FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Public services

Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income. Even where public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly financed, for social and political reasons they are usually subject to regulation going beyond that applying to most economic sectors. Public services is also a course that can be studied at college and/or university. This courses can lead entry in to the: police, ambulance and fire services. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... An economy is a set of human and social activities and institutions related to the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services. ...


It is also an alternative term for civil service. The Byzantine civil service in action. ...


Sectors

Public services tend to be those considered so essential to modern life that for moral reasons their universal provision should be guaranteed, and they may be associated with fundamental human rights (such as the right to water). An example of a service which is not generally considered an essential public service is hairdressing. A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Street haircut in Harbin, China. ...


In modern, developed countries the term public services often includes A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...

A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... The term communications is used in a number of disciplines: Communications, also known as communication studies is the academic discipline which studies communication, generally seen as a mixture between media studies and linguistics. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Impact of a drop of water Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. ...

Characteristics

A public service may sometimes have the characteristics of a public good (being non-rivalrous and non-excludable), but most are merit goods, that is, services which may (according to prevailing social norms) be under-provided by the market. In most cases public services are services, i.e. they do not involve manufacturing of goods such as nuts and bolts. They may be provided by local or national monopolies, especially in sectors which are natural monopolies. In economics, a public good is a good that is hard or even impossible to produce for private profit, because the market fails to account for its large beneficial externalities. ... In economics, something is considered rivalrous if its consumption by one person prevents it from being available to someone else. ... Non-excludable goods are defined in economics as goods whereby it is impossible to stop a person consuming that good when it has become publicly available at a relatively low cost. ... A merit good is defined in economics as a good that is under consumed if provided by the market mechanism because individuals typically consider how the good benefits them as individuals rather than the benefits that consumption generates for others in society. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Services are: plural of service Tertiary sector of industry IRC services Web services the name of a first-class cricket team in India This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Good (accounting) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A nut is a type of hardware fastener with a threaded hole. ... A bolt may be one of the following things: A type of threaded fastener. ... In economics, the term natural monopoly is used to refer to two different things. ...


They may involve outputs that are hard to attribute to specific individual effort and/or hard to measure in terms of key characteristics such as quality. They often require high levels of training and education. They may attract people with a public service ethos who wish to give something to the wider public or community through their work and are prepared to work harder for less pay as a result. (John Kenneth Galbraith has looked at the role of such "public virtue" in economic growth.) John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908–April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist. ...


History

Historically, the widespread provision of public services in developed countries usually began in the late nineteenth century, often with the municipal development of gas and water services. Later, other services such as electricity and healthcare began to be provided by governments. In most developed countries such services are still provided by local or national government, the biggest exceptions being the U.S. and the UK, where private provision is more significant. Nonetheless, such privately-provided public services are often strongly regulated, for example (in the US) by Public Utility Commissions. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Impact of a drop of water Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A Utilities commission, Utility Regulatory Commission (URC), or Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is a governing body that regulates the rates and services of a utility. ...


In developing countries public services tend to be much less well developed. Water services, for example, may only be available to the wealthy middle class. For political reasons the service is often subsidised, which reduces the finance available for expansion to poorer communities. A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Wealth usually refers to money and property. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... Kevin Jones Definition- A Poor Motherfucker ...


Privatization

Main article: Privatization

There are several ways to privatize public services. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • A free-market corporation may be established and sold to private investors, relinquishing government control altogether. This essentially ends the public service and makes it a private service.
  • Another option, used in the Nordic countries, is to establish a corporation, but keep ownership or voting power essentially in the hands of the government. For example, the Finnish state owns 49% of Kemira, the rest being owned by private investors. A 49% share doesn't make it a "government enterprise", but it means that all other investors together would have to oppose the state's opinion in order to overturn the state's decisions in the shareholder's meeting.
  • A regulated corporation is an option. A permit is required, and to keep that permit, some duties should be fulfilled. When a private corporation runs a natural monopoly, then the corporation is typically heavily regulated, to prevent abuse of monopoly power.
  • The government can buy the service on the free market. In many countries, medication is provided in this manner: the government reimburses part of the price of the medication. Also, bus traffic, electricity, healthcare and waste management are privatized in this way.
  • Public-private partnership is a novel method of funding large projects.

Unfortunately, privatization is inherently susceptible to political corruption. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Motto: none1 Anthem: Maamme(Finnish) VÃ¥rt land(Swedish) Our Land Finland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city)  Helsinki Official languages Finnish, Swedish Government Parliamentary democracy2  -  President Tarja Halonen  -  Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen Independence from Bolshevist Russia   -  Autonomy March 29, 1809   -  Declared December 6... Kemira is a chemical industry corporation holding industry leadership positions or major market shares in pulp and paper chemicals, water treatment chemicals, industrial chemicals and paints. ... In economics, the term natural monopoly is used to refer to two different things. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a system in which a government service or private business venture is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Blue colors indicate little corruption, red colors indicate much corruption In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate...


Public services versus Services of General Interest

At the european level, some countries use the name service of general interest, while other prefer public services. It has been a discussion, for instance during the writing of the european constitution (the word services of general interest has been used). The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ...


Also most see the two names as synonyms, the services of general interest doesn't imply that the "public services" are delivered by public servants, but can also be delivered by a private company. ETUC named its petition "for high quality public services" but explains "Public services are known as Services of general interest (SGI) and Services of general economic interest (SGEIs) in European Union terminology." The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) was established in 1973 to provide a trade union counterbalance to the economic forces of European integration. ...


See also

This article is about state ownership. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Public broadcasting (also known as public service broadcasting or PSB) is the dominant form of broadcasting around the world, where radio, television, and potentially other electronic media outlets receive funding from the public. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Public value is the equivalent of shareholder value in public management. ... New Public Management is a management philosophy used by Governments since the 1980s to modernise their Public Sector See also public management public administration public sector reform New Public management is a broad and complex term used to describe the wave of public sector reforms apparent throughout the world since...

External links

  • Daniel Chavez (ed), Beyond the Market: The Future of Public Services, TNI Public Services Yearbook 2005/6, Trans National Institute (TNI) / Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), February 2006

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Vermont Department of Public Service (736 words)
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On March 2, the Department of Public Service and Verizon Vermont filed an agreement with the Vermont Public Service Board that will result in a significant expansion of broadband availability by the company throughout its Vermont service territory.
Public Broadcasting Service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1835 words)
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The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 [2] required a "strict adherence to objectivity and balance in all programs or series of programs of a controversial nature." It also prohibited the federal government from interfering or controlling what is broadcast.
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