The Go-To card is a contactless smart card meant to be used to pay fares for bus and light rail lines operated by Metro Transit and other transit agencies in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. ... A map of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. ... ICOCA IC card The ICOCA card is a rechargeable contactless smart card used on JR West rail network in Japan. ... ÅŒsaka-Kōbe-Kyōto is the name of a metropolitan area that is centered around the cities of Osaka in the Osaka prefecture, Kobe in the Hyogo prefecture, and Kyoto in the Kyoto prefecture. ... Luas [l̪ˠuː(É™)s̪ˠ] (Irish for speed), also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, currently encompasses two unconnected on-street light rail lines in Dublin, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The Mybi card is a kind of contactless smartcard used in South Korea. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... myki Logo and Plain Card mykiâ„¢ (pronounced my key) is the brand name of the smartcard ticketing system to be introduced in 2007 on public transport in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central... The Navigo pass is a means of payment for public transportation introduced in the Paris region in 2004. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The National Tariff System (Dutch: nationaal tariefsysteem or nationale vervoerbewijzen/NVB) is a nationwide ticketing and zoning scheme for local Public Transport in The Netherlands. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Obverse side of a standard adult card. ... Front and back of an early Oyster card. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Presto card, originally known as the GTA Farecard, is a smartcard-based fare payment system introduced in the Greater Toronto Area and Hamilton, Canada, on June 25, 2007. ... A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. ... Rejsekort (Official translation: TRAVEL CARD) is a future, electronic ticket system for public transport in Denmark. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Front of a Washington Metro SmarTrip card. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... SmartRider is Transperths new contactless electronic ticketing system using smartcard technology to simplify the process of charging patrons for public transport. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Suica ) is a rechargeable contactless smart card used as a fare card on train lines in Japan. ... Map of Japan with the Greater Tokyo Area highlighted The Greater Tokyo Area is a large metropolitan area in Japan consisting of most of the Japanese prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Tokyo (at the center). ... T-money logo There are two type of T-money cards usable: Smart T-money and Basic T-money. Basic T-money is not sold anymore, but some people think its more useful. ... Upass card Upass is a pre-paid card for transportation system in Seoul and its suburbs. ... The Seoul National Capital Area is a region located at the center of the Korean peninsula and is home to the capital of South Korea, Seoul. ... Tcard (formally Integrated ticketing system) is the name of the contactless smartcard ticketing system that was to be introduced on public transport in Sydney, New South Wales by 2000. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... A standard Touch n Go card. ... Klang Valley is the area in central Selangor, Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs naturally delineated by hilly areas and the Port Klang coastline. ... The TransLink card An Add Value Machine for TransLink cards, used to load electronic cash or transit passes. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Mobile payment is processing a payment for goods or services with a mobile device such as a mobile phone, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), or other such device. ... Several examples of non-folding mobile phones. ... SMS redirects here. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... KTX Family Card is membership program and membership card of Korail. ... Mobile Suica ) is a service for Osaifu Keitai mobile phones, first launched on January 28, 2006 by NTT DoCoMo and au in Japan, and now also offered by SoftBank Mobile. ... Osaifu-Keitai compliant mobile phone of au. ... The ticket gate of Matsuyamashi Station with IC e-card readers. ... T-money logo There are two type of T-money cards usable: Smart T-money and Basic T-money. Basic T-money is not sold anymore, but some people think its more useful. ...

Free systems

Free or Zero-fare public transport services are funded in full by means other than collecting a fare from passengers. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Main article: Zero-fare public transport

Zero-fare services may be funded by national, regional or local government through taxation or by commercial sponsorship by businesses.They usually use relatively small vehicles such as buses and trams. Zero-fare public transport services are funded in full by means other than collecting a fare from passengers. ... Sponsorship can refer to several concepts: A sponsors support of an event, activity, person, or organization. ... This article is about the form of transport. ... A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland A tram (or tramway, trolley, streetcar, tramcar, Straßenbahn) is a railborne vehicle (lighter than a train) for transport of passengers (or, occasionally, freight). ...


Several mid-size European cities and many smaller towns around the world have converted their entire bus networks to zero-fare.

