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Encyclopedia > Public health

Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. The field pays special attention to the social context of disease and misery, and focuses on improving health through society-wide measures like vaccinations or the fluoridation of drinking water. Vaccination is a term coined by Edward Jenner for the process of administering a weakened form of a disease to patients as a means of giving them immunity to a more serious form of the disease. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Public health's ambition is ultimately to improve lives, not only to prevent or treat disease. The United Nations' World Health Organization defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." In 1920, C.E.A. Winslow defined public health as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." WHO redirects here. ...


The public-health approach can be applied to a population of just a handful of people or to the whole human population. Public health is typically divided into epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental, social, behavioral, and occupational health are also important subfields. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... Health care or healthcare is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. ... Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. ... Behavioral health was first used in the 1980s to name the combination of the fields mental health and substance abuse. ... ...

Contents

Objectives

The focus of a public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a disease through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors. In addition to these activities, in many cases treating a disease can be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak of an infectious disease. Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of public health measures. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ...


Most countries have their own government public health agencies, sometimes known as ministries of health, to respond to domestic health issues. In the United States, the frontline of public health initiatives are state and local health departments. The United States Public Health Service (PHS), led by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta and a part of the PHS, are involved with several international health activities, in addition to their national duties. A health department is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry. ... Template:Higher standard // History of the United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams in 1798 as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...


There is a vast discrepancy in access to healthcare and public health intiatives between developed nations and developing nations. In the developing world, public health infrastructures are still forming. There may not be enough trained health workers or monetary resources to provide even a basic level of medical care and disease prevention. As a result, a large majority of disease and mortality in the developing world results from and contributes to extreme poverty. For example, many African governments spend less than USD$10 per person per year on healthcare, while, in the United States, the federal government spent approximately USD$4,500 per capita in 2000. A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... USD redirects here. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ...


Many diseases are preventable through simple, non-medical methods. Public health plays a very important role in prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries, either through local health systems or through international non-governmental organizations. NGO redirects here. ...


The two major postgraduate professional degrees related to this field are the Master of Public Health (MPH) or the (much rarer) Doctor of Public Health (DrPH). Many public health researchers hold PhDs in their fields of speciality, while some public health programs confer the equivalent Doctor of Science degree instead. The United States medical residency specialty is General Preventive Medicine and Public Health. The Master of Public Health (MPH) is a professional masters degree awarded for studies in areas related to public health. ... The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) is an advanced professional degree for those who intend to pursue or advance a professional practice career in public health and for leaders and future leaders in public health practice. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... D.Sc. ...


History of public health

In some ways, public health is a modern concept, although it has roots in antiquity. From the beginnings of human civilization, it was recognized that polluted water and lack of proper waste disposal spread vector-borne diseases. Early religions attempted to regulate behavior that specifically related to health, from types of food eaten, to regulating certain indulgent behaviors, such as drinking alcohol or sexual relations. The establishment of governments placed responsibility on leaders to develop public health policies and programs in order to gain some understanding of the causes of disease and thus ensure social stability prosperity, and maintain order. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Leader redirects here. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ...


Early public health interventions

By Roman times, it was well understood that proper diversion of human waste was a necessary tenet of public health in urban areas. The Chinese developed the practice of variolation following a smallpox epidemic around 1000 BC. An individual without the disease could gain some measure of immunity against it by inhaling the dried crusts that formed around lesions of infected individuals. Also, children were protected by inoculating a scratch on their forearms with the pus from a lesion. This practice was not documented in the West until the early-1700s, and was used on a very limited basis. The practice of vaccination did not become prevalent until the 1820s, following the work of Edward Jenner to treat smallpox. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Obsolete: inoculation against smallpox using material from a vesicle or lesion of a person with smallpox. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... Born May 17, 1749 Berkeley, Gloucestershire Died January 26, 1823 Berkeley, Gloucestershire Alma mater St Georges, University of London Academic advisor John Hunter Known for smallpox vaccine Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


