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Encyclopedia > Public school (UK)

Public school in the United Kingdom is a label applied to certain fee-paying independent schools in England and Wales; in Scotland and Ireland it is heard less often in this sense (and indeed in Scotland the phrase has long been an alternative name for council schools in the state sector). A public school (in the independent sense) usually teaches children from the ages of either 11 or 13 to 18, and was traditionally a single-sex boarding school, although many now accept day pupils and are coeducational. The majority date back to the 18th or 19th centuries, and several are over 400 years old. It is largely a matter of history and habit that some fee-charging schools are referred to by the "public school" label while others are not; today nearly all such schools, no matter their history, tend to use the phrase "independent school" when referring to themselves formally. A school is most commonly a place designated for learning. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² Ethnicity: 97. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Scottish Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... A boarding school is a self-contained educational establishment where students not only study but where some or all students may live. ... Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ...


This English usage of the word "public" contrasts strongly with the expectations of many English speakers from around the world. People from Scotland, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, and so forth usually refer to fee-paying schools as private schools or independent schools; many would assume that the word "public" should imply public financial support. Indeed, in several of those countries "public school" is the commonplace name for a government-maintained school where instruction is provided free of charge; in England such a school would commonly be called a state school, a local authority school, or (where appropriate) a comprehensive. Private schools are schools not administered by local or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public funds. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... State school is an expression used in the United Kingdom and other countries apart from the United States to distinguish schools provided by the government from public schools which are in fact private institutions. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that accepts school students or pupils of all abilities, as opposed to a grammar school which depends on a system of selection. ...


Usage in Scotland has its own particular nuances; as in England nowadays, there is a tendency to avoid the phrase "public school" altogether, and to speak of "state schools" or "council schools" on the one hand and "private" or "independent schools" on the other. However, contrary to practice in England, the phrase "public school" is used in official documents (and sometimes colloquially) to refer to Scottish state-funded schools. When the term is applied informally to independent schools located in Scotland some interpret the usage as an Anglicism or a parody of English usage.

Contents


History and terminology

The English usage dates to an era before the development of widespread national state-sponsored education in England and Wales, although Scotland had early universal provision of education, through the Church of Scotland, and the Scottish education system remains separate and different from the system covering England and Wales. Some schools (often called "grammar schools") were sponsored by towns or villages or by guilds; others by cathedrals for their choir. "Private schools" were owned and operated by their headmasters, to their own profit or loss, and often in their own houses. "Public schools" often drew students from across the country to board; in the 19th-century golden era of public schools, children from upper-class families typically began their education with home tutoring or as a day student at a local private school (what would today be called a preparatory school), and then went off to board at a public school once old enough. The Church of Scotland (CofS sometimes known as the Kirk) is the national church of Scotland. ... A guild is an association of people of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... Preparatory school or prep school may refer to: University-preparatory school, in much of the world, it is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education Preparatory school (UK), in the United Kingdom a private school for pupils under thirteen, designed to prepare a student for...


The term in England can be traced to the middle ages, an era when most education was accomplished by private tutoring or monasteries. Public schools, by contrast, were independent charities, often offering free education. As time passed, such schools expanded greatly in size to include many fee-paying students alongside a few scholars, until they aquired their upper-class connotations. By the late 19th century, public schools were characterized not so much by the way the schools were governed or the students educated as by a very specific ethos of student life often celebrated or parodied in the novels of the day. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... DeFoes Robinson Crusoe, Newspaper edition published in 1719 A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ...


Origins of public schools

Some public schools are particularly old, such as Westminster (founded 1179), Eton (1440), St Paul's (1509), and Winchester (1382), this last of which has maintained the longest unbroken history of any school in England. These were often established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. The educational reforms were particularly important under Arnold at Rugby, and Butler and later Kennedy at Shrewsbury, emphasizing the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Motto: Dat Deus Incrementum Westminster School (in full, The Royal College of St. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (that is, an independent, fee-charging secondary school) for boys. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... St Pauls School is a British public school, located in Barnes, London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England. ... // Events February 2 - Battle of Diu took place near Diu, India. ... Winchester College is a public school in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, in the south of England. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ...


