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Encyclopedia > Public library
Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library.
Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library.

A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is generally funded from public sources (such as tax monies) and may be operated by civil servants. Taxing bodies for public libraries may be at the municipal, district covering several municipalities, county, state, or federal level. Download high resolution version (427x640, 46 KB)Carnegie library interior, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2004 by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (427x640, 46 KB)Carnegie library interior, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2004 by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... General public redirects here. ... Taxes redirects here. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation-state. ...


Public libraries exist in most nations of the world and are often considered an essential part of having an educated and literate population. Public libraries are distinct from research libraries, school libraries, or other special libraries in that their mandate is to serve the public's information needs generally (rather than serve a particular school, institution, or research population). Public libraries typically are lending libraries, allowing users to take books and other materials off the premises; they also have non-circulating reference collections. Public libraries typically focus on popular materials such as popular fiction and movies, as well as educational and nonfiction materials of interest to the general public; Internet access is also often offered. A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects. ... A School library is a library that exclusively serves the students and staff of a public or private school. ... Special Libraries Association (SLA) is a professional association for information professionals working in special libraries as distiguished from public or academic libraries. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is often operated by civil servants and funded from public sources. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Non-fiction is a truthful account or representation of a subject which is composed of facts. ...

Contents

Services offered

In addition to print books and periodicals, most public libraries today have a wide array of other media including music CDs, computer software, movies on video tape, and DVD, as well as facilities to access the Internet. Some public libraries use outside services, such as OverDrive, Inc. or OCLC's NetLibrary, to provide patrons with downloadable eBooks, audiobooks, music, and video. Public libraries may also provide other services, such as community meeting rooms, storytelling for infants, toddlers, and children, or after-school programs. In person and on-line programs for homework help, language learning and other community service programs are common offerings. One of the most popular programs offered in public libraries are summer reading programs for children, families, and adults. In rural areas, the local public library may have, in addition to its main branch, a mobile library service, consisting of one or more buses furnished as a small public library, serving the countryside according to a regular schedule. For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... CD redirects here. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Top view VHS cassette with US Quarter for scale Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed The Video Home System, better known by its acronym VHS, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (ironically, with some of its critical technology under... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... An ebook is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. ... An audio book is a recording of the contents of a book read aloud. ... The bookmobile of the Ottawa Public Library A bookmobile or mobile library is a large vehicle designed for use as a library. ...


Public libraries also provide materials for children that include books, videos and DVDs, music CDs, and other materials (both fiction and nonfiction), often housed in a special section. Child oriented websites with on-line educational games and programs specifically designed for younger library users are becoming increasingly common. Public libraries may also provide services for other particular groups, such as large print or Braille materials, young adult literature and other materials for teenagers, or materials in other than the national language. A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... Large font, large type or large print, is a type of book in which the pages and font are much larger. ... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-09-06, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Young adult (YA) literature is literature written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents. ...


Librarians at most public libraries provide reference and research help to the general public, usually at a reference desk but can often be done by telephone interview. As online discussion and social networking allow for remote access, reference is becoming available virtually through the use of the Internet and e-mail. Depending on the size of the library, there may be more than one desk; at some smaller libraries all transactions may occur at one desk, while large urban public libraries may employ subject-specialist librarians with the ability to staff multiple reference or information desks to answer queries about particular topics at any time of the day or night. Often the children's section in a public library has its own reference desk. The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... For the article about the public service found in many libraries, see library reference desk. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Public libraries in some countries pay authors when their books are borrowed from libraries. These are known as Public Lending Right programs. A Public Lending Right program is one which pays authors for having works in public libraries. ...


Origins of the public library as a social institution

Many claims have been made for the title of "first public library" for various libraries in various countries, with at least some of the confusion arising from differing interpretations of what should be considered a true "public library". Difficulties in establishing what policies were in effect at different times in the history of particular libraries also add to the confusion.