During the 14th century Black Death in Europe, it was believed that removing bodies of the dead would further prevent the spread of the bacterial infection. This did little to stem the plague, however, which was most likely spread by rodent-borne fleas. Burning parts of cities resulted in much greater benefit, since it destroyed the rodent infestations. The development of quarantine in the medieval period helped mitigate the effects of other infectious diseases. However, according to Michel Foucault, the plague model of governmentality was later controverted by the cholera model. A Cholera pandemic devastated Europe between 1829 and 1851, and was first fought by the use of what Foucault called "social medicine", which focused on flux, circulation of air, location of cemeteries, etc. All those concerns, born of the miasma theory of disease, were mixed with urbanistic concerns for the management of populations, which Foucault designated as the concept of "biopower". The German conceptualized this in the Polizeiwissenschaft ("Science of police"). This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Governmentality was a concept developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1979 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. In general, this concept has been supplanted by the more scientifically founded germ theory of disease. ... Urbanism is the study of cities - their geographic, economic, political, social and cultural environment, and the imprint of all these forces on the built environment. ... Biopower was a term originally coined by French philosopher Michel Foucault to refer to the practice of modern states and their regulation of their subjects through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault first used it in his... Polizeiwissenschaft (German for Police science) was a discipline born in the first third of the 18th century which lasted until the middle of the 19th century. ...


The science of epidemiology was founded by John Snow's identification of a polluted public water well as the source of an 1854 cholera outbreak in London. Dr. Snow believed in the germ theory of disease as opposed to the prevailing miasma theory. Although miasma theory correctly teaches that disease is a result of poor sanitation, it was based upon the prevailing theory of spontaneous generation. Germ theory developed slowly: despite Anton van Leeuwenhoek's observations of Microorganisms, (which are now known to cause many of the most common infectious diseases) in the year 1680 , the modern era of public health did not begin until the 1880s, with Robert Koch's germ theory and Louis Pasteur's production of artificial vaccines. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... The germ theory of disease states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, and that microorganisms grow by reproduction, rather than being spontaneously generated. ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. In general, this concept has been supplanted by the more scientifically founded germ theory of disease. ... Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Modern public health

As the prevalence of infectious diseases in the developed world decreased through the 20th century, public health began to put more focus on chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.


In America, public health worker Dr. Sara Josephine Baker lowered the infant mortality rate using preventative methods. She established many programs to help the poor in New York City keep their infants healthy. Dr. Baker led teams of nurses into the crowded neighborhoods of Hell's Kitchen and taught mothers how to dress, feed, and bathe their babies. After WWI many states and countries followed her example in order to lower infant mortality rates. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Hells Kitchen (also known as Clinton) is a neighborhood of New York City that includes the area between 34th Street and 57th Street, from 8th Avenue to the Hudson River. ...


During the 20th century, the dramatic increase in average life span is widely credited to public health achievements, such as vaccination programs and control of infectious diseases, effective safety policies such as motor-vehicle and occupational safety, improved family planning, fluoridation of drinking water, anti-smoking measures, and programs designed to decrease chronic disease. Oral contraceptives. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Meanwhile, the developing world remained plagued by largely preventable infectious diseases, exacerbated by malnutrition and poverty. Front-page headlines continue to present society with public health issues on a daily basis: emerging infectious diseases such as SARS, making its way from China to Canada and the United States; prescription drug benefits under public programs such as Medicare; the increase of HIV-AIDS among young heterosexual women and its spread in South Africa; the increase of childhood obesity and the concomitant increase in type II diabetes among children; the impact of adolescent pregnancy; and the ongoing social, economic and health disasters related to the 2005 Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina in 2006. These are all ongoing public health challenges. Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


Since the 1980s, the growing field of population health has broadened the focus of public health from individual behaviors and risk factors to population-level issues such as inequality, poverty, and education. Modern public health is often concerned with addressing determinants of health across a population, rather than advocating for individual behaviour change. There is a recognition that our health is affected by many factors including where we live, genetics, our income, our educational status and our social relationships - these are known as "social determinants of health." A social gradient in health runs through society, with those that are poorest generally suffering the worst health. However even those in the middle classes will generally have worse health outcomes than those of a higher social stratum (WHO, 2003). The new public health seeks to address these health inequalities by advocating for population-based policies that improve the health of the whole population in an equitable fashion. Population health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ...


The burden of treating conditions caused by unemployment, poverty, unfit housing and environmental pollution have been calculated to account for between 16-22% of the clinical budget of the British National Health Service. [1]


UK Public health functions include: • Health surveillance, monitoring and analysis • Investigation of disease outbreaks, epidemics and risk to health • Establishing, designing and managing health promotion and disease prevention programmes • Enabling and empowering communities to promote health and reduce inequalities • Creating and sustaining cross-Government and intersectoral partnerships to improve health and reduce inequalities •Ensuring compliance with regulations and laws to protect and promote health • Developing and maintaining a well-educated and trained, multi-disciplinary public health workforce • Ensuring the effective performance of NHS services to meet goals in improving health, preventing disease and reducing inequalities • Research, development, evaluation and innovation • Quality assuring the public health function


Public health programs

This 1963 poster featured CDC’s national symbol of public health, the "Wellbee", encouraging the public to receive an oral polio vaccine.
This 1963 poster featured CDC’s national symbol of public health, the "Wellbee", encouraging the public to receive an oral polio vaccine.