Most public schools, however, developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, and came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based heavily on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain is considered the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


They were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Often successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was (and is) in the hands of senior pupils (usually known as prefects), which was not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was also seen as vital preparation for those pupils' later rôles in public or military service. A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeferre, to bring in front, i. ...


To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British empire, and recognisably 'public' schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries. Many prep schools in the United States (such as Groton School) are also recognisably "public" in the English sense. // Definition and linguistics The original phrase common wealth or the common weal is a calque translation of the Latin term res publica (public matters), from which the word republic comes, which was itself used as a synonym for the greek politeia as well as for the republican (i. ... In the United States a preparatory school, or prep school, is usually a private secondary school (or high school) designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... Groton School is a private Episcopal boarding school located in Groton, Massachusetts. ...


In Scotland1, medieval education was similar to that in England, with church choir song schools and grammar schools in all the main burghs and some small towns. The Reformation establishment of the Church of Scotland in 1560 brought the origins of public schools in the Scottish sense (ie. universal education), with John Knox setting a national programme including the "virtuous education and godly upbringing of the youth of this Realm" with a schoolmaster appointed to every church and free education for the poor. Although resource restraints meant that this took time, by the end of the 17th century a considerable proportion of the population was literate and the education system had been developed to a point considerably in advance of anything known before, well ahead of England or most other European countries. Burgh can refer to the following: Burgh (pronounced burruh) - A highly autonomous unit of local government in Scotland, with rights to representation in the Parliament of Scotland, in use from at least the 9th century until their abolition in 1975 when a new regional structure of local government was introduced... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berhick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... John Knox (1505, 1513 or 1514 – 1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who played the lead part in reforming the Church in Scotland in a Presbyterian manner. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... World map showing location of Europe When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ...


Differing definitions

For a fuller listing of public and other independent schools in Britain, see List of UK Independent Schools.

The head teachers of major British independent boys' and mixed schools belong to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC), and a common definition of a public school is any school whose head teacher is a member of the HMC. However some do not consider every HMC school to be a typical public school, and thus other definitions are sometimes employed. Nor does this definition include any girls' schools; it is debatable as to whether girls' schools can be considered to be public schools. Public schools are often divided into "major" and "minor" public schools, but these are not official definitions and the inclusion of a school in one or the other group is purely subjective (although a select few would be included in any list of "major" schools). Below is a so far incomplete list of independent schools in the UK (in alphabetical order). ... The Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference (HMC) is an association of the head teachers of 242 leading British independent boys and mixed schools. ...


Prior to the Clarendon Commission, a Royal Commission that investigated the public school system in England between 1861 and 1864, there was no clear definition of a public school. The commission investigated nine of the more established schools: two day schools (Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's) and seven boarding schools (Charterhouse, Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Westminster and Winchester). A report published by the commission formed the basis of the Public Schools Act 1868. These nine are sometimes cited as the only public schools, albeit mainly by those who attended them. In countries that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government inquiry into an issue. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Merchant Taylors crest Merchant Taylors School is a British public school, located in Northwood in the London Borough of Hillingdon. ... Shrewsbury School is a leading British boys public school (UK), located in Shrewsbury in the county of Shropshire. ... The Public Schools Act of 1868 was legislation passed by the British Parliament. ...


Some suggest that only particularly old independent schools should be afforded the dignity of "public school". Amongst the oldest independent schools in the UK are (chronologically):

