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Encyclopedia > Public house
A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England
A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England

A public house, usually known as a pub, is an establishment which serves alcoholic drinks — especially beer — for consumption on the premises, usually in a comfortable setting. Pubs are commonly found in English-speaking countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada... The following is a list of Notable British public houses. ... A thatched pub, the Williams Arms at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England. ... A thatched pub, the Williams Arms at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England. ... A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England “thatch” redirects here. ... Wrafton is a village on the outskirts of Braunton in North Devon, England. ... Braunton is situated 4 miles west of Barnstaple in north Devon, and is claimed to be the largest village in England (although Kidlington is several times bigger). ... See also North Devon (UK Parliament constituency) North Devon is a local government district in Devon, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Public house Camden Town Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Public house Camden Town Metadata This... The Worlds End is a pub in Camden High Street in Camden Town, London, just south of Camden Town tube station. ... For other uses of Camden, see Camden. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ...


In North America, drinking establishments with a British or Irish name or theme are called pubs as well; the appellation "pub" itself is often a component of this theme. Although the terms may have different connotations, there is no definitive difference between pubs, bars, taverns and lounges where alcohol is served commercially. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Singles bar redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Traditionally, a pub which offers lodging may be called an inn or (more recently) hotel in the UK. Today many pubs, in the UK and Australia in particular, with the word "inn" or "hotel" in their name no longer offer accommodation, or in some cases have never done so. Some pubs often bear the name of "hotel" because they are in countries where stringent anti-drinking laws were once in force. Until 1976 in Scotland only hotels could serve alcohol on Sundays;[1] in Australia, this restriction operated all through the week. 1. ... Inns are establishments where travellers can procure food, drink, and lodging. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...

Contents

Overview

There are approximately 60,000 public houses in the United Kingdom, with one in almost every city, town and village. In many places, especially in villages, a pub can be the focal point of the community, playing a similar role to the local church in this respect. Lots of people use pubs as a focal point of getting drunk with their mates; sometimes after a sporting event such as watching the local football team, as part of a pub crawl, or both. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2115 KB) A pub near Haymarket, Edinburgh, Scotland Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Public house ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2115 KB) A pub near Haymarket, Edinburgh, Scotland Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Public house ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


Public houses are culturally and socially different from places such as cafés, bars, bierkellers and brewpubs. Cafe redirects here. ... Singles bar redirects here. ... Beer halls are large pubs that specialize in beer. ... A brewpub is a microbrewery, often combined with a restaurant, that sells the majority of its beer on premises. ...


Pubs are social places based on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and most public houses offer a range of beers, wines, spirits, alcopops and soft drinks. Many pubs are controlled by breweries, so beer is often better value than wines and spirits, whilst soft drinks can be almost as expensive. Beer served in a pub may be cask ale or keg beer. All pubs also have a range of non-alcoholic beverages available. Traditionally the windows of town pubs are of smoked or frosted glass so that the clientèle is obscured from the street. In the last twenty years in the UK and other countries there has been a move away from frosted glass towards clear glass, a trend which fits in with brighter interior décors. Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Spirits redirects here. ... Alcopop is a term coined by the popular media of the United Kingdom to describe alcoholic soft drinks. In the alcohol industry they are known as RTDs (ready to drink) or FABs (Flavoured Alcoholic Beverages). ... Cask ales on racks Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned and served from a cask, usually without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure. ... A typical half-keg with single opening in the centre of the top end Keg beer is a term for beer which is served from a pressurized keg. ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ...


The owner, tenant or manager (licensee) of a public house is known as the publican or landlord. Each pub generally has regulars, people who drink there regularly. The pub that people visit most often is called their local. In many cases, this will be the pub nearest to their home, but some people choose their local for other reasons: proximity to work, a traditional venue for their friends, the availability of a particular cask ale, non-smoking or formerly as a place to smoke freely, or maybe a darts team or pool table. No Smoking sign. ... For the British doo-wop revival band of the 1970s and 1980s, see Darts (band). ... This article is about the various cue sports. ...


A society with a particular interest in the traditional British beers and the preservation of the 'integrity' of the public house is the Campaign for Real Ale, (CAMRA). The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent, voluntary, consumer organisation in the United Kingdom whose main aim is promoting real ale and the traditional British pub. ...


History

The inhabitants of the UK have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Romans and the establishment of the Roman road network that the first inns, in which the traveller could obtain refreshment, began to appear. By the time the Romans left, the beginnings of the modern pub had been established. They became so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Not to be confused with Romans road. ... March 1 - Pope Leo VIII is restored in place of Pope Benedict V October 1 - Pope John XIII succeeds Pope Leo VIII as the 133rd pope. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ...


The Royal Standard of England, a pub near Beaconsfield, England, is a present-day survivor that grew from a Saxon alehouse. [1] The Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let people know her brew was ready. As well as strong ale, small ale was made. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but later a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel. The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. Beaconsfield is a market town in Buckinghamshire, England lying almost 25 miles NW of London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Small beer (also, small ale) is a beer/ale that contains very little alcohol, perhaps less than one percent. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... The Worshipful Company of Innholders is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ...

