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Encyclopedia > Public execution

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Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the governmental use of execution as punishment for a crime often called a capital offense or a capital crime. Historically, the execution of criminals and political opponents was used by nearly all societies either by means of judicial process or through political motivations such as the supression of political dissent. Among democratic countries around the world, most European and Latin American ones have abolished capital punishment (except the United States, Guatemala and most of the Caribbean), while democracies in Asia and Africa retain it. Among nondemocratic countries the use of the death penalty is common. for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... This article is about the continent. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean, (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Dutch: Cariben or Caraïben, or more commonly Antillen) or the West Indies, is a group of islands and countries which are in or border the Caribbean Sea which lies on... Asia is the largest and most populous region or continent depending on the definition. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ...


Wrongful killings are likely to be occurring more than once per year in the U.S. Since DNA evidence which has exonorated more than a hundred on U.S. death rows since 1994 is only available in a fraction of all capital cases, the actual number of wrongful killings may be substantially greater. A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that they did not commit. ... Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ...


In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as a punishment for certain murders, espionage, or treason or part of military justice. In some majority-Muslim countries, certain sexual crimes, including adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty. In many countries, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world, courts-martial have sentenced capital punishments also for cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation or state. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... for Imam Muslim, see Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860 Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their lawful spouse. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin used to characterize certain sexual acts. ... Trafficking in human beings is the criminal commercial trade in human beings, who are subjected to involuntary acts such as begging, sexual exploitation (eg. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence. ... Desertion is the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from an entity to which one has given. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... Mutiny is the crime of conspiring to disobey orders that the mutineer is legally obliged to obey, for example by crew members of a ship. ...


Capital punishment is a contentious issue. Supporters of capital punishment argue that capital punishment deters crime, prevents future murders, and is appropriate retribution for the crime of murder. Opponents of capital punishment argue that capital punishment does not deter crime more than life imprisonment, violates human rights, leads to wrongful executions, and discriminates against minorities and the poor. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The death penalty worldwide

Global distribution of death penalty

Use of the death penalty around the world (as of 2005/06). ██ Abolished for all offences. 86 ██ Abolished for all offences except under special circumstances. 11 ██ Retains, though not used for at least 10 years. 25 ██ Retains death penalty. 74
Use of the death penalty around the world (as of 2005/06).

██ Abolished for all offences. 86 Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... At one time the death penalty was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ...

██ Abolished for all offences except under special circumstances. 11

██ Retains, though not used for at least 10 years. 25

██ Retains death penalty. 74

Reports from NGOs opposed to the death penalty tend to publicise the view that abolition is a global trend. In 1977, 16 countries were abolitionist, while the figure was 122 for the end of 2005. In more detail, 86 countries have abolished capital punishment for all offences, 11 for all offences except under special circumstances, and 25 have not used it for at least 10 years. However, Sri Lanka recently declared an end to its moratorium on the death penalty. A total of 74 countries retain it. Among retentionist countries, eight use capital punishment for juveniles (under 18). China performed more than 3400 executions in 2004 and these amount to more than 90% of executions worldwide. In China, some inmates are executed by firing squad, but it has been decided that all executions will be in the form of lethal injections in the future. Iran performed 159 executions in 2004 [1]. The United States performed 60 executions in 2005. Texas conducts more executions than any other U.S. state, with 359 executions between 1976 and 2006. Singapore has the highest execution rate per capita, with 70 hangings for a population of about 4 million. NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In law, a moratorium (from Latin morari, to delay) is a legal authorization postponing for a specified time the payment of debts or obligations. ... Official language(s) None. ... A state of the United States (U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states, four of which officially favor the term commonwealth which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ...


In demographic terms, many retentionist countries have large populations and high population growth. When the relative demographic proportion between retentionist and abolitionist countries is taken into account, this may indicate an underlying trend of increase in retentionist population, which is seemingly shifted in favour of the number of abolitionist countries when new countries switch to being abolitionist. However, it is important to note that use of the death penalty is becoming more restrained in retentionist countries, which is often masked by the population growth because it may nonetheless increase the number of executions being carried out. Japan and the U.S. are the only fully developed and democratic countries to have retained the death penalty. The death penalty was overwhelmingly practiced in poor, undemocratic, and authoritarian states, which often employed the death penalty as a tool of political oppression. During the 1980s, the democratization of Latin America (with its long history of progressive and Catholic tradition) swelled the rank of abolitionist countries. This was soon followed by the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, which then aspired to emulate neighbouring Western Europe. In these countries, the public support for the death penalty is low and/or decreasing. The European Union and the Council of Europe both strictly require member states not to practice the death penalty. The only European country to do so is Belarus - this is one of the reasons that Belarus is excluded from the Council of Europe. On the other hand, democratisation and rapid industrialisation in Asia have been increasing the number of retentionist countries that are democratic and/or developed. In these countries, the death penalty enjoys strong public support, and the matter receives little attention from the legislature. This trend has been followed by partial democratisation in some African and Middle Eastern countries where the support for the death penalty is high. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ...