Today, most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in reducing the incidence of disease, disability, and the effects of aging, although public health generally receives significantly less government funding compared with medicine. In recent years, public health programs providing vaccinations have made incredible strides in promoting health, including the eradication of smallpox, a disease that plagued humanity for thousands of years. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 849 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polio vaccine Public... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 849 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polio vaccine Public... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ...


One of the most important public health issues facing the world currently is HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis, which claimed the lives of authors Franz Kafka and Charlotte Brontë, and composer Franz Schubert, among others, is also reemerging as a major concern due to the rise of HIV/AIDS-related infections and the development of tuberculin strains that are resistant to standard antibiotics. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Kafka redirects here. ... Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. ... Schubert redirects here. ...


Another major public health concern is diabetes. In 2006, according to the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffered from diabetes. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by the year 2030, this number will double. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


A controversial aspect of public health is the control of smoking. Many nations have implemented major initiatives to cut smoking, such as increased taxation and bans on smoking in some or all public places. Proponents argue by presenting evidence that smoking is one of the major killers in all developed countries, and that therefore governments have a duty to reduce the death rate, both through limiting passive (second-hand) smoking and by providing fewer opportunities for smokers to smoke. Opponents say that this undermines individual freedom and personal responsibility (often using the phrase nanny state in the UK), and worry that the state may be emboldened to remove more and more choice in the name of better population health overall. However, proponents counter that inflicting disease on other people via passive smoking is not a human right, and in fact smokers are still free to smoke in their own homes. The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Nanny state is a derogatory term that refers to state protectionism, economic interventionism, or regulatory policies, and the perception that these policies are becoming institutionalized as common practice. ...


Public Hygiene

Public hygiene includes public behaviors individuals can take to improve their personal health and wellness. Topics include public transportation, food preparation and public washroom use. These are steps individuals can take themselves. Examples would include avoiding crowded subways during the flu season, using gloves when touching the handrails and opening doors in public malls as well as going to clean restaurants.


Economics of public health

The application of economics to the realm of public health has been rising in importance since the 1980s. Economic studies can show, for example, where limited public resources might best be spent to save lives or cause the greatest increase in quality of life. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Research

Public health investigates sources of disease and descriptors of health through scientific methodology. This can lead to a public health solution to an epidemic, or a community based intervention for chronic diseases. Either way, research can provide the link between cause and effect for public health issues.


Community based participatory research

Main article: Community-based participatory research

In contrast to clinical, patient oriented, or literature review research, community based participatory research (CBPR) investigates community-based eitology, involves community leaders, and overall respects the forces under which the community and its participants preside toward promoting and sustaining public health matters. As described by the WK Kellogg Foundation Community Health Scholars Program, CBPR is a Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is research that is conducted as an equal partnership between traditionally trained experts and members of a community. ...

"collaborative approach to research that equitably involves all partners in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each brings. CBPR begins with a research topic of importance to the community, has the aim of combining knowledge with action and achieving social change to improve health outcomes and eliminate health disparities."[1]

CBPR methods have been necessary for implementation of certain public health actions. This have been difficult to accomplish because communities in poorer, less well developed areas often distrust researchers and scientists from "outside."[2]


Academic resources

  • American Journal of Public Health
  • Annual Review of Public Health, ISSN: 15452093 (electronic) 0163-7525 (paper), Annual Reviews
  • Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, ISSN 1538-7135, Mary Ann Lieber
  • International Journal of Prisoner Health, ISSN: 1744-9219 (electronic) 1744-9200 (paper), Taylor & Francis
  • Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, ISSN: 1078-4659, Lippincott William & Wilkins
  • Journal of Urban Health, ISSN: 1468-2869 (electronic) 1099-3460 (paper) , Springer
  • Public Health Nutrition, ISSN: 1475-2727 (electronic) 1368-9800 (paper), Cambridge
  • Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN: 1651-1905 (electronic) 1403-4948 (paper), Informa Healthcare
  • The Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN: 0022-1899, The University of Chicago Press
  • The European Journal of Public Health, ISSN: 1464-360X (electronic) 1101-1262 (paper), Oxford University Press

The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA). ...