The interior of a typical English pub, showing three common features: the bar (left), an old-fashioned fireplace (left of centre), and a modern fruit machine (right)
The interior of a typical English pub, showing three common features: the bar (left), an old-fashioned fireplace (left of centre), and a modern fruit machine (right)

Traditional English ale was made solely from fermented malt. The practice of adding hops to produce beer was introduced from the Netherlands in the early 15th century. Alehouses would each brew their own distinctive ale, but independent breweries began to appear in the late 17th century. By the end of the century almost all beer was brewed by commercial breweries. The interior of a typical English pub, in this case the Penruddocke Arms, which lies between Dinton and Wilton in Wiltshire. ... The interior of a typical English pub, in this case the Penruddocke Arms, which lies between Dinton and Wilton in Wiltshire. ... Winter (fireplace), tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a fire, generally for heating but sometimes also for cooking. ... Slot machines in the Trump Taj Mahal A slot machine (American English), fruit machine (British English), or poker machine (Australian English) is a certain type of casino game. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments, primarily due to the introduction of gin. Gin was brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and started to become very popular after the government created a market for grain that was unfit to be used in brewing by allowing unlicensed gin production, whilst imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits. As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and because of its cheapness it became popular with the poor leading to the so-called Gin Craze. Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin-shops. Gin and tonic. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... This European history-related article is a stub. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to ruination and degradation of the working classes. The distinction was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane. The Gin Act (1736) imposed high taxes on retailers but led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The 1751 Gin Act however was more successful. It forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin-shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates. William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... William Hogarth produced the twin engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane at the height of what became known as the London Gin Craze in 1751. ... Gin Lane William Hogarth produced the twin engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane at the height of what became known as the London Gin Craze in 1751. ...


Licensing and records

The Wine and Beerhouse Act 1869 re-introduced the stricter controls of the previous century. The sale of beers, wines or spirits required a licence for the premises from the local magistrates. Further provisions regulated gaming, drunkenness, prostitution and undesirable conduct on licensed premises, enforceable by prosecution or more effectively by the landlord under threat of forfeiting his licence. Licences were only granted, transferred or renewed at special Licensing Sessions courts, and were limited to respectable individuals (initially often ex-servicemen or police). Licence conditions varied widely, according to local practice. They would specify permitted hours, which might require Sunday closing, or conversely permit all-night opening near a market. Typically they might require opening throughout the permitted hours, and the provision of food or lavatories. Once obtained, licences were jealously protected by the licensees (always individuals expected to be generally present, not a remote owner or company), and even "Occasional Licences" to serve drinks at temporary premises such as fêtes would usually be granted only to existing licensees. Objections might be made by the police, rival landlords or anyone else on the grounds of infractions such as serving drunks, disorderly or dirty premises, or ignoring permitted hours. However licensing was gradually liberalised after the 1960s, until contested licensing applications became very rare, and the remaining administrative function was transferred to Local Authorities in 2005. A magistrate is a civil or criminal (or both) judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Detailed records were kept on licensing, giving the Public House, its address, owner, licensee and misdemeanours of the licensees for periods often going back for hundreds of years. Many of these records survive and can be viewed, for example, at the London Metropolitan Archives centre. The London Metropolitan Archives are the main archives of the Corporation of London. ...

The Eagle, City Road, Islington, London, September 2005
The Eagle, City Road, Islington, London, September 2005

By the end of the 18th century a new room in the pub was established: the saloon. Beer establishments had always provided entertainment of some sort — singing, gaming or a sport. Balls Pond Road in Islington was named after an establishment run by Mr Ball that had a pond at the rear filled with ducks, where drinkers could, for a certain fee, go out and take their chance at shooting the fowl. More common, however, was a card room or a billiards room. The saloon was a room where for an admission fee or a higher price of drinks, singing, dancing, drama or comedy was performed and drinks would be served at the table. From this came the popular music hall form of entertainment—a show consisting of a variety of acts. A most famous London saloon was the Grecian Saloon in The Eagle, City Road, which is still famous these days because of an English nursery rhyme: "Up and down the City Road / In and out The Eagle / That's the way the money goes / Pop goes the weasel.". The implication being that, having frequented the Eagle public house, the customer spent all his money, and thus needed to 'pawn' his 'weasel' to get some more. The exact definition of the 'weasel' is unclear but the two most likely definitions are: that a weasel is a flat iron used for finishing clothing; or that 'weasel' is cockney rhyming slang for a coat (weasel and stoat). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1453 KB) Description: The Eagle pub, City Road, London, mentioned in nursery rhyme Pop goes the weasel Photographer: User:Justinc File links The following pages link to this file: City Road Pop Goes the Weasel Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1453 KB) Description: The Eagle pub, City Road, London, mentioned in nursery rhyme Pop goes the weasel Photographer: User:Justinc File links The following pages link to this file: City Road Pop Goes the Weasel Metadata This file contains additional... City Road is a road in central London, usually referred to by Londoners as the City Road. At its western extremity it starts at the Angel, Islington, as the continuation of Pentonville Road and continues roughly south-east till it passes Moorfields Eye Hospital, when it bears closer to south... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... A fowl is a bird of any kind, although some types of birds use the word specifically in their names (for example, Guineafowl and Peafowl). ... Billiard (as a noun, adjective or verb) may refer to: A type of shot in cue sports (such as pool, carom billiards and snooker) The traditional European name for the number 1015 in mathematics (called quadrillion in modern science) A dynamical system of particle trajectories within a closed reflective boundary... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... City Road is a road in central London, usually referred to by Londoners as the City Road. At its western extremity it starts at the Angel, Islington, as the continuation of Pentonville Road and continues roughly south-east till it passes Moorfields Eye Hospital, when it bears closer to south... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... This article is about the nursery rhyme. ... Cockney rhyming slang is a form of English slang which originated in the East End of London. ...


A few pubs have stage performances, such as serious drama, stand-up comedians, a musical band or striptease; however juke boxes and other forms pre-recorded music have otherwise replaced the musical tradition of a piano and singing. For other uses, see Striptease (disambiguation). ... A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ...


By the 20th century, the saloon, or lounge bar, had settled into a middle class room — carpets on the floor, cushions on the seats, and a penny or two on the prices, while the public bar, or tap room, remained working class with bare boards, sometimes with sawdust to absorb the spitting, hard seats, and cheap beer.