The Public Schools Yearbook published in 1889 named the following 25 boarding schools, all in England: The Kings School in Canterbury, Kent, is a co-educational public school. ... Events Saint Augustine is created Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Kings School, Rochester is a public school in Rochester, Kent. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Founded in the English city of York by Paulinus of York in 627, St Peters School is a co-educational independent school currently located just outside the city in Clifton. ... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Events Town of Warwick, England founded on the River Avon Vikings conquer much of Ireland Byzantine Empire battles with Bulgaria over city of Adrianople, which changes hands several times. ... The abbey gateway, now home to the schools History and Economics departments. ... Events Otto I the Great founds missionary dioceses of Brandenburg, Havelburg, Ribe, Aarhus, and Schleswig Births Deaths Categories: 948 ... Kings School Ely, a Public School in Ely, England founded sometime before the Norman Conquest. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Norwich School is situated in Norwich, United Kingdom, and is one of the oldest schools in the country, with a traceable history as far back as 1096. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Abingdon school is an independent day and boarding school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. ... For alternate uses, see Number 1100. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... Motto: Dat Deus Incrementum Westminster School (in full, The Royal College of St. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... // High School of Dundee The High School of Dundee (can be broken down to simply H.S.D. or D.H.S.) is one of Scotlands leading independent schools, and the only private school in Dundee. ... Events Births June 17 Edward I of England known as Edward Longshanks or Hammer of the Scots Deaths Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon... The Royal Grammar School Worcester (RGS Worcester) is a British independent Public School founded before 1291. ... Events May 10 - Scottish nobles recognize the authority of King Edward I of England. ... Winchester College is a public school in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, in the south of England. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... Events May / September 3 - Siege of Lisbon by the Castilian army, during the 1383-1385 Crisis Births Deaths December 31 - John Wyclif, theologian Categories: 1384 ... Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... Events Council of Constance begins. ... Old School Sevenoaks School is a British independent school, located in the town of Sevenoaks, Kent. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (that is, an independent, fee-charging secondary school) for boys. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Arms of the City of London and City of London School The City of London School is an independent boys school on the banks of the River Thames in the City of London in London, England. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... Magdalen College School or MCS is a boys independent day school currently located on the edge of central Oxford, England. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Stockport Grammar School (SGS) is a co-educational independent school, in Stockport England, founded in 1487 by the 1482 Lord Mayor of London Sir Edmond Shaa. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Loughborough Grammar Schools quad Loughborough Endowed Schools (LES) consists of three independent schools in Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom — Loughborough Grammar School (LGS), a boys day and boarding school, Loughborough High School (LHS), a girls day school and Fairfield Preparatory School. ... Events January 3 - Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine. ... St Pauls School is a British public school, located in Barnes, London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England. ... // Events February 2 - Battle of Diu took place near Diu, India. ... The Royal Grammar School is an independent public school in Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom. ... // Events February 2 - Battle of Diu took place near Diu, India. ... Wolverhampton Grammar School is a fee paying mixed sex selective day school. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ravenna. ... Nottingham High School is a UK independent fee-paying boys school situated about a mile north of Nottingham city centre. ... Events January 20 - Christian II becomes King of Denmark and Norway. ... The Manchester Grammar School (MGS) is an independent boys school (ages 11-18) in Manchester, England. ... // Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... Bolton School is a leading British public school (independent school) situated in the town of Bolton in the North-West of England. ... Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Sedbergh school is a co-educational boarding school in cumbria for ages 13-18, which is renowed for sport especially rugby and has produced many internationals including will carling and will greenwood it has 8 houses. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Bristol Grammar School is a coeducational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Stamford School is an English public school in the market town of Stamford, Lincolnshire. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Berkhamsted School is a school situated in the thriving town of Berkhamsted in the west of Hertfordshire, northwest of London. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... The Kings School Worcester (KSW) is independent British Public School founded by Henry VIII in 1541. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Kings School Chester, a Public School in Chester, England. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Bradford Grammar School was founded in 1548 and granted its Charter as the Free Grammar School of King Charles II in 1662. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... The school buildings Sherborne School is a public school for boys in the affluent town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Bedford School is an independent, selective, fee-paying school (public school) for boys, situated in Bedford, 50 miles north of London, England. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... King Edwards School Buildings. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... King Edwards School (KES) in Bath, United Kingdom is a Public school providing education for pupils aged 3 - 18. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Shrewsbury School is a leading British boys public school (UK), located in Shrewsbury in the county of Shropshire. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Leeds Grammar School (LGS) was founded in 1552 by Sir William Sheafield to provide free, subsidised or fee-paying education, according to need. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Bromsgrove School was founded in 1553 and is located in the small, Worcestershire town of Bromsgrove, UK. First known as a chantry school in the Middle Ages, it was re-established as a Tudor Grammar School between 1548 and 1553. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Christs Hospitals buildings in London in 1770. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Tonbridge School is a British independent all boys boarding school in Tonbridge, founded in 1553 by Sir Andrew Judde, under Letters Patent of King Edward VI. The Charter ordained that the Governors of the school after the death of the Founder were to be the Worshipful Company of Skinners, one... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... The King Edward VI correctional facility was founded in 1939, after the rise of Adolf Hitler who needed an institution to hold future POWs in addition to civilian convicts. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Oundle School is a public school, at Oundle in Northamptonshire, England. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Repton School, founded in 1557, is a public school in Derbyshire, England. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... Solihull School is an independent, fee-paying day school in Solihull, West Midlands, England. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berhick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Kingston Grammar School is an independent selective co-educational school in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Merchant Taylors crest Merchant Taylors School is a British public school, located in Northwood in the London Borough of Hillingdon. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Felsted School, located in the village of Felsted, Essex, England, is a public school. ... Events March 8 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... A view of Rugby School from the rear, including the playing field, where according to legend Rugby football was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby in Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in the United Kingdom and is perhaps one of the top co-educational... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Harrow School Crest Harrow School is a British public school, located in Harrow on the Hill, in North West London. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Oakham School is an English public school in the market town of Oakham in Rutland, accepting around 1,000 students, aged from 10 to 18, both male and female, as boarders and day pupils. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Uppingham School is an English public school in the small town of Uppingham in Rutland. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Whitgift School is an independent day school offering all-round education for 1,200 boys aged 10 to 18. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Kimbolton School is a public school in rural Cambridgeshire. ... // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heresy July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the coastal dunes. ... Charterhouse School is a British public school, located in Godalming in the county of Surrey. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Monmouth School is a public school for boys in Monmouth, South Wales. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

