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Encyclopedia > Public housing
A local authority tower block in Cwmbrân, South Wales
A local authority tower block in Cwmbrân, South Wales

Public housing or project homes are forms of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by not-for-profit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 523 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 523 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Cwmbran (Welsh: Cwmbrân) is a new town in Monmouthshire, Wales, established in the 1950s to provide new employment in the south eastern portion of the South Wales coalfield. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... Housing tenure refers to the financial arrangements under which someone has the right to live in a house or apartment. ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Affordable housing is a dwelling where the total housing costs are affordable to those living in that housing unit. ...


Although the common goal of public housing is to provide affordable housing, the details, terminology, definitions of poverty and other criteria for allocation vary. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

Contents

Australia

Main article: Public housing in Australia

Public housing in Australia is usually provided by departments of state and territory governments, with funding provided by both state and federal governments. There are over 300,000 public housing dwellings in Australia, consisting of low-density housing on master-planned estates located in suburban areas, and also inner-city high-rise apartments in Melbourne and Sydney. Public housing in Australia is usually provided by departments of state and territory governments. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ...


Canada and United States

Bushwick, Brooklyn's twenty-story John F. Hylan Houses.
Bushwick, Brooklyn's twenty-story John F. Hylan Houses.

In the United States and Canada, public housing is usually a block of purpose-built government subsidized housing operated by a government agency, often simply referred to as housing projects. In American cities, many high-rise developments have been torn down and replaced with easier-to-manage town houses. Numerous federal, state and local enactments have greatly diminished criminal activity inside projects and altered who is entitled to live in them. Canada, especially Toronto, still maintains primarily large high-rise clustered developments in working class neighborhoods, a system that has fallen into disfavor in both the UK and US. In Toronto, large projects house largely immigrants and refugees, and lower-income Canadians. In the United States and Canada, public housing is usually a block of purpose-built housing operated by a government agency, often simply referred to as the projects. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, government involvement in housing for the poor was chiefly in the area of requiring new... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) the John C. Hylan houses in Bushwick, Brooklyn I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) the John C. Hylan houses in Bushwick, Brooklyn I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Bushwick is a neighborhood in the northeastern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. ... John Francis Hylan (April 20, 1868–January 12, 1936), nicknamed Red Mike, was the Mayor of New York City from 1918 to 1925. ...


In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, government involvement in housing for the poor was chiefly in the introduction of buildings standards. Most housing communities were developed from the 1930s onward and initial public housing was largely slum regeneration, with no nationwide expansion of public housing. This helped ease the concerns of a health-conscious public by eliminating or altering neighborhoods commonly considered dangerous, and reflected progressive-era sanitation initiatives. However, the advent of make-shift tent communities during the Great Depression caused concern in the Administration. Public housing in its earliest decades was usually much more working-class and middle-class and white than it was by the 1960s. Many Americans associate large, multi-story towers with public housing, but early projects were actually low-rise, though Le Corbusier superblocks caught on before World War II. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Statue of a coal miner in Charleston, WV, USA. Working class is a term used both in academic sociology as well as in ordinary conversation. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ...