Later, the public bars gradually improved until sometimes almost the only difference was in the prices, so that customers could choose between economy and exclusivity (or youth and age, or a jukebox or dartboard). During the blurring of the class divisions in the 1960s and 70s, the distinction between the saloon and the public bar was often seen as archaic, and was frequently abolished, usually by the removal of the dividing wall or partition itself. While the names of saloon and public bar may still be seen on the doors of pubs, the prices (and often the standard of furnishings and decoration) are the same throughout the premises, and many pubs now comprises one large room. However, the issues of smoking and eating encourage some pubs to maintain distinct rooms or areas, especially where the building requires it, and in a few pubs there still remain rooms or seats which by local custom "belong" to particular customers. A Zodiac jukebox A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ... Standardized dart board. ...


In July 2007, a law was introduced to forbid smoking in all enclosed public places in England and Wales. The most striking result of this legislation has been the end of the smoky atmosphere that has characterised the public house.


UK opening hours and regulation

From the middle of the 19th century restrictions were placed on the opening hours of licensed premises in the UK. These culminated in the Defence of the Realm Act of August 1914, which, along with the introduction of rationing and the censorship of the press, also restricted the opening hours of public houses to 12noon–2.30pm and 6.30pm–9.30pm. Opening for the full licensed hours was compulsory, and closing time was equally firmly enforced by the police; a landlord might lose his licence for infractions. There was a special case established under the State Management Scheme[2] where the brewery and licensed premises were bought and run by the state until 1973, most notably in the Carlisle District. During the twentieth century elsewhere, both the licensing laws and enforcement were progressively relaxed, and there were differences between parishes; in the 1960s, at closing time in Kensington at 10.30pm, drinkers would rush over the parish boundary to be in good time for "Last Orders" in Knightsbridge before 11pm, a tradition observed in many pubs adjoining licensing area boundaries. Some Scots and Welsh parishes remained officially "dry" on Sundays (although often this merely required knocking at the back door of the pub). However, closing times were increasingly disregarded in the country pubs. In England and Wales by 2000 pubs could legally open from 11am (12 noon on Sundays) through to 11pm (10.30pm on Sundays). That year was also the first to allow continuous opening for 36 hours from 11am on New Year's Eve to 11pm on New Year's Day. In addition, many cities had by-laws to allow some pubs to extend opening hours to midnight or 1am, whilst nightclubs had long been granted late licences to serve alcohol into the morning. A licensing notice, often displayed above an entrance. ... The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom in August 1914, during the early weeks of World War I. It gave the government wide-ranging powers during the war period, such as censorship and the power to requisition buildings or land needed for the war... // The State Management Scheme (known locally as The Scheme) saw the UK government take over and run the brewing, distribution and sale of liquor in three regions of the UK from 1916 until 1973. ... For other uses, see Kensington (disambiguation). ... Knightsbridge is a street and district spanning the City of Westminster and theRoyal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London notable for its eclectic mix of rich, famous, and international residents including several billionaires Roman Abramovich, oligarchs from Russia, China and India, international businessman Lord Marshall of Knightsbridge, trend setters Charles... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Scotland's and Northern Ireland's licensing laws have long been more flexible, allowing local authorities to set pub opening and closing times. In Scotland, this stemmed out of a late repeal of the wartime licensing laws, which stayed in force until 1976.


The Licensing Act 2003, which came into force on November 24, 2005, aimed to consolidate the many laws into a single act. This now allows pubs in England and Wales to apply to the local authority for opening hours of their choice. This has proved controversial, with supporters arguing that it will end the concentration of violence around half past 11, when people must leave the pub, making policing easier. Critics claimed that these laws will lead to '24-hour drinking'. By the day before the law came into force, 60,326 establishments had applied for longer hours, and 1,121 had applied for a licence to sell alcohol 24 hours a day [2]. However, nine months after the act many pubs had not changed their hours, although there is a growing tendency for some to be open longer at the weekend but rarely beyond 0100. The Licensing Act 2003 (2003 c. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country. ...


Games and sports

Main article: Pub games

Traditional games are played in pubs, ranging from the well-known darts, skittles, dominoes, cards and bar billiards, to the more obscure Aunt Sally, Nine Men's Morris and ringing the bull. Betting is legally limited to certain games such as cribbage or dominoes, but these are now rarely seen. In recent decades the game of pool (both the British and American versions) has increased in popularity, other table based games such as snooker, Table Football are also common. It has been suggested that Pub sports be merged into this article or section. ... For the British doo-wop revival band of the 1970s and 1980s, see Darts (band). ... Skittles (sport) is the sport from which bowling originated. ... Domino redirects here. ... The term card has many different meanings. ... Bar billiards is a form of billiards which was possibly initially based on the traditional game of bagatelle. ... An Aunt Sally is a term for something that is put up as a target for criticism. ... Nine Mens Morris is an abstract strategy board game for two players that emerged from the Roman Empire. ... Ringing the bull is a pub game. ... For the pocket billiards game of the same name, see Cribbage (pool). ... This article is about the American-style game. ... Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a large baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. ... Table football (Bonzini style table). ...


Increasingly, more modern games such as video games and slot machines are provided. Many pubs also hold special events, from tournaments of the aforementioned games to karaoke nights to pub quizzes. Some play pop music, or show football and rugby union on big screen televisions. Shove ha'penny and Bat and trap was also popular in pubs south of London. Computer and video games redirects here. ... Slot machines in the Trump Taj Mahal A slot machine (American English), fruit machine (British English), or poker machine (Australian English) is a certain type of casino game. ... A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a single sport or game. ... For other uses see Karaoke (disambiguation) A karaoke machine Karaoke from Japanese kara, empty or void, and ōkesutora, orchestra) (pronounced IPA: or ; in Japanese IPA: ;  ) is a form of entertainment in which amateur singers sing along with recorded music using a microphone and a PA system. ... A pub quiz is a quiz held in a pub. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Shove hapenny (or shove halfpenny) is a traditional game with historic links to coinarama. ... Bat and trap is an ancient English ball game related to cricket and played at country pubs in the county of Kent. ...