The first libraries open to the public were the collections of Greek and Latin scrolls which were available in the dry sections of the many buildings that made up the huge Roman baths of the Roman empire. However, they were not lending libraries. For other uses, see Scroll (disambiguation). ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The "halls of science" run by different Islamic sects in many cities of North Africa and the Middle East in the 9th century were open to the public. Some of them had written lending policies, but they were very restrictive. Most patrons were expected to consult the books in situ.


The later European university libraries were not open to the general public, but accessible by scholars.


A selection of significant claims made for early libraries operating in a way at least partly analogous to the modern public library is listed below by country, then by date.


United Kingdom

In the early years of the seventeenth century many famous collegiate and town libraries — i.e., libraries under the guardianship of municipalities — were founded throughout the country. Norwich library established in 1608 (six years after Thomas Bodley founded the Bodleian Library, which was open to the "whole republic of the learned", and 145 years before the foundation of the British Museum) is said to be the first provincial town library under municipal control, however, similar claims are made for the Francis Trigge Chained Library of St. Wulfram's Church, Grantham, Lincolnshire which is said to pre-date Norwich library by ten years, being founded in 1598 by the rector of nearby Welbourne. The Harris The Harris Museum is regarded as one of Prestons finest museums. ... For other places with the same name, see Norwich (disambiguation). ... Thomas Bodley Sir Thomas Bodley (March 2, 1545 - January 28, 1613), was an English diplomat and scholar, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Francis Trigge Chained Library is a library in Grantham, Lincolnshire, England which was founded in 1598. ... Grantham is a medium sized market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 35,000 inhabitants (40,000 including Great Gonerby), situated on the River Witham. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ...

Other early town libraries of the UK include those of Ipswich (1612), Bristol (founded in 1613 and opened in 1615), and Leicester (1632). Shrewsbury School also opened its library to townsfolk.[1] Download high resolution version (1000x703, 254 KB)Manchester Central Library in St Peters Square, in central Manchester. ... Download high resolution version (1000x703, 254 KB)Manchester Central Library in St Peters Square, in central Manchester. ... Manchester Central library ( Alternative view) Manchester Central Library is an impressive circular building next to the extended Town Hall in Manchester, England. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English city. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ...


Other antecedents are claimed: In Bristol, an early public library was that of the Kalendars or Kalendaries, a brotherhood of clergy and laity who were attached to the Church of All-Hallowen or All Saints. Records show that in 1464, provision was made for a library to be erected in the house of the Kalendars, and reference is made to a deed of that date by which it was "appointed that all who wish to enter for the sake of instruction shall have ‘free access and recess’ at certain times".


Although by the mid-nineteenth century, England could claim 274 subscription libraries and Scotland, 266, the foundation of the modern public library system in the UK is the Public Libraries Act 1850. Prior to this, the municipalities of Warrington and Salford established libraries in their museums, under the terms of the Museums Act of 1845. Manchester was the first library to operate a freelending library without subscription in 1852 [1]. Norwich lays claims to being the first municipality to adopt the Public Libraries Act 1850 (which allowed any municipal borough of 100,000 souls to introduce a halfpenny rate to establish public libraries - although not to buy books), but theirs was the eleventh library to open, in 1857, being the eleventh in the country after Winchester, Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton, Kidderminster, Cambridge, Birkenhead and Sheffield. The Scottish-American philanthropist and businessman, Andrew Carnegie, helped to increase the number of public libraries from the late-nineteenth century. A Subscription Library (also membership or independant library) Is a library that is supported by private funds raised by membership fees or endowments. ... Public Libraries Act 1850 The Public libraries Act of 1850 was legislation passed by the British Parliament. ... This article is about the Borough in the north-west of England. ... For other uses, see Salford (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Norwich (disambiguation). ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. ... , Kidderminster is a town in the Wyre Forest district of Worcestershire, England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Birkenhead (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... Andrew Carnegie (properly pronounced , but commonly or )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which was later merged with Elbert H. Garys Federal Steel Company and several smaller companies to create U...