However, it notably omitted the Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's day schools that had been listed in the Act. It also omitted others, including Highgate School as well as the City of London School, another day school, which derived from a mediæval foundation of 1442, was reconstituted by a private Act of Parliament in 1835, and was held to be a public school by the Divisional Court in the case of Blake vs. City of London in 1886. Bedford School is an independent, selective, fee-paying school (public school) for boys, situated in Bedford, 50 miles north of London, England. ... Brighton College is a public school (that is, an independent, fee-paying secondary school) for boys and girls in Brighton, East Sussex in England. ... Charterhouse School is a British public school, located in Godalming in the county of Surrey. ... Cheltenham College chapel and library (Big Modern) Cheltenham College opened in July 1841, in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England. ... Founded in 1862, Clifton College is a major coeducational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... Dover College is a co-educational public school in Dover, Kent, England. ... Dulwich College gates Dulwich College is an independent, fee-paying school, called a public school in the UK, in Dulwich, south-east London, England. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (that is, an independent, fee-charging secondary school) for boys. ... Haileybury College is an English public school founded in 1862. ... Harrow School Crest Harrow School is a British public school, located in Harrow on the Hill, in North West London. ... Lancing College is a co-educational English Public School founded in 1848 by the Rev. ... Malvern College Chapel Malvern College is a coeducational English public school for pupils aged 13 to 18, founded in 1865. ... Marlborough College is a British boarding school in the county of Wiltshire, founded in 1843 for the education of the sons of Church of England clergy, although it now accepts both boys and girls of all beliefs. ... Radley College is an English public school (i. ... Repton School, founded in 1557, is a public school in Derbyshire, England. ... Rossall School is a British co-educational independent day- and boarding school in Fleetwood, Lancashire. ... A view of Rugby School from the rear, including the playing field, where according to legend Rugby football was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby in Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in the United Kingdom and is perhaps one of the top co-educational... The school buildings Sherborne School is a public school for boys in the affluent town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset. ... Shrewsbury School is a leading British boys public school (UK), located in Shrewsbury in the county of Shropshire. ... Tonbridge School is a British independent all boys boarding school in Tonbridge, founded in 1553 by Sir Andrew Judde, under Letters Patent of King Edward VI. The Charter ordained that the Governors of the school after the death of the Founder were to be the Worshipful Company of Skinners, one... Uppingham School is an English public school in the small town of Uppingham in Rutland. ... Wellington College, Berkshire, the national monument to the Duke of Wellington, is an English public school, which was granted its royal charter in 1853. ... Motto: Dat Deus Incrementum Westminster School (in full, The Royal College of St. ... Winchester College is a public school in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, in the south of England. ... Highgate School is a famous British private day school in Highgate, North London. ... Arms of the City of London and City of London School The City of London School is an independent boys school on the banks of the River Thames in the City of London in London, England. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...