Food

A US pub in downtown Atlanta, Georgia.
A US pub in downtown Atlanta, Georgia.

Traditionally pubs in England were drinking establishments and little emphasis was placed on the serving of food, usually called 'bar snacks'. The usual fare consisted of specialised English snack food such as pork scratchings, pickled eggs, along with crisps and peanuts—salted snacks sold or given away to increase customers' thirst. If a pub served meals they were usually basic dishes such as a ploughman's lunch. In South East England (especially London) it was common until recent times for vendors selling cockles, whelks, mussels and other shellfish, to sell to customers during the evening and at closing time. Many mobile shellfish stalls would set up near to popular pubs, a practice that continues in London's East End. Image File history File links Oterrills. ... Image File history File links Oterrills. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... A snack food (commonly shortened to snack) is seen in Western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main meal of the day (breakfast, lunch, dinner) but one that is intended rather to assuage a persons hunger between these meals, providing a brief... Pork scratchings or pork cracklings are a popular snack food in some parts of the United Kingdom. ... For the record label see Pickled Egg Records Pickled eggs are hard boiled shelled eggs which have been preserved by pickling. ... Saratoga chips Potato chips (British English or Hiberno-English: crisps) are slim slices of potatoes deep fried or baked until crisp. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the legume. ... A ploughmans lunch is a cold snack or meal, featuring at a minimum, a thick piece of cheese (usually Cheddar, Stilton, or other local cheese), pickle (often Branston Pickle, sometimes piccalilli and/or pickled onions), crusty bap or chunk of bread, and butter. ... Genera Acanthocardia Americardia Cardium Cerastoderma Clinocardium Corculum Ctenocardia Dinocardium Discors Fragum Fulvia Laevicardium Lophocardiium Lyrocardium Lunulicardia Microcardium Nemocardium Papyridea Parvicardium Plagiocardium Ringicardium Trachycardium Trigoniocardia Serripes Cockles are the family Cardiidae of bivalve mollusks. ... A whelk is a large marine gastropod (snail) found in temperate waters. ... Mussels A mussel is a bivalve shellfish that can be found in lakes, rivers, creeks, intertidal areas, and throughout the ocean. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ...


Food has become more important as part of a pub's trade and today most pubs serve lunches and dinners at the table (colloquially this is known in England as pub grub) in addition to (or instead of) snacks consumed at the bar. They may have a separate dining room. Some pubs serve excellent meals which can rival a good restaurant's. A pub which claims to focus on quality food (perhaps rather than necessarily on good beer) will now call itself a gastropub. The growth in importance of food, and the appeal of eating informally in a pub rather than with the formality expected in a restaurant, has led to some establishments giving all tables over to food and removing the bar stools (even though a visitor expecting a quick drink and a conversation at the bar is likely to receive short shrift at such places, there is no legal bar to such a licensed restaurant calling itself a pub). Lunch is an abbreviation of luncheon, meaning a midday meal. ... An amount of formality may be present at a dinner Dinner is a meal eaten in the evening. ... A pie, along with a pint, as served in a pub Pub grub is food that is typically found in a British or Australian pub. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... The Eagle, the first pub to which the term gastropub was applied Gastropub ready meal from Marks & Spencer A gastropub is a British term for a public house (pub) which specializes in high-quality food a step above the more basic pub grub. ...


Signs

The pub sign of The George, Southwark depicting St George slaying a Dragon
The pub sign of The George, Southwark depicting St George slaying a Dragon
"Quo sursum volo videre" - Where I want to look further. Latin pub inscription
"Quo sursum volo videre" - Where I want to look further. Latin pub inscription

In 1393 King Richard II compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises. The legislation stated "Whosoever shall brew ale in the town with intention of selling it must hang out a sign, otherwise he shall forfeit his ale." This was in order to make them easily visible to passing inspectors who would decide the quality of the ale they provided. Image File history File links Thegeorgesouthwarksign. ... Image File history File links Thegeorgesouthwarksign. ... A grammatically incorrect sign, posted at the back door of a pizza shop in Niagara Falls, Canada. ... The George and Dragon as it was formerly known was established in the medieval period on Borough High Street in Southwark. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (773x987, 235 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Public house ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (773x987, 235 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Public house ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... A grammatically incorrect sign, posted at the back door of a pizza shop in Niagara Falls, Canada. ...


Another important factor was that during the Middle Ages a large percentage of the population would have been illiterate and so pictures were more useful than words as a means of identifying a public house. For this reason there was often no reason to write the establishment's name on the sign and inns opened without a formal written name—the name being derived later from the illustration on the public house's sign. World illiteracy rates by country Literacy is the ability to read and write. ...


The earliest signs were often not painted but consisted, for example, of paraphernalia connected with the brewing process such as bunches of hops or brewing implements, which were suspended above the door of the public house. In some cases local nicknames, farming terms and puns were also used. Local events were also often commemorated in pub signs. Look up Paraphernalia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Simple natural or religious symbols such as the 'The Sun', 'The Star' and 'The Cross' were also incorporated into pub signs, sometimes being adapted to incorporate elements of the heraldry (e.g. the coat of arms) of the local lords who owned the lands upon which the public house stood. Some pubs also have Latin inscriptions (see image). Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...


Other subjects which lent themselves to visual depiction included the name of battles (e.g. Trafalgar), explorers, local notables, discoveries, sporting heroes and members of the royal family. Some pub signs are in the form of a pictorial pun or rebus. For example, a pub in Crowborough, UK called The Crow and Gate has an image of a crow with gates as wings. Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ... Rebus Principle (Linguistics) is using the existing symbols, such as pictograms, purely for their sounds regardless of their meaning, to represent new words. ... Crowborough is the largest inland town in East Sussex, United Kingdom. ...