See also: Category:towns and cities with zero-fare transport

Local zero-fare shuttles or inner-city loops are far more common than city-wide systems.

See also: Category:towns and cities with limited zero-fare transport

Free travel pass

A Free travel pass is the right of a certain class of passengers to use a public transport service without paying a fare or presenting a ticket. They may need to present an identification card. A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ticket (unseparated) of the Kurkino in Berchtesgaden CeBIT Home 1998 student day ticket with barcode A Parisians transport ticket A ticket to the 2003 Rugby World Cup sporting event. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ...

Main article: Free travel pass

The following types of passenger often receive free travel on transport services: A Free travel pass is the right of a certain class of passengers to use a public transport service without paying a fare or presenting a ticket. ...

Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ...

Transit-for-all

Transit-for-all is the name given to a popular movement arguing for the importance of investment in public transportation.[5] Advocates of transit-for-all initiatives argue that the approximately 70 billion dollars currently assigned to subsidizing cheap oil should be reinvested in public transportation. Supporters of transit-for-all initiatives claim there are three main benefits to such a strategic realignment of resources: first, it will benefit the environment and, therefore, the nation’s health; second, it will increase the economic mobility of citizens currently marginalized because of their geographic isolation and revitalize neighborhoods by reconnecting them to their surroundings; third, it will decrease American dependence on foreign oil, thereby improving U.S. national security. [6] [7] Economic mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals economic status can change throughout the course of his or her life. ... North American energy independence is a goal of many advocates of enhanced North American economic and physical security seeking primarily to reduce U.S. reliance on (what is to Americans) foreign oil, without increasing fuel taxes. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...


Social and Culture Issues

Food & drink

Longer distance public transport sometimes sell food and drink on board, or even have a dedicated buffet car and/or dining car. Also consuming brought-along food and drinks is allowed, except in these special carriages. A Chinese buffet restaurant in the U.S. A buffet (buh-FAY or /bə.ˈfei/) is a meal-serving system where patrons serve themselves. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ...

No Food Or Drink On Metro, Washington, D.C.

Some urban transport systems forbid (the consumption of) food or drink when riding on public transport. Sometimes only types of food are forbidden with more risk of making the vehicles dirty, e.g. ice creams and French fries. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 668 KB)No Food Or Drink On Metro, Washington, D.C. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 668 KB)No Food Or Drink On Metro, Washington, D.C. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Noise

In addition to talking to each other, many passengers use their cell phone in public transport. Although usually not allowed, sometimes music is played aloud. Some rail operators provide "quiet cars" where also talking is not allowed. On trains and buses in Hong Kong, buses and trains provide free TV. Buses provide gossip and hi-tech news, while trains provide news (Newsline Express) Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... Newsline Express logo Newsline Express (traditional Chinese: ) is a service on KCR trains which provides cable TV news and infotainment programmes. ...


Safety

Despite the occasional highly publicized incident, the vast majority of modern public transport systems are well designed and patrolled and generally have low crime rates[citation needed]. Good lighting, CCTV, mirrors to see round blind corners and ensuring that there are always a good number of other people around can be used to increase safety and create a feeling of safety. Most transit operators have developed methods to discourage people from using their facilities for overnight shelter.


Critics of public transportation systems often claim they attract "undesirable elements" and tell of violent criminals preying on passengers and homeless people sleeping on trains and relieving themselves in public areas.[8]. On a few occasions, passengers have reacted by taking the law into their own hands (as in the notorious 1984 case of the "subway vigilante", Bernhard Goetz). Bernard Hugo Goetz, known as Bernhard or Bernie (born November 7, 1947) was dubbed the Subway Vigilante by the New York press. ...


When compared to to the private car however, public transport is a very safe form of transport in terms of deaths per passenger kms [citation needed]. By way of contrast, car accidents as estimated to cause some 1 million fatalities per year world wide. In the United States alone there were 42,643 automobile accident fatalities in 2003, almost three times the total number of murders (14,408). A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ...


See also: RoadPeace UK National charity for road crash victims


Sleeping

Bus shelter with seats designed to deter sleeping.
Bus shelter with seats designed to deter sleeping.