It is often thought unsatisfactory that the designation of a "public school" in England is given primarily to old boarding schools. University College School, founded in 1830 as part of University College London, was unique in that it neither took boarders nor gave religious education; indeed, by not limiting its intake to a specific religious denomination, it gained the claim of being the first truly "public" school, open to all. By 1880, it was undoubtably clear, by both the school's reputation and its list of alumni, that it was a major public school; by 1907, it was important enough for the King, accompanied by the Archbishop of Canterbury, to open the school's new site in Hampstead. Similarly, King's College School, Wimbledon, founded by King's College London, quickly became a top school. Both are now members of the exclusive Eton Group of public schools. University College School entrance, Frognal, Hampstead University College School, known generally as UCS, is a leading Independent boys school situated in Hampstead in Northwest London. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Randall Thomas Davidson, Baron Davidson (1848-1930) was an Anglican clergyman who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1903 to 1928. ... Hampstead is a hilly and wealthy suburb of London. ... Kings College School, or KCS, is a public school in Wimbledon, a town in South-West London. ... Wimbledon, best known for much of the 20th century as the home of the Wimbledon tennis championships, is a town in south-west London. ... Kings College London in London is the largest college in the federal University of London, with 21,500 registered students. ... The Eton Group consists of twelve leading independent schools (Eton College, Bryanston School, Dulwich College, Highgate School, Kings College School Wimbledon, Kings School, Canterbury, Marlborough College, St Pauls School, Sherborne School, Tonbridge School, University College School Hampstead, and Westminster School). ...


Perhaps the best way to tell if a school is a "Grand Public School" in modern times is to check an edition of Who's Who. The headmasters of many of the most prestigious schools have an entry there by virtue of their position. Whos Who, ISBN 0-713-662-751, is an annual British publication by A & C Black of very short biographies of about 30,000 famous and/or important Britons, published since 1849. ...


Criticisms

While, under the best circumstances, these schools were superb examples of education, the reliance on corporal punishment and the prefect system could also make them a cruel and hostile environment. Corporal punishment in the narrow sense of the term is the deliberate infliction of pain intended as correction or punishment. ...


The classics-based curriculum was also criticised for not providing skills in sciences or engineering. It was Martin Wiener's opposition to this tendency which inspired his 1981 polemic "English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit: 1850-1980". It became a huge influence on the Thatcher government's opposition to old-school gentlemanly Toryism. Martin Joel Wiener is an American academic and author. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is a British stateswoman and was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990, also Leader of the Opposition from 1975, and the only woman to date to hold the former... The term Tory applied to the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ...


The Thatcher government introduced the Assisted Places Scheme in England and Wales in 1980, whereby the state paid the school fees of those students capable of gaining a place but unable to afford the fees. This was essentially a response to the decision of the previous Labour government in the mid-1970s to remove government funding of direct-grant grammar schools, most of which then became private schools; many Assisted Places students went to the former direct-grant schools such as Manchester Grammar School. The scheme was axed by the Labour government in 1997, since when the private sector has moved to organise various means-tested bursaries of its own. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... A grammar school is a type of school found in some English-speaking countries. ... The Manchester Grammar School (MGS) is an independent boys school (ages 11-18) in Manchester, England. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the past, it was Labour Party policy to remove charitable status from independent schools. Although this policy has been dropped, there is presently some debate, emanating from Labour circles, as to whether independent schools deserve their charitable status – a tax break which, some critics argue, amounts to a government subsidy for the privileged. Independent schools argue that they are charitable and educational foundations which do not seek profits; many schools raise money for charities, encourage their pupils to take up community service, and lease their facilities to the public.