Public housing was only built with the blessing of the local government, and projects were almost never built on suburban greenfields, but through regeneration of older neighborhoods. The destruction of tenements and eviction of their low-income residents consistently created problems in nearby neighborhoods with "soft" real estate markets. Houses, apartments or other residential units are usually subsidized on a rent-geared-to-income (RGI) basis. Some communities have now embraced a mixed income, with both assisted and market rents, when allocating homes as they become available. Greenfield land is a term used to describe a piece of undeveloped land, either currently used for agriculture or just left to nature. ... Categories: Stub | House types ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstance. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Public housing in the US has been overhauled in recent years after criticism that neglect and concentrated poverty have contributed to increased crime. HUD's 1993 HOPE VI program addresses these issues by funding renewal of public housing to decrease its density and allow for tenants with mixed income levels. Projects continue to have a reputation for violence, drug use, and prostitution, leading to the passage of a 1996 federal "one strike you're out" law, enabling the eviction of tenants convicted of crimes, especially drug-related, or merely as a result of being tried for some crimes. Other attempts to solve these problems include the 1978 Section 8 Housing Program, which encourages the private sector to construct affordable homes, and subsidises public housing. This assistance can be "project based," subsidising properties, or "tenant based," which provides tenants with a voucher, accepted by some landlords. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Whore redirects here. ... One strike, youre out is the colloquial term for a policy adhered to by public housing officials in the United States, which requires tenants living in housing projects or otherwise receiving housing assistance from the federal government to be evicted if they, or any guest or visitor under their... The Housing Choice Voucher Program is a type of Federal assistance provided by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) dedicated to sponsoring subsidized housing for low-income families and individuals. ... A voucher is a certificate which is worth a certain monetary value and which may only be spent for specific reasons or on specific goods. ...


In Canada, following the decentralisation of public housing to local municipalities, Social Housing Services Corporation (SHSC) was created in the Province of Ontario in 2002 to provide group services for social housing providers (public housing, non-profit housing and co-operative housing). It is a non-profit corporation which provides Ontario housing providers and service managers with bulk purchasing, insurance, investment and information services that add significant value to their operations. The Social Housing Services Corporation (SHSC) was created in the Province of Ontario in 2002 to provide group services for social housing providers (public housing, non-profit housing and co-operative housing) following the downloading of responsibility for over 270,000 social housing units to local municipalities. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Non-profit housing is owned and managed by private non-profit groups such as churches, ethnocultural communities or by governments. ... A housing co-operative is a legal entity that owns real estate. ...


China

In China, a project called "Cheap-Cozy housing"(literally) aims to provide affortable housing for low-income citizens to assure the average living standard in the nation.you idoit


France

In France, a quarter of the population lives in government-subsidised housing complexes, known as HLM (habitation à loyer modéré). The nature of public housing in France has caused major civil unrest as subsidised housing complexes are regarded as the cause of high crime and urban decay in its major cities. French police now consider many housing estates "no-go areas" and must be vigilant when entering them. For the statistical analysis concept, see Hierarchical linear modeling. ...


Germany

Between 1925 and 1930 Germany was the site of innovative and extensive municipal public housing projects, mostly in Berlin, Cologne and Frankfurt am Main. These Siedlungen (settlements), were made necessary by the dreadful living conditions of pre-war urban tenements. The right to a healthy dwelling was written into the 1919 Weimar Constitution, but few dwellings were built until economic stability in 1925. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... , For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...


These settlements were low-rise, no more than 5 stories, and in suburban settings. Residents were provided access to light, air, and sun. The size, shape, orientation and architectural style of Germany's public housing were informed by the recent experience of the Vienese and the Dutch, the anti-urban Garden City Movement in Britain, by new industrialized mass-production and pre-fabrication building techniques, by the novel use of steel and glass, and by the progressive-liberal policies of the Social Democrats. Ebenezer Howards 3 magnets diagram which addressed the question Where will the people go?, the choices being Town, Country or Town-Country The garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in England. ...


Architect Martin Wagner (with Bruno Taut) was responsible for the thousands of dwellings built in and around Berlin, including the Horseshoe Siedlung (named for its shape), and Uncle Tom's Cabin Siedlung (named for a local restaurant). But Wagner was second to the city planner Ernst May in Frankfurt. May was responsible for the construction of 23 separate settlements, 15,000 total units, in five years. He ran his own sizable research facility to investigate, for instance, air-flow in various floorplan configurations, construction techniques, etc. The Austrian architect Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky applied the principles of Taylorism to the kitchen workspace and developed the Frankfurt kitchen while working for Ernst May. Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Konigsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul), was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active in the Weimar period. ... Ernst May (July 27, 1886, Frankfurt am Main—September 11, 1970, Hamburg) was a German architect and city planner. ... Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky (January 23, 1897 – January 18, 2000) was the first female Austrian architect and an activist in the anti-Nazi resistance movement. ... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... The Frankfurt kitchen (view from the entrance) The Frankfurt kitchen was a milestone in domestic architecture, considered the fore-runner of modern built-in kitchens, for it realised for the first time a kitchen built after a unified concept, designed to enable efficient work and to be built at low...