In the era when long distance trips took several days, sleeping accommodations were an essential part of transportation. Today, most airlines and long-distance trains offer reclining seats and many provide pillows and blankets for overnight travelers. Better sleeping arrangements are commonly offered for a premium fare (e.g. first class, business class, etc.) and include sleeping cars on overnight trains, larger private cabins on ships and airplane seats that convert into beds. Budget-conscious tourists sometimes plan their trips using overnight train or bus trips in lieu of paying for an hotel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1585x1375, 766 KB) Bus shelter at the Massachusetts Avenue - Hynes Convention Center en:Green Line (MBTA) station in en:Boston. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1585x1375, 766 KB) Bus shelter at the Massachusetts Avenue - Hynes Convention Center en:Green Line (MBTA) station in en:Boston. ... 1. ... First class sleeper cabin on American Airlines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The interior of a Pullman car on the Chicago and Alton Railroad circa 1900. ...


The ability to get additional sleep on the way to work is attractive to many commuters using public transportation. Occasionally, a local transit route with a long overnight segment and which accepts inexpensive multi-use passes will acquire a reputation as a "moving hotel" for people with limited funds. Most transportation agencies actively discourage this. For this and other reasons passengers are often required to exit the vehicle at the end of the line; they can board again in the same or another vehicle, after some waiting. Also, even a low fare often deters the poorest individuals, including homeless people. A homeless man pushes a cart down the street. ...


One example of the moving homeless shelter phenomenon is the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) bus line 22 [6] between Palo Alto, California and San Jose, California in the United States. It is often called "Hotel 22" or "Motel 22" by the homeless of Silicon Valley.[9][10]A pass for a night costs US$5.25 and $61.25 for a month, much less than a hotel, house or apartment. [[|right|200px]] Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) is a special-purpose district responsible for public transit services, congestion management, specific highway improvement projects, and countywide transportation planning for Santa Clara County, California, United States. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Yoriko Kishimoto[1] Area  - City 25. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ...


Another example is the interurban rail services operated by CityRail out of Sydney, Australia. Fairly comfortable trains operate between Sydney and Lithgow or Newcastle during the night, trips of approximately 2½ hours. Age, Disability and Sole Parent pensioner excursion fares are AU$2.50 for an all-day ticket. This article is on the commuter rail network centred on Sydney, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Lithgow is a city of approximately 18750 persons situated in central-west New South Wales, Australia and is also a Local Government Area. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 1. ...


The New York City Subway, which operates 24 hours per day, also sees its share of homeless people who sleep in the subway system, both in stations and on trains. Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ...


Smoking

Smoking is prohibited in all or some parts of most public transportation systems due to safety and health issues. Generally smoking isn't allowed on the actual buses and trains, while rules concerning stations and waiting platforms differ from system to system.


Public Transport as Tourist Attractions

Some means of rail-based public transport are also tourist attractions and/or well known landmarks in their own right. These include San Francisco's famous cable cars, the Molli steam powered train in Bad Doberan, the kusttram along the whole Flemish coast, the Schwebebahn Wuppertal, the Seattle Monorail, the Enoshima Electric Railway in Kamakura, Japan, Routemaster buses in central London and the Christchurch Tram This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car Winding drums on the London and Blackwall cable-operated railway, 1840. ... The narrow-gauge Molli railway in Mecklenburg is a steam-powered narrow-gauge railway (900 mm gauge). ... Map of Germany showing Bad Doberan Bad Doberan is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... The Belgian Coast Tram near Ostend The Belgian Coast Tram (Dutch: Kusttram) is a public transport service serving the coast of Belgium between De Panne near the French border to Knokke-Heist near the Dutch border. ... Schwebebahn over the river Wupper The Schwebebahn Wuppertal is a suspension railway in Wuppertal, Germany. ... The Seattle Center Monorail is an elevated monorail line in Seattle, Washington, that runs one mile along Fifth Avenue from Westlake Center in Downtown to Seattle Center in Lower Queen Anne. ... This train at Kamakura Station is bound for Fujisawa Enoden operates buses from stations like Kamakura Enoden Kamakura Station is adjacent to JR Kamakura Station. ... First London AEC Routemaster, RML 2473 (JJD 473D), on route 7 towards Ladbroke Grove tube station, April 2002. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Christchurch (disambiguation). ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