United States

Bates Hall reading room in the Boston Public Library
Bates Hall reading room in the Boston Public Library
A public library building in Altona, Illinois, a small village in the Midwestern United States.
A public library building in Altona, Illinois, a small village in the Midwestern United States.
  • In his unconventional history The Tribes and the States, William James Sidis claims the public library is an American invention and states that the first town library was established in Boston, Massachusetts in 1636. The Boston Public Library still operates today.[2] For an extended analysis of the origin of the U.S. public library see "Brahmins, BeQuests and Determined Women" in Introduction to Public Librarianship, Kathleen de la Peña McCook.
  • The St. Phillips Church Parsonage Provincial Library, established in 1698 in Charleston, South Carolina.
  • The Library Company of Philadelphia was founded in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin and a group of his friends (the Junto) as a means to settle arguments. The subscription library was born. A subscription library allowed individuals to buy "shares." The money raised from the sale of shares went into buying more books. A member or shareholder then had rights to use the library. The Library Company, which may have been the first truly public library (members could actually borrow books), is still in existence as a nonprofit, independent research library. [3]
  • The Franklin, Massachusetts public library was begun with books donated by Benjamin Franklin after the town became the first named in his honor.[4]
  • Scoville Memorial Library in Salisbury, Connecticut, the first free public library in the United States, was established in 1803. [5]
  • The first publicly-funded library opened in 1833 in Peterborough, New Hampshire. [6]
  • The first free public children's library was opened in 1835 in Arlington, MA [7]
  • The New York Public Library in New York City, begun in 1849 and consolidated in 1901, one of the most important public libraries in the United States [8]- Samuel J. Tilden - Governor NY 1875 - Presidential Candidate 1876, was a lover of books. Tilden bequeathed his millions to construct the NY Public Library. He believed Americans should have access to books and a free education if they so desired.
  • The Williams Free Library became the first library in the United States to use open stacks when it opened in 1884.
  • Scottish-American businessman Andrew Carnegie donated the money for the building of thousands of Carnegie libraries in English-speaking countries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • The Bacon Free Library in South Natick, Massachusetts was begun in 1881 with $15,000 from the will of Oliver Bacon. It has been operating as a public library ever since.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (512 × 768 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston Public Library... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (512 × 768 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boston Public Library... The Boston Public Librarys McKim building The Boston Public Library was established in 1848. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1815x1242, 578 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Altona, Illinois Public library Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1815x1242, 578 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Altona, Illinois Public library Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Altona is a village located in Knox County, Illinois. ... William James Sidis (April 1, 1898 – July 17, 1944) was an American child prodigy with exceptional mathematical and linguistic abilities. ... Boston redirects here. ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Boston Public Librarys McKim building The Boston Public Library was established in 1848. ... Kathleen de la Peña McCook is Distinguished University Professor at the University of South Florida. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The Library Company of Philadelphia is a non-profit institution that has accumulated one of the United States richest collections of manuscript and printed materials. ... The Town of Franklin is a city[1] in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Scoville Memorial Library was established in 1803 in Salisbury, CT. The Library the was the first in the United States open to the public free of charge. ... Salisbury is a town in Litchfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Hillsborough County Incorporated 1760  - Board of Selectmen Joe Byk, Chairman Gene Kellogg Elizabeth Thomas Area    - Town  38. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Arlington is a town in eastern Massachusetts, six miles northwest of Boston, latitude 42 degrees 25 minutes north, longitude 71 degrees 09 minutes west. ... The New York Public Library (NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of Americas most significant research libraries. ... Education in New York City is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... The Williams Free Library in 2003. ... Andrew Carnegie (properly pronounced , but commonly or )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which was later merged with Elbert H. Garys Federal Steel Company and several smaller companies to create U... A Carnegie library, opened in 1913 in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, designed in Spanish Colonial style Carnegie libraries for both public use and academic institutions were built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman Andrew Carnegie, earning him the nickname, the Patron Saint of Libraries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