Most British pubs still have decorated signs hanging over their doors, and these retain their original function of enabling the identification of the public house. Today's pub signs almost always bear the name of the pub, both in words and in pictorial representation.


Names

Main article: Pub names

Pubs often have traditional names. Here is a list of categories: The sign of the Saracens Head in Broad Street, Bath, England The names of public houses have a story behind them. ... The Names of Public Houses all have a story behind them even if that story is merely that a marketer thought that the name would be memorable. ...

Farewell to the Nowhere Inn Particular
Farewell to the Nowhere Inn Particular
  • relating to its location: The Three Arrows, The Cross, The Railway, The Church
  • reflecting local trades or related to the pub's clientele: The Mason's Arms, The Foresters, The Square and Compass
  • ironic descriptions of the pub itself: the smallest pub in Britain is called The Nutshell
  • local sporting activities: The Cricketers, The Fox and Hounds, The Fighting Cocks
  • a noted individual: The Marquis of Granby (see below), The Lord Nelson, The Emma Hamilton
  • an historic event: The Trafalgar, The Royal Oak
  • often incorporating the word 'Head'; The King's Head, The Queen's Head, The Sultan's Head
  • alluding amusingly to everyday phrases: The Nowhere Inn Particular (now closed, see picture), The Dewdrop Inn, The Drift Inn (known locally as the "stagger oot"), Down The Hatch
  • with a royal or aristocratic association: The Royal Standard, The King's Arms, The King's Head, The Queen Victoria, The Duke of Cambridge, The Anglesea Arms
  • with the names of two objects which may or may not be complementary: The George and Dragon, The Goat and Compasses (humorous corruption of the puritan phrase "God encompass" of the 1600s in England), The Rose and Crown, The Dog and Handgun, The Elephant and Castle, The Crow and Gate, The Rummer and Grapes.
  • The surname of its landlord, particularly in Ireland: O'Neill's, Tí hAnraí (Henry's house).
  • with names of tools or products of trades: The Harrow, The Propeller, The Wheatsheaf
  • with names of items, particularly animals, that may be part of a coat of arms (heraldic charges): The Red Lion, The Unicorn, The White Bear.
  • with reference to history of the local area, for example The Strugglers in Lincoln refers to how people being publicly executed by hanging would struggle for air. Ironically the famous executioner Albert Pierrepoint was landlord of the Help the Poor Struggler at Hollinwood, near Oldham, for several years after WW2, and had to hang one of his own regulars, James Corbitt. Also Ye olde Trip to Jerusalem, (Nottingham, 1189), refers to its role as a resting place for the knights of Richard I on their way to the third crusade.

A very common name is the "Marquis of Granby". John Manners, Marquess of Granby was the son of John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland) and a general in the 18th century British Army. He showed a great concern for the welfare of his men, and on their retirement, provided funds for many of them to establish taverns, which were subsequently named after him. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 806 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 806 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Red Lion is widely regarded as the most common name for a English pub. ... Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... Albert Pierrepoint (30 March 1905 – 10 July 1992) is the most famous member of a Yorkshire family who provided three of Britains Chief Executioners in the first half of the 20th century. ... Front of Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem Ye Olde Trip To Jerusalem is one of the 20 public houses (including three in Nottingham) which claim to be the oldest drinking establishment in Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... John Manners, Marquess of Granby (1721 - October 18, 1770), British soldier, was the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland. ... John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland (October 21,1696 - May 29,1779) succeeded to the title in 1721, cutting short a brief career in the House of Commons, where he had represented Rutland as a Whig. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Many names for pubs that appear nonsensical may have come from corruptions of older names or phrases, often producing a visual image to signify the pub. For example, the name The Goat and Compasses is a corruption of the phrase "God encompasseth us". These images had particular importance for identifying a pub on signs and other media before literacy became widespread. Another example of a mistaken pub name is the Oyster Reach pub in Ipswich, England. This pub spent several decades being called the Ostrich, before historians informed the owners of the original name. More possible but uncorroborated corruptions include "The Bag o'Nails" (Bacchanals), "Elephant and Castle", (Infanta de Castile) and "The Bull and Bush", which purportedly celebrates the victory of Henry VIII at "Boulougne Bouche" or Boulougne Harbour. While these corruptions are amusing there are usually more substantiated explanations available. The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... Infanta de Castile or Infanta of Castile is said to refer to Eleanor of Castile, Edward Is wife, although she was not actually an infanta. ...


A too-obviously humorous name is likely to be a recent coining of a marketing executive, rather than traditional. This is especially true for names with unsubtle double-entendres or names which have elements common to all the pubs in a particular chain (eg "XXXX and Firkin"). A double entendre is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ...


Tied houses and free houses in Britain

A modern PubCo
Main articles: Tied house, Free house, and Pub chain

After the development of the large London porter breweries in the 18th century, the trend grew for pubs to become tied houses which could only sell beer from one brewery (a pub not tied in this way was called a "free house"). The usual arrangement for a tied house was that the pub was owned by the brewery but rented out to a private individual (landlord) who ran it as a separate business (even though contracted to buy the beer from the brewery). A growing trend in the late 20th century was for the brewery to run their pubs directly, employing a salaried manager (who perhaps could make extra money by commission, or by selling food). Image File history File links Eerie-logo. ... Image File history File links Eerie-logo. ... In the UK a tied house is a public house that is owned and operated by a brewery. ... A free house is when M Norms parents go away. ... Not to be confused with Pub crawl. ... In the UK a tied house is a public house that is owned and operated by a brewery. ...