Beyond technical research May also published two magazines and embarked on a significant public-relations project, with films and classes and public exhibitions, to make Neues Bauen acceptable to the public. In the late 1920s the principles of equal access to "Licht, Luft und Sonne" and the social effects of a guaranteed ""Existenzminimum" became a matter of lively popular debate all over Germany. One indirect result of this publicity was the American housing movement: a young Catherine Bauer attended one of May's conferences in 1930, and wrote her seminal "Modern Housing" based on research done in Frankfurt and with Dutch architect JJP Oud. Catherine Bauer (May 11, 1905 in Elizabeth, New Jersey – 1964) was a leading member of a small group of idealists who called themselves housers because of their commitment to improving housing for low-income families. ... Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (February 9, 1890 - April 5, 1963) was a Dutch architect. ...


Increasing pressure from the rising Nazis brought this era to an end in 1933. A majority of the German public housing experts had Social Democrat or Communist sympathies and were forced out of the country. National Socialism redirects here. ...


Ireland

In Ireland, public housing and halting sites (sites used by semi-nomadic Traveller communities) have been built by Local Authorities and are known as Local Authority Accommodation. Dublin Corporation and the former Dublin County Council provided the lion's share of Irish Local Authority Housing, with County Longford having the largest ratio of Local Authority to private housing in the state. Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers or Pikies) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... Local Authority Accommodation has been provided in Ireland by the various County Councils and City Corporations along with Urban District Councils. ... Dublin Corporation is the former name given to the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin between the twelfth century and 1 January 2002. ... Dublin County Council was a local authority for the administrative county of County Dublin in the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Longford Code: LD Area: 1,091 km² Population (2006) 34,361 Website: www. ...


Israel

During the 2005 pullout of Israeli citizens from Gaza, the Israeli government constructed many temporary homes in small neighborhoods close to the border to be used for those displaced by the event. Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


Hong Kong

Main article: public housing estate

In Hong Kong, the government provides public housing through flats which are rented at a lower price than the markets, and through the Home Ownership Scheme, which are sold at a lower price. These are built and administered by the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Hong Kong Housing Society. Nearly half of Hong Kong population live in public housing. Public housing estate (Chinese: ) is the housing estate in Hong Kong, mainly built by Hong Kong Housing Authority and Hong Kong Housing Society. ... Home Ownership Scheme (居者有其屋計劃), is a housing programme in Hong Kong, selling of apartment flats at a price lower than the market, with subsidies on the land value by the government. ... The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HA; Traditional Chinese: 香港房屋委員會; pinyin: Xiānggǎng Fángwū Wěiyuánhuì) is the main provider of public housing in Hong Kong. ... Hong Kong Housing Society (Traditional Chinese: 香港房屋協會) or Housing Society (房屋協會, 房協) for short, is the second largest public housing provider in Hong Kong. ...


Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the rent for the cheaper rental homes is kept low. Such dwellings are known as socialehuurwoningen. As such, non-profit (but non-governmental) housing societies (toegelaten instellingen) are the only ones venturing into that market segment, although the sub-contracted corperations are run purely for profit. Although the Dutch socialistic mentality remains prevalent, as do high taxes,the vast majority of the low-rent apartments(formerly state-owned) in the Netherlands are owned by such agencies.


New Zealand

Main article: state housing

In New Zealand, public housing, known as state housing, was introduced in 1937 for citizens unable to afford private rents. In New Zealand state housing is the system of public housing offered to citizens unable to afford private rents. ...


Singapore

HDB flats in Singapore.
HDB flats in Singapore.