Poland

In 1747, construction began on one of Poland's first, at the time one of the world's best [9], national public libraries named the Załuski Library in Warsaw. In 1794, the library was looted on orders from Catherine II of Russia. Much of the material was returned in the period of 1842-1920, but once again the library was decimated during World War II during the period following the Warsaw Uprising. The Załuski Library was succeeded by the creation of the National Library of Poland (Biblioteka Narodowa) in 1928. ZaÅ‚uski Library The ZaÅ‚uski Library (Zalusciana, Biblioteka ZaÅ‚uskich) was built in Warsaw 1747–1795 by Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski and his brother, Andrzej StanisÅ‚aw ZaÅ‚uski, both Catholic bishops. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... ZaÅ‚uski Library The ZaÅ‚uski Library (Zalusciana, Biblioteka ZaÅ‚uskich) was built in Warsaw 1747–1795 by Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski and his brother, Andrzej StanisÅ‚aw ZaÅ‚uski, both Catholic bishops. ... National Library of Poland (Polish: ) is a central repository of books and newspapers of Poland. ...


Canada

The Quebec Library, founded in Quebec City in 1779 by Governor Frederick Haldimand, was the first publicly-funded library in the country. It later merged with the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, which displays the original Quebec Library collection within its library. Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Frederick Haldimand (August 11, 1718 – June 5, 1791) was a British army officer and governor. ... The Literary and Historical Society of Quebec (LHSQ) was the first scholarly or learned society in Canada. ...


Oakville Public Library is the public library system for the Town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. It has 6 branches. In 1827, Oakville’s first library was established when William Tassie, the town’s first schoolmaster, opened a reading room in the meeting hall located on the site of the current central library. The first use of the name “Oakville Public Library” occurred in 1895. Between the 1860s and the 1960s, the library moved to four other locations in town, only to return to the Navy Street site in 1967 with the opening of the new Centennial complex housing the library and art gallery.


Australia

Library services in Australia developed along very different paths in the different States, as such it is hard to define the origins of the Public Library system in Australia. In 1809 the Reverend Samuel Marsden advertised in England for donations to help found a 'Lending Library for the general benefit of the inhabitants of New South Wales'. The library would cover 'Divinity and Morals, History, Voyages and Travels, Agriculture in all its branches, Mineralogy and Practical Mechanics'. No Public Library came to fruition from this although some of the books brought to the colony after this call survive in the library of Moore Theological College. The Reverend Samuel Marsden (born in Farsley in Yorkshire 25 June 1765, died Windsor, New South Wales 12 May 1838) was a prominent member of the Church Missionary Society, credited with bringing Christianity to New Zealand. ... Moore Theological College, otherwise known as just Moore College, is the Theological Training Seminary for the Anglican Diocese of Sydney, Australia. ...


The place of Public Libraries was filled by; mechanics' institutes, schools of arts, athenaeums and literary institutes. Some of which provided free library services to visitors, however lending rights were available only to members who were required to pay a subscription.


In 1856, the Victorian colonial government opened the Melbourne Public Library (now the State Library of Victoria). This was however purely a reference library. A panoramic view of the library facade, forecourt and lawns from Swanston Street The State Library lit up at night. ...


In September 1869, the New South Wales government opened as the Free Public Library, Sydney (Now the State Library of New South Wales) by purchasing a bankrupt subscription library. Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales The State Library of New South Wales is a large public library owned by the state of New South Wales. ...


In 1896, the Brisbane Public Library was established. The Library's collection, purchased by the Queensland Government from the private collection of Mr Justice Harding.


In 1932, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, funded a survey (The Munn-Pitt Report) into Australian libraries. It found 'wretched little institutes' which were 'cemeteries of old and forgotten books'. There was also criticism of the limited public access, poor staff training, unsatisfactory collections, lack of non-fiction, absence of catalogues and poor levels of service for children. Lending libraries in Sydney (NSW) and Prahran (Victoria) were praised as examples of services which were doing well, but these were seen as exceptions.