Most such breweries, such as the regional breweries Shepherd Neame in Kent and Youngs in London, control hundreds of pubs in a particular region of the UK, whilst a few, such as Greene King, are spread nationally. The landlord of a tied pub may be an employee of the brewery—in which case he would be a manager of a managed house, or a self-employed tenant who has entered into a lease agreement with a brewery, a condition of which is the legal obligation (trade tie) only to purchase that brewery's beer. This tied agreement provides tenants with trade premises at a below market rent providing people with a low-cost entry into self-employment. The beer selection is mainly limited to beers brewed by that particular company. A Supply of Beer law, passed in 1989, was aimed at getting tied houses to offer at least one alternative beer, known as a guest beer, from another brewery.This law has now been repealed but while in force it dramatically altered the industry. Regional brewery is a term used in the UK to decribe a long established brewery that supplied beer to tied pubs in a fixed geographical location such as South Wales, The Midlands or the Isle of Man. ... Shepherd Neame is an English regional brewery founded in 1698 by Richard Marsh in Faversham Kent. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Youngs is a brewer based in London. ... Greene King is a brewery in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, UK. There is a visitor centre next door to the brewery. ... A landlord, is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... In 1989, licencing legislation passed by Margaret Thatchers Conservative government made it possible for a Tied pub to stock at least one Guest Beer from a different brewery. ... The entrance of a brewery. ...


The period since the 1980s saw many breweries absorbed by, or becoming by take-overs, larger companies in the food, hotel or property sectors. The low returns of a pub-owning business led to many breweries selling their pub estates, especially those in cities, often to a new generation of small chains, many of which have now grown considerably and have a national presence. Other chains, such as All Bar One and Pitcher and Piano offer youth-oriented atmospheres, often in premises larger than traditional pubs.


A free house is a pub that is free of the control of any one particular brewery. "Free" in this context does not necessarily mean "independent", and the view that "free house" on a pub sign is a guarantee of a quality, range or type of beer available is a mistake. Many free houses are not independent family businesses but are owned by large pub companies. In fact, these days there are very few truly free houses, either because a private pub owner has had to come to a financial arrangement with a brewer or other company in order to fund the purchase of the pub, or simply because the pub is owned by one of the large pub chains and pub companies (PubCos) which have sprung up in recent years. Some chains have rather uniform pubs and products, some allow managers some freedom. Wetherspoons, one of the largest pub chains does sell large amounts of a wide variety of real ale at low prices - but its pubs are not specifically "real ale pubs", being in the city centre to attract the Saturday night crowds and so also selling large quantities of alcopops and big-brand lager to large groups of young people. A free house is when M Norms parents go away. ... The Moon Under Water in Hounslow J. D. Wetherspoon plc (LSE: JDW) (commonly referred to as Wetherspoons or spoons) is a British pub chain founded by Tim Martin. ...


Companies and chains

Organisations such as Wetherspoons and Eerie, were formed in the UK since changes in legislation in the 1980s necessitated the break-up of many larger tied estates. A PubCo is a company involved in the retailing but not the manufacture of beverages, while a pub chain may be run either by a PubCo or by a brewery. If the owning company is not a brewery, then the pub is technically a free house, however limited the manager is in his/her beer-buying choice. The Moon Under Water in Hounslow J. D. Wetherspoon plc (LSE: JDW) (commonly referred to as Wetherspoons or spoons) is a British pub chain founded by Tim Martin. ...


Pubs within a chain will usually have items in common, such as fittings, promotions, ambience and range of food and drink on offer. A pub chain will position itself in the marketplace for a target audience. One company may run several pub chains aimed at different segments of the market. Pubs for use in a chain are bought and sold in large units, often from regional breweries which are then closed down. Newly acquired pubs are often renamed by the new owners, and many people resent the loss of traditional names, especially if their favourite regional beer disappears at the same time. A small number of pub chains (usually small ones) are noted for the independence they grant their managers, and hence the wide range of beers available. A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ...


Popular culture

Inns and taverns feature throughout English literature and poetry, from Chaucer onwards. All the major soap operas on British television feature a pub, with their 'pub' becoming a household name. The Rovers Return is the pub on Coronation Street, the British 'soap' broadcast on ITV. The Queen Vic (short for the Queen Victoria) is the pub on EastEnders, the major 'soap' on BBC One, while The Bull in The Archers and the Woolpack on Emmerdale are also central meeting points. The sets of each of the three major television soap operas have been visited by royalty, including Queen Elizabeth II. The centrepiece of each visit was a trip into the Rovers, the Vic or the Woolpack to be offered a drink. Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coronation Street is an award-winning British soap opera. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... When the soap began the outside of The Vic was painted brown. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... EastEnders is a popular BBC television soap opera, first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC1 on 19 February 1985[4] and continuing to date. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 1. ... The Archers is a British radio soap opera broadcast on the BBCs main spoken-word channel, Radio 4. ... The Woolpack The Woolpack is a fictional public house on the popular ITV soap opera Emmerdale. ... For the 1994 debut album by The Cardigans, see Emmerdale (album). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Much of the plotline in British film Shaun of the Dead involves the characters trying to reach their local public house, The Winchester, to escape a zombie invasion. Shaun (Simon Pegg) and Ed (Nick Frost) advocate the pub as the perfect location to wait for help because of their selection priorities: It must be a) safe, b) familiar, c) some place where Ed can smoke. Shaun of the Dead is a zombie-themed romantic comedy (or rom zom com as it dubs itself) or zombie comedy released in 2004. ... This article is about the undead. ... Simon John Pegg (born 14 February 1970 in Gloucester) is an English comedian, writer and film and television actor. ... Nicholas John Frost (born March 28, 1972 in Romford, London) is an English actor and comedian famous for his work with Simon Pegg. ...


British comedian Al Murray's best-known character is a comic right-wing bigot, The Pub Landlord, not necessarily a representation of the southern-English pub landlord. Al Murray (born May 10, 1968) is an English comedian best known for his stand-up persona, the Pub Landlord, a stereotypical xenophobic public house licensee, and indeed earlier in his career he performed in pubs as though it were genuinely his gaff. Murray has toured with other comedians (including...