See also

Auxology is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth; though it is also a fundamental of biology generally. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall, MD (25 December 1867, Weston, Texas, USA -18 January 1941, Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, DC, USA) was a U.S. Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water. ... For other uses, see Chief Medical Officer. ... The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) is a committee within the European Parliament. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital and people across political and geographic boundaries, has also helped to spread some of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humans. ... Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is defined as a combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... (This article is about movements to improve health. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Maintaining a healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Infection control and health care epidemiology is the discipline con setting. ... Typhoid Mary in a 1909 newspaper illustration Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was the first person in the United States to be identified as a healthy carrier of typhoid fever. ... Maternal health care is a concept that encompasses preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care. ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... The National Health Federation is an international consumer education, health freedom, non-profit organization working to protect individuals rights to choose to consume healthy food, take Dietary supplements, and use alternative therapies without government restrictions. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... Patient safety is a relatively recent initiative in healthcare, emphasizing the reporting, analysis and prevention of medical error and adverse healthcare events. ... A patient safety organization is a group, institution or association that improves medical care by reducing medical errors. ... Pharmaceutical policy is a branch of health policy that deals with the provision and use of medications within a health care system. ... Population health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. ... Preventive care is a set of measures taken in advance of symptoms to prevent illness or injury. ... Indian Health Ministry is a part of Inidan Goverment and is responsible for provision of health care / health services for all Indian residents. ... Public Health Laboratories operate as a first line of defense to protect the American people against diseases and other health hazards. ... Public Health - Seattle & King County (PHSKC) is the Public Health department that is jointly managed by the City of Seattle and King County governments serving approximately 1. ... The Center for Public Health Practice (CPHP) is located within the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, the goal of health programs has been to provide care to every member of the population and to make maximum use of limited health-care personnel, equipment, and financial resources. ... The Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) is a undegraduate degree that prepares students to meet challenges faced by both government, and private organizations that are seeking ways to maintain or improve the quality of health care in the United States. ... The Master of Public Health (MPH) is a professional masters degree awarded for studies in areas related to public health. ... The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) is an advanced professional degree for those who intend to pursue or advance a professional practice career in public health and for leaders and future leaders in public health practice. ... The European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) provides training and practical experience in intervention epidemiology at the national centres for surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the European Union. ... Public Health Genomics is the utilization of genomics information to benefit public health. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Health informatics. ... Public health law focuses on legal issues in public health practice and on the public health effects of legal practice. ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ... Dr. Samuel J. Crumbine was a pioneer in public health who campaigned against the common drinking cup, the common towel, and spitting in public in order to prevent the spread of tuberculosis. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... LLGHHHHHHHHHK BNMNKBV JKVGKJJH JHVG KJVH KJV KJV JKV JV JV KJFYG KHV KJV gfnnnnnnnnnnhngjkv jh b ... The World Toilet Organization (WTO) is an organization dedicated to issues involving toilets and sanitation. ...

References

  1. ^ Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, in Seattle, Washington.
  2. ^ SYED M. AHMED, BARBRA BECK, CHERYL A. MAURANA & GAIL NEWTON Overcoming Barriers to Effective Community-Based Participatory Research in US Medical Schools. Education for Health, Vol. 17, No. 2, July 2004, 141 – 151.
  • WHO Definition of Health Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, 1946
  • Control of Communicable Diseases Manual edited by James B. Chin, APHA, 2000
  • Encyclopedia of public health edited by Lester Breslow, Macmillan Reference 2002
  • The Solid Facts: Social Determinants of Health edited by Richard Wilkinson and Michael Marmot, WHO, 2003
  • CCC. (2006), Public Health Emergency Response Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Public Health Directors. Retrieved April10, 2006, from: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/planning/responseguide.asp
  • Department of Homeland Security (2004) National Response Plan. Retrieved April 11, 2006, from http://www.dhs.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/NRPbaseplan.pdf

The Control of Communicable Diseases Manual is one of the most widespread single-volume reference volumes on the topic of infectious diseases. ... The Encyclopedia of public health is a thorough reference set of four volumes covering all aspects of Public health for a lay public. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Public health - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1757 words)
Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis.
Public health has many sub-fields, but is typically divided into the categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services.
Since the 1980s, the growing field of population health has broadened the focus of public health from individual behaviors and risk factors to population-level issues such as inequality, poverty, and education.
Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care - Public Information - Public Health (382 words)
Public health is concerned with the health and well-being of the whole community rather than the treatment of illness and disability.
Health is viewed as resource for everyday living, and in turn is influenced by the everyday environment that we are part of.
Public health focuses on three areas: preventing conditions that may put health at risk (health protection), early detection of health problems (screening), and changing peoples and societies attitudes and practices regarding lifestyle choices (health promotion).
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