In NSW, The Free Library Movement was set up on the back of the Munn-Pitt Report. This collection of (amongst others) concerned citizens, progress associations, Returned Servicemen and trade Unions advocated for a system of Public Libraries to serve the needs of all people. This movement was stalled by the declaration of war in 1939.


The passing of Library Acts in the states at the end of the war marked the beginning of modern public libraries in Australia.


In 1943, the Queensland Parliament passed the Libraries Act, establishing the Library Board of Queensland to manage the operations of the Public Library of Queensland, and coordinate and improve library facilities throughout the State of Queensland. The Queensland Parliament is located in george Street, Brisbane. ... view of the State Library of Queensland from the Brisbane River The State Library of Queensland is a large public library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the State Government. ...


In November 1943, at the official opening of the new Public Library of New South Wales building, William McKell, the New South Wales Premier, announced that the Library Act would be fully proclaimed from 1 January 1944.


Even after the war, the development of free lending libraries in Australia had been agonizingly slow: it was not until the 1960s that local governments began to establish public libraries in suburban areas.


Funding problems

In the United States, among other countries, libraries in financially-strapped communities compete with other public institutions such as police, firefighters, and schools. This article is about the profession. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...


Many communities are closing down or reducing the capability of their library systems, at the same time balancing their budgets. Jackson County, Oregon (US), closed its entire 15-branch library system for six months in 2007, reopening with a reduced schedule. This example of a funding problem followed the failure to pass of a bond measure and cessation of federal funding for counties with dwindling timber revenue, in a state with no sales tax[10][11]. In December 2004, Salinas, California almost became the first city in the United States to completely close down its entire library system. A tax increase passed by the voters in November 2005 allowed the libraries to open, but hours remain limited.[2]The American Library Association says media reports it has compiled in 2004 showed some $162 million in funding cuts to libraries nationwide.[3]. Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. ... A bond measure is a proposal to sell bonds for the purpose of acquiring funds for various public works projects, such as research, transportation infrastructure improvements, and others. ... A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... ← - 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in December • 30 Artie Shaw • 29 Julius Axelrod • 28 Jacques Dupuis • 28 Jerry Orbach • 28 Susan Sontag • 26 Reggie White • 26 Sir Angus Ogilvy • 23 P. V. Narasimha Rao • 23 Doug Ault • 19 Renata Tebaldi • 16... Nickname: Location of Salinas, California Country State County Monterey Government  - Mayor Dennis Donohue Area  - City 19 sq mi (49. ... ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ...


Survey data suggests the public values free public libraries. A Public Agenda survey in 2006 reported 84 percent of the public said maintaining free library services should be a top priority for their local library. But the survey also found the public was mostly unaware of financial difficulties facing their libraries. The survey did not ask those surveyed whether they valued free library services more than other specific services, such as firefighting.[4]


In various cost-benefit studies libraries continue to provide an exceptional return on the dollar. [5]


See also

Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ... This is a list of notable libraries. ...

References

  1. ^ Anthony Hobson, "Open Shelves", TLS, 8 December 2006, 9.
  2. ^ "Referenda Roundup, 2005" American Library Association, 2005. (Accessed 10 July, 2006).
  3. ^ "Library Funding" American Library Association, 2004. (Accessed 10 July, 2006)
  4. ^ "Long Overdue: A Fresh Look at Public Attitudes About Libraries in the 21st Century" Public Agenda, 2006. (Accessed 10 July, 2006).
  5. ^ Holt, Glen. Measuring Outcomes:Applying Cost-Benefit Analysis to Middle-Sized and Smaller Public Libraries. Library Trends; Winter2003, Vol. 51 Issue 3, p424, 17p

External links

Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Public library - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1165 words)
A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is generally funded from public sources (such as tax monies) and may be operated by civil servants.
Public libraries are distinct from research libraries, school libraries, or other special libraries in that their mandate is to serve the public's information needs generally (rather than serve a particular school, institution, or research population).
Public libraries typically focus on popular materials such as popular fiction and videos, as well as educational and nonfiction materials of interest to the general public; in the larger cities, they are to some extent reference libraries as well.
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