Public schools in modern England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Today most public schools are highly selective on academic grounds, as well as financial grounds (parents' ability to pay the high fees, up to £23,000 – c. US$40,000 – p.a. for boarding pupils). Many parents make immense sacrifices to be able to send their children to these schools because there is a continuing belief that the education is not only academically beneficial but can also offer social advantages. Many politicians of all parties, including even Labour Prime Ministers Tony Blair (Fettes) and Clement Attlee (Haileybury), have been products of private schools. So were 84% of senior Judges in England and Wales, as surveyed in 2003 here . The pound sterling, which strictly speaking refers to basic currency unit of sterling, now the pound, is the currency of the United Kingdom (UK). ... The United States dollar, or American dollar, is the official currency of the United States. ... Labour (Commonwealth English) or labor (American English) may refer to one of the following. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. ... Fettes College is a private school located in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Right Honourable Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Haileybury College is an English public school founded in 1862. ...


Defining an English public school has always been complex. Many recently founded fee-charging schools do not refer to themselves as 'public schools', preferring the term 'independent school'. This may be because they do not share the centuries of tradition associated with the older public schools.


English public school language

The following list includes some terms peculiar to, originating from or commonly used in public schools in England ("independent schools"):

Term Meaning School
ABROAD Out of the sick room. Winchester
BAD EGG A nasty and unpleasant person.
BARGE YARD An outside area in a boarding house with a covering net and fences to play games. Sherborne
BEAK Teacher or tutor. Harrow, Eton, etc.
BEARDS! An exclamation of surprise. The Leys School
BEDDER A bedmaker and cleaner. Also used in Cambridge University
BEEF(CHOP) To not do or not care about something when having an ability to do so Shrewsbury
BIBBLING Six strokes of the cane Winchester
Baited To be anoyed Uppingham
BOK One / school site Perse School, Cambridge
BRUSHING Flogging. Christ's Hospital
CHINNER Wide grin Winchester
CLIPE To tell tales. Also a common term in Scots language
CORPS Combined Cadet Force (formerly Junior Division of the Officers Training Corps)
COXY Conceited
EXECUTION Flogging by the Head Master with a birchrod. Eton
FAG A junior boy who acts as servant for a sixth-former. Obsolete
FOUNDATION YEAR The first year (pupils usually aged 13-14). Malvern College
GOD A prefect or sixth former. Eton
GOOD EGG A trustworthy or reliable person (later inversion of BAD EGG).
HALL Homework. Malvern College, Sherborne
HUNDRED The academic year in which pupils take their GCSEs. Malvern College, Marlborough
MAJOR Such as Smith Major, the elder brother.
MAXIMUS Such as Smith Maximus, the eldest brother (of three or more).
MINIMUS Such as Smith Minimus, the youngest brother (of three or more).
MINOR Such as Smith Minor, the younger brother.
MONITOR Prefect. Bedford, Bolton, Harrow, Westminster
MUCK-UP DAY The last day of term for the Remove students, where sponsored 'misdemeanours' are common. Westminster
MUZZ To read. Westminster
NEWBIE New boy. Now a general term.
OIK Junior boy or non-public-school person.
OPTION Minor prefect. Bedford.
PEPPER To fill in the accents on a Greek exercise.
PLAY A day off for all members of the school; often requested by a visiting dignitary, known as "begging a Play". Westminster
PLEB Junior boy or non-public school person (derives from the Latin "plebeius" referring to those of plebeian (common) stock).
PREP Homework (from "preparation").
QUAD(RANGLE) School courtyard. Also used at some universities.
QUILL To flatter. Winchester
RAG A misdemeanour, hence:
RAG WEEK Where sponsored "misdemeanours" are common. Also used at universities
REMOVE The year before the 4th form (age 14 (usually 15)) and 5th form (age 16). Bedford
The academic year before the year in which pupils take their GCSEs, and in which they are usually aged 14-15. Malvern College
Final years before one is 'removed' from the school (ages 13 and 18). Westminster Under School and Westminster, respectively
SAPPY Severe flogging.
SCHOOL SIXTH Lowest rank of prefect. Plymouth
SHAG DAY A day when, on payment of a small amount to a charity, pupils can wear own-clothes instead of uniform. Westminster
SHELL A boy in the youngest year. Westminster, Harrow, Marlborough, St. Edward's
SWIPE A sweater in House colours used for sports. Marlborough
TITCHING Caning. Christ's Hospital
TOPSCHOOLS Homework. Shrewsbury