US president George W. Bush fulfilled his ambition of visiting a 'genuine English pub' during his November 2003 state visit to the UK when he had lunch and a pint of non-alcoholic lager with British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the Dun Cow pub in Sedgefield, County Durham. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... In English folklore, the Dun Cow of Dunsmore Heath was a savage beast slain by Sir Guy, Earl of Warwick. ... For other uses, see Sedgefield (disambiguation). ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ...


Music

While many pubs now play piped pop music, the Pub has historically been a popular venue for live song. See: For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ...

The pub has also been celebrated in popular music. Examples are "Hurry Up Harry" by the 1970s punk rock act Sham 69, the chorus of which was the chant "We're going down the pub" repeated several times. Another such song is "Two Pints Of Lager and a Packet of Crisps Please!" by UK punk band Splodgenessabounds. Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement, largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend on Sea. ... In English popular culture, the traditional pub songs typified by the Cockney knees up mostly come from the classics of the Music Hall, along with numbers from film, the stage and other forms of popular music. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. ... Splodgenessabounds were a United Kingdom punk band. ...


As a reaction against piped music, the Quiet Pub Guide was written, telling its readers where to go to avoid piped music.


Themes

Pubs that cater for a niche audience, such as sports fans or people of certain nationalities are known as theme pubs. Examples of theme pubs include sports bars, rock pubs, biker pubs, Goth pubs, strip pubs, and Irish pubs (see below). Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ...


In the U.S., almost all drinking establishments called "pubs" are simply bars with an Irish or British theme.[citation needed]


Ireland

O'Donoghue's Pub, Dublin, Ireland

Superficially there is little difference between an Irish pub and its UK counterpart. However, closer scrutiny will reveal some differences. Pub frontages are generally plainer and less ornamented than their British counterparts are, and hanging signs are absent, with the name of the pub or proprietor being displayed above the door. The use of the term "bar" for a pub is more common in Ireland than in the UK. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1843 KB)ODonoghues Pub Dublin Ireland Taken Kglavin Feb 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Public house Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1843 KB)ODonoghues Pub Dublin Ireland Taken Kglavin Feb 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Public house Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ...


Prior to the 1960s and the arrival of supermarket and grocery chains in the country; Irish pubs usually operated as a 'Spirit grocery', combining the running of pub with a grocery, hardware or other ancillary business on the same premises (in some cases, publicans also acted as undertakers, and this unusual combination is still common today in the Republic of Ireland)[3][4]. A pub in Abbeyleix, Morrisey's, is representative of the traditional spirit grocers. Spirit groceries first appeared in the mid 18th Century, when a growing temperance movement in Ireland forced publicans to diversify their businesses to compensate for declining spirit sales. With the arrival of increased competition in the retail sector, many pubs lost the retail end of their business and concentrated solely on the licensed trade. Many pubs in Ireland still resemble grocer's shops of the 19th Century, with the bar counter and rear shelving taking up the majority of the space in the main bar area, apparently leaving little room for customers. This seemingly counter-productive arrangement is a design artefact dating from prior operation as a spirit grocery, and also accounts for the differing external appearance of English & Irish Pubs. Spirit Grocers in Northern Ireland were forced to choose between either the retail or the licensed trades upon the partition of Ireland in 1922, and this pub type can no longer be found there. Spirit Grocery A type of retail business common in Ireland in the 19th Century and early to mid 20th Century. ... This article is about the vocation of a mortician and the death metal band; for the World Wrestling Entertainment superstar, see The Undertaker. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... The Partition of Ireland took place in May 1921, following the enactment in December 1920 of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, and was accepted in the ratification of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in January 1922 that ended the Anglo-Irish War and the union of the United Kingdom of...


In contrast to England, Ireland's pubs usually bear the name of the current or a previous owner, e.g. Murphy's or O'Connor's, and traditional pub names are absent. Famous traditional pubs in Dublin which have the characteristics outlined above include O'Donoghue's, Doheny & Nesbitt's & the Brazen Head, which bills itself as Ireland's oldest pub (a distinction actually held by Sean's Bar in Athlone). Some pubs are named after famous streets such Sober Lane in Cork which is named after Father Matthew's Hall of Abstinence. Individual pubs are also associated with famous Irish writers and poets such as Patrick Kavanagh, Brendan Behan and James Joyce. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... O’Donoghue’s Pub is a historically significant drinking establishment located near St. ... Seans Bar is a pub in Athlone, Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference N033420 Statistics Province: Leinster & Connaught County: Dáil Éireann: Westmeath European Parliament: East Dialling Code: 090, +353 90 Elevation: 56 m Population (2006) 16,888 Town: 6,970 Rural: 9,918  Website: www. ... Patrick Kavanagh (21 October 1904 - 30 November 1967) was an Irish poet. ... Brendan Francis Behan (Irish: Breandán Ó Beacháin) (February 9, 1923 - March 20, 1964) was an Irish poet, short story writer, novelist and playwright who wrote in both Irish and English. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ...