Wrongful killing rate

Based on the fact that newly-available DNA evidence has allowed the exhonoration of about one person per year since 1992[2] in the U.S, and the fact that DNA evidence is only available in a fraction of capital cases, it is reasonable to conclude that wrongful killings occur even more frequently. [3] [4] [5] The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid —usually in the form of a double helix— that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and most viruses. ... A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that they did not commit. ...


In the UK, a reviews, often prompted by the Criminal Cases Review Commission have resulted in one pardon and three exhonerations for people executed between 1950 and 1953 (when the execution rate in England and Wales averaged 17 per year), with compensation being paid. Timothy Evans was granted a posthumous free pardon in 1966. Mahmood Hussein Mattan, convicted in 1953, had his appeal quashed in 1998 and George Kelly, who was hanged at Liverpool in 1950 had his conviction quashed by the Court of Appeal in June 2003. Derek Bentley had his conviction quashed in 1998 with the appeal trial judge noting the original trial judge had denied the defendant "the fair trial which is the birthright of every British citizen". The Criminal Cases Review Commission is the independent public body set up to investigate possible miscarriages of justice in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... Timothy John Evans (November 20, 1924 - March 9, 1950) was a young man, definitely mentally retarded, who was hanged in the United Kingdom in 1950 for the murder of his infant daughter. ... Capital punishment in the United Kingdom, now entirely abolished in all circumstances, has a long history, dating from before the modern United Kingdom actually existed. ... George Kelly could be George Kelly the baseball player George Machine Gun Kelly the gangster George Kelly the musician George Kelly the psychologist George Kelly the playwright This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Derek Bentley (30 June 1933 - 28 January 1953) was hanged at the age of 19 for a murder committed by a friend, creating a cause célèbre and leading to a 45-year long successful campaign to win him a posthumous pardon. ... The Right Honourable Thomas Henry Bingham, Baron Bingham of Cornhill, KG, PC (born 13 October 1933), is one of the most senior judges in the United Kingdom. ... Rayner Goddard, Baron Goddard, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales 1946-1958 Rayner Goddard, Baron Goddard (April 10, 1877 - May 29, 1971) was Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales from 1946 to 1958 and known for his heavy sentencing and reactionary views. ...


Public opinion

Support for the death penalty varies widely. It is a highly contentious political issue in the U.S., because it is a part of culture war over the ongoing debate over the response to high crime rate. In other democracies, this is not the case. In democracies both in abolitionist Europe and in retentionist Asia, the existing policy in those countries has wide public support and receives little attention by politicians. In some abolitionist countries, the majority of the public support or has supported the death penalty. Abolition was often adopted due to political change, such as when countries shifted from authoritarianism to democracy, or it became an entry condition for the European Union. In Western Europe, abolition was initially brought in by a moratorium on the death penalty that later become a de facto ban. It is rare for the death penalty to be abolished due to an active public discussion of its validity. The term Culture Wars has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since the 1960s, but especially beginning in the 1980s. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


In abolitionist countries, debate is sometimes revived by particularly brutal murders, though few countries have brought it back after abolition. However a spike in serious, violent crimes, such as murders or terrorist attacks, have prompted some countries (such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica) to effectively end the moratorium on the death penalty. Some polls in Europe and Canada suggest that the death penalty has similar support there to that in the United States. Other polls show that Western European support of the death penalty dropped significantly in the years after abolition. In most Eastern European countries, there is still a majority for reintroduction. In retentionist countries, the debate is sometimes revived when miscarriage of justice occurs, though this tends to cause legislative efforts to "improve" the judicial process rather than to abolish the death penalty. However, use of the death penalty is increasingly restrained in these countries, which is often seen as the main cause of high public support for the death penalty in countries such as Korea, Japan, or Taiwan. Korea (한국, Hanguk, or 조선, Choson) is a civilization and geographical area situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ...