The Leys School (founded 1875) is a British Independent School located in Cambridge. ... The Perse School is a fee-paying secondary day school for boys 11–18 and girls at 16+ situated in Cambridge, England. ... Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic of the Highlands, is a language used in Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans... The Combined Cadet Force (CCF) is a Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisation in the United Kingdom. ... The Officers Training Corps (OTC) is a part of the British Army that provides military training to students at British universities. ... Plymouth College (PMC) is an independent school (or public school) situated in Plymouth, Devon, England. ...

Scottish public school language

The following list includes some terms peculiar to, originating from or commonly used in Scottish public schools (local authority schools):

Term Meaning
DOMINIE or HEIDIE Headteacher.
JANNNY Janitor, known in England as the School Caretaker.
TAWSE A stiff leather strap, formerly used for punishing pupils by striking them on the hand. The Lochgelly tawse was particularly notorious.
SPOF Derogatory term for a conscientious, hard working pupil.
NED In school, a ned is the opposite of a spof, often a bully. Also used outwith school

Lochgelly is: a place in Fife, Scotland the brand name of the most reputed firm that produced tawses and hence a synonym (spelled without a capital L) for that typically Scottish device for corporal punishment. ... A tawse is a typically Scottish implement for corporal punishment, called tawsing after it, that was often used for educational discipline instead of the English cane (which, like the horse crop, was however used in private schools, usually on bare bottoms or the hands). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

See also

A boarding school is a self-contained educational establishment where students not only study but where some or all students may live. ... Education in the United Kingdom is covered in the following articles: Education in England Education in Northern Ireland Education in Scotland Education in Wales Grammar schools in the United Kingdom Achievement in British Education List of schools in the United Kingdom British universities School inspection organisations: Office for Standards in... Shortcut: UK topics This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... This is a graphical listing of coats of arms of academic institutions (which are not necessarily the same as their their logos), ordered by the country they are located in. ... School in literature Christine Anlauff: Good morning, Lehnitz F. Anstey: Vice Versa Louis Auchincloss: The Rector of Justin Alan Bennett: The History Boys E.R. Braithwaite: To Sir, with Love Sasthi Brata: My God Died Young Anthony Buckeridge: Jennings Goes to School Frances Hodgson Burnett: Sara Crewe (aka A Little...

Reference

  • Note 1: Smout, T.C., A History of the Scottish People, Fontana Press 1985, ISBN 0-00-686027-3

  Results from FactBites:
 
Independent school (UK) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2858 words)
By the late 19th century, public schools were characterized not so much by the way the schools were governed or the students educated as by a very specific ethos of student life often celebrated or parodied in the novels of the day.
Public schools are often divided into "major" and "minor" public schools, but these are not official definitions and the inclusion of a school in one or the other group is purely subjective (although a select few would be included in any list of "major" schools).
University College School, founded in 1830 as part of University College London, was unique in that it neither took boarders nor gave religious education; indeed, by not limiting its intake to a specific religious denomination, it gained the claim of being the first truly "public" school, open to all.
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