In Singapore, public housing is managed by the Housing and Development Board. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Housing and Development Board. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2216 KB) Summary Top view of Bukit Batok, Singapore. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2216 KB) Summary Top view of Bukit Batok, Singapore. ... It has been suggested that Public housing in Singapore be merged into this article or section. ...


Most of the residential housing developments in Singapore are publicly governed and developed. Most of the residents in public housing are owners rather than tenants (as it originally was in the 60s).


Since most of Singaporeans reside in public housing, public housing in Singapore as such is not generally considered as a sign of poverty or lower standards of living as compared to public housing in other countries (Australia, England etc) where land constraint is a non-issue and property pricing is significantly cheaper in terms of cost per square metre. Property prices for the smallest public housing can often be higher than privately owned and developed standalone properties (Townhouse, apartment unit etc.) in other countries after currency correlation.


Spain

The aversive mentality of the Spaniards to rental houses and government spending cuts in the 80's have dropped "viviendas de protección pública" to minimum. They were common in the Francisco Franco (1936-75) era. Now that lack of housing is a social problem, especially with the high rise of house prices, many sectors are currently asking for more public houses to rent. General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Sweden

Main article: Million Programme

The Million Programme (Miljonprogrammet) is the familiar term for an ambitious housing programme implemented in Sweden between 1965 and 1974 with the aim of building one million new dwellings in 10 years; in the beginning strongly influenced by the "Garden City" developments in England during the 40's - 50's, but towards the end the developments were mostly built as single family homes along curving streets and cul-de-sacs and/or as immense tower blocks, similar to many residential districts built in Eastern Europe. Most were built detached from pre-existing neighbourhoods, often some distance from the existing urban areas and connected via mass transit to the older developments and city centre. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


United Kingdom

Main article: Council house

In the United Kingdom public housing is often referred to by the British public as "council housing" and "council estate", based on the historical role of district and borough councils in running public housing. Local semi-independent not-for-profit housing associations have begun to operate some of the older council housing estates in the United Kingdom. Despite being not-for-profit, they charge generally higher rents than council properties. More recently the government refers to both as 'Social Housing', and Housing Associations are now referred to as 'Registered Social Landlords' (RSLs). Additionally local planning departments may require private-sector developers to offer "affordable housing" as a condition of planning permission. This accounts for another £700m of Government funding each year for tenants in part of the United Kingdom. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Housing associations in the United Kingdom are independent not-for-profit bodies that provide low cost housing for people in housing need. ... Main article: Town and Country Planning in the United Kingdom Planning permission or planning consent is the permission required in the United Kingdom in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. ...


Governments since the early 1990s have also encouraged "mixed tenure" in regeneration areas and on "new-build" housing estates, offering a range of ownership and rental options, with a view to engineering social harmony through including "social housing" and "affordable housing" options. A recent research report[1] has argued that the evidence base for tenure mixing remains thin. Housing tenure refers to the financial arrangements under which someone has the right to live in a house or apartment. ... Affordable housing is a dwelling where the total housing costs are affordable to those living in that housing unit. ...


See also

Affordable housing is a dwelling where the total housing costs are affordable to those living in that housing unit. ... In 1978, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developments (HUDs) Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) established HUD USER, an information source for housing and community development researchers, academics, policymakers, and the American public. ... The Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse (RBC) collects, processes, assembles, and disseminates information on existing barriers that inhibit the production and conservation of affordable housing. ... The Social Housing Services Corporation (SHSC) was created in the Province of Ontario in 2002 to provide group services for social housing providers (public housing, non-profit housing and co-operative housing) following the downloading of responsibility for over 270,000 social housing units to local municipalities. ... Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. ...

External links

  • The Social Housing Services Corporation (SHSC)
  • HUD USER
  • Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse
  • Website of a radical South African shack dwellers' movement campaigning for public housing

References

  1. ^ [1] Paper by Dr. Rebecca Tunstall on tenure mixing

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