Emerging technologies

Dual mode transit describes theoretical transportation systems in which vehicles operate on both public roads and on a guideway; thus using two modes of transport. ... Personal rapid transit (PRT), also called personal automated transport (PAT) or podcar is a public transportation concept that offers automated on-demand non-stop transportation, on a network of specially-built guideways. ... An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Roads, is an advanced Intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. ... This article is about high-capacity bus transit systems. ... Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train stopping at terminus Longyang Road station Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev VIP section Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. ...

See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Nowadays in Finland is in use three prototypes arranging of the local public transport. ... Bus deregulation in Great Britain came into force on 26 October 1986, and is formally known as the 1985 Transport Act. ... Carsharing is a system where a fleet of cars (or other vehicles) is owned and operated/overseen by a company, public agency, cooperative, ad hoc grouping, or even a single individual, and made available for use by members of the carshare group in a wide variety of ways. ... Colectivo is the name given in Argentina to public transportation vehicles, especially those of Argentinas capital city, Buenos Aires. ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in Greater London or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the Department of the Environment in Northern... The International Union of Public Transport (UITP) is the body covering passenger transport, trains, trams and buses, etc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules. ... In the United Kingdom, Passenger Transport Executives (PTEs) are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas. ... A public transport route planner is a Web application designed for public transport. ... An 1844 timetable for the Long Island Rail Road A public transport timetable is a listing of the times that public transport services arrive and depart specified locations. ... A quality assurance system comprises assessment and remediation action in a closed circle. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... Shared transport is a term which has come into use to provide an extended definition of what has often been thought of and referred to in the past as public transport. The term has taken on especial relevance as a result of the push to more sustainable transportation or New... Aerial view of growth patterns in Arlington County, Virginia. ... Transit Planning or Public Transport Planning, is the professional discipline responsible for developing public transport systems. ... Transit fares are fees charged for travel on publicly chartered or operated transportation systems, including subways, trolleys and buses (as these are known in northeastern parts of the United States). ... A travel class is a quality of accommodation on public transport. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ... Broadly, Urban Economics is the economic study of urban areas. ...

References

  1. ^ Discussion of speeds of bus rapid transit tunnel in Boston
  2. ^ www.fypower.org/pdf/RES171664_shapiro.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.apta.com/media/releases/earth_day.cfm
  4. ^ http://www.heritage.org/Research/UrbanIssues/bg1721.cfm
  5. ^ http://modeshift.org/?p=79
  6. ^ http://publictransportation.org/facts/
  7. ^ http://www.apta.com/media/releases/070312_ten_billion.cfm http://www.enewsbuilder.net/capmet/e_article000117869.cfm
  8. ^ Achs, Nicole. "Roadblocks to public transit: for reasons ranging from prejudice to pragmatism, many suburbanites are fighting tooth and nail to keep mass transit out of their neighborhoods." American City & County 106, no. 1 (January 1991): 28-32.
  9. ^ Jane Lii, "Refuge On The Road: Homeless Find Nighttime Haven — The No. 22 Bus From Menlo Park To San Jose", San Jose Mercury News, 9 January 2000, 1A.
  10. ^ Cathy Newman, "Silicon Valley: Inside the Dream Incubator", National Geographic 200, no. 6 (December 2001): 52-76.

The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Public transport
  • UITP | International Association of Public Transport

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Public transport - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2978 words)
Public transport is the primary form of motor transport on Earth.
Conveyances for public hire are as old as the first manned ferries, and the earliest public transport was water transport, for on land people walked or rode an animal.
Some historic forms of public transport are the stagecoach, travelling an appointed route from inn to inn, and the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, which was a feature of canal systems from their 17th-century origins.
Public transport - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2976 words)
Increased road traffic congestion and improved transit systems are reducing or eliminating this disparity in many areas, and public transport use rises sharply with population density.
It is believed that well maintained, high volume public transport systems alleviate this.
Most transportation agencies actively discourage this and even a low fare often deters the poorest individuals, including homeless people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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