Pubs in Northern Ireland are largely identical to their southern counterparts. A side effect of the 'Troubles' was that the lack of a tourist industry meant that a higher proportion of traditional bars have survived the wholesale refitting of Irish pub interiors in the English style in the 1950s and 1960s. This refitting was driven by the need to expand seating areas to accommodate the growing numbers of tourists, and was a direct consequence of the growing dependence of the Irish economy on tourism. Traditional pubs in Belfast include the National Trust's Crown Liquor Saloon, and the city's oldest bar, McHugh's. Outside Belfast, pubs such as the House of McDonnell in Ballycastle (a former spirit grocery retaining all the characteristics of the type) and Grace Neill's in Donaghadee are representative of the traditional country pub. The Troubles is a term used to describe two periods of violence in Ireland during the twentieth century. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... The Crown Liquor Saloon The Crown Liquor Saloon is a public house in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... McHughs Bar McHughs Bar is a public house in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The House of McDonnell, Estd. ... Ballycastle (Baile an Chaistil in Irish) is a small town in County Antrim in Northern Ireland. ... Grace Neills. ... Donaghadee Harbour and lighthouse Donaghadee (in Irish: Domhnach Daoi, ie Daoi’s Church) is a small town in County Down, Northern Ireland, situated on the east coast, about 18 miles from Belfast and about eight miles north east of Newtownards. ...


The pubs listed above are truly representative of the traditional Irish type (while some may have been expanded, the original bar areas have been retained in all cases), as few remain today after the extensive refitting noted above. The majority of 'traditional' pubs in Ireland today have been refurbished in a pastiche of the original style during the 1990s. Many Irish pubs were refurbished in this manner so as to increase their attractiveness to tourists by more closely resembling the 'Irish pubs' found outside Ireland; and thus have more in common with them (many were refurbished by the same outfitting companies) than the traditional pub type they purport to represent.


The sentimental image of Ireland held by many tourists and members of the Irish diaspora has also resulted in changes to the Irish pub experience in many areas. The notion that there is more live music in an Irish pub, and that a customer is more likely to entertain the assembly with a song is a myth created by the Irish tourist industry. Pubs of this type (so-called 'singing pubs') are more likely to be found in areas dependent on tourism such as the south-west of Ireland. These pubs are conspicuously absent in areas where tourism is not a major part of the local economy, such as the Midlands or border counties. 'Singing pubs' are also absent from Northern Ireland. // The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Pubs in tourist oriented areas are also more likely to serve food to their customers, a recent phenomenon dating from the 1970s. Prior to this time food was not served in the vast majority of Irish pubs, as eating out was uncommon in Ireland (except in "eating-houses" set up on market days) and most towns and villages had at least one commercial hotel where food was available throughout the day [5]. The provision of meals in pubs since this time is largely the result of an effort by Irish publicans to capture the tourist eating trade. The majority of traditional rural pubs not on the major tourist trails do not serve food; while traditional bars in urban areas such as Dublin, Armagh, Galway, and Sligo have responded to the increase in Irish people eating outside the home (a by-product of so called 'Celtic Tiger' economy during the 1990s); and now provide meals throughout the day. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G685354 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Elevation: 13 m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   17,892 [1]  24,096[1] Website: www. ... For the Irish dance show, see Celtic Tiger Live. ...


Following the smoking ban in the Republic many pubs offer enclosed and often heated outdoor smoking areas. While many people object, the greater majority of people appear content with the legislation, which came into effect in Northern Ireland in April 2007. No Smoking sign. ...


Irish Pubs have been opened throughout the world, particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, from Boston to Frankfurt, Johannesburg to Beijing. They generally have little in common with pubs in Ireland. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The vast majority of pubs in Ireland are independently owned and licensed, or owned by a chain that does not have any brewery involvement, generally meaning that nearly every pub sells a similar but extensive range of products. Some microbreweries operate their own pubs or chains of pubs, where the range is more limited, with only their own products and a few others.


Compare with

Singles bar redirects here. ... A beer garden (or in the German language, Biergarten) is an open-air drinking establishment that originated in Bavaria, where beer gardens in general are distinguished from traditional beer gardens today. ... Discussing the War in a Paris Café, Illustrated London News 17 September 1870 Coffee shop redirects here. ... Inns are establishments where travellers can procure food, drink, and lodging. ... typical food at an izakaya An izakaya (居酒屋) is a common kind of Japanese bar or restaurant, also found in cosmopolitan cities throughout the world, popular in Japan for after-work drinking. ... A Kopitiam or kopi tiam is a traditional breakfast and coffee shop found in Singapore and Malaysia in Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Beer halls are large pubs that specialize in beer. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... York Hotel in Kalgoorlie Young & Jacksons in Melbourne A public house or pub for short in Australia is an establishment serving alcoholic drinks mainly for consumption on the premises. ... The following is a list of Notable British public houses. ... As a subset of Pub Games, Pub Sports include traditional pastimes such as darts, billiards, and skittles. ... A typical beer garden in Munich A beer garden is an open-air area where alcohol is legally served. ... It has been suggested that Pub sports be merged into this article or section. ... The Evening Standard Pub of the Year title has been awarded annually to a pub selected from a shortlist by readers of the Evening Standard, Londons main evening newspaper. ... Not to be confused with Pub crawl. ... A pub like this would be a likely stop on a pub crawl. ... In the UK a tied house is a public house that is owned and operated by a brewery. ... A free house is when M Norms parents go away. ... A cider house is an establishment, often little more than a room in a farmhouse or cottage, selling cider only, for consumption on the premises. ... A pie, along with a pint, as served in a pub Pub grub is food that is typically found in a British or Australian pub. ...

References

  1. ^ Summary of Licensing Board Policies. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  2. ^ Seabury, Olive. The Carlise State Management Scheme: Its Ethos and Architecture. A 60 year experiment in regulation of the liquor trade.
  • Beer and Britannia: An Inebriated History of Britain by Peter Haydon (2001, Sutton)
  • Beer: The Story of the Pint by Martyn Cornell (2003, Headline)
  • The English Pub by Michael Jackson (1976, Harper & Row).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Public house - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4432 words)
A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment which sells beer in a homely setting.
Public houses are culturally and socially different from places such as cafés, bars, bierkellers and brewpubs.
During the blurring of the class divisions in the 1960s and 70s, the distinction between the saloon and the public bar was seen as archaic, and was abolished, usually by the removal of the dividing wall itself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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