A Gallup International poll from 2000 found that "Worldwide support was expressed in favour of the death penalty, with just more than half (52%) indicating that they were in favour of this form of punishment." A break down of the numbers of support versus opposition: Worldwide 52%/39%, North America 66%/27%, Asia 63%/21%, Eastern Europe 60%/29%, Africa 54%/43%, Latin America 37%/55%, Western Europe 34%/60%.[6] A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


In the U.S, polls show a majority support for death penalty. A Gallup poll in 2002 found that 64% of the public voted in favour of capital punishment, and 56% preferred the death penalty versus 39% preferring life imprisonment.[7] A Harris Poll in 2004 concluded that 69% of Americans supported the death penalty whilst only 22% were against it. 41% of people believed that it deterred murder, while 53% stated that there was not much effect. 36% of people believed that there should be more executions versus 21% favouring a decrease.[8] A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


International organizations

A number of regional conventions prohibit the death penalty, most notably, the Sixth Protocol (abolition in time of peace) and the Thirteenth Protocol (abolition in all circumstances) to the European Convention on Human Rights. However, most existing international treaty categorically exempt death penalty from prohibition in case of serious crime, most notably, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, while some provide optional protocols to abolish it. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights, was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966. ...


Several international organizations have made the abolition of the death penalty a requirement of membership, most notably the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe. The EU and the Council of Europe are willing to accept a moratorium as an interim measure. Thus, while Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, and practices the death penalty in law, it has not made use of it since becoming a member of the Council. Other states, while having abolished de jure the death penalty in time of peace and de facto in all circumstances, have not ratified Protocol no.13 yet and therefore have no international obligation not to resort to the death penalty in time of war or imminent threat of war (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, France, Italy,Latvia, Moldova, Poland and Spain). The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope, German: Europarat) is an international organisation of 46 member states in the European region. ... In law, a moratorium (from Latin morari, to delay) is a legal authorization postponing for a specified time the payment of debts or obligations. ...


Turkey has recently, as a move towards EU membership, undergone a reform of its legal system. Previously there was a de facto moratorium on death penalty in Turkey as the last execution took place in 1984. The death penalty was removed from peacetime law in August 2002, and in May 2004 Turkey amended its constitution in order to remove capital punishment in all circumstances. It ratified Protocol no. 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights in February 2006. As a result, Europe is a continent free of the death penalty in practice (all states but Russia, which has entered a moratorium, having ratified the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights), with the sole exception of Belarus, which is not a member of the Council of Europe. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has been lobbying for Council of Europe observer states who practice the death penalty, namely the U.S. and Japan, to abolish it or lose their observer status.


Among non-governmental organisations, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are noted for their opposition to the death penalty. Amnesty International logo Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international, non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of promoting all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. ... Human Rights Watch is a U.S.-based international human rights non-governmental organization located in New York City, USA, that conducts advocacy and research on human rights issues. ...


Juvenile capital punishment

The death penalty for juvenile offenders (criminals aged under 18 years at the time of their crime) has become increasingly rare with only a few major countries still officially supporting the practice. Countries where the execution of juvenile offenders has taken place since 1990 are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Iran, and the United States[9]. The People's Republic of China, the most frequent user of capital punishment, does not allow for the execution of those under 18.[10] The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except for the USA and Somalia [11]. The UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights maintains that the death penalty for juveniles has become contrary to customary international law. The word juvenile has several meanings: A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, maturity or size. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ...


Prior to the United States Supreme Court ruling in Roper v. Simmons, which removed the death penalty as an option for juvenile offenders, the United States was the most frequent user of the practice in recent years .[12] In the U.S. and ancestral political bodies since 1642, an estimated 364 juvenile offenders were executed by states and the federal government.[13] Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. ...


The death penalty in specific countries

Belarus · Canada · People's Republic of China · Denmark · France · Germany · India · Japan · New Zealand · Singapore · United Kingdom · United States At one time the death penalty was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ...


History

The use of formal execution extends back beyond recorded history. Most historical records as well as various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of the communal justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment and execution. However, it should be noted that within a small community, crimes were rare and murder was almost always a crime of passion. Moreover, most would hesitate to inflict death on a member of the community. For this reason, execution and even banishment were extremely rare. Usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy where a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. ...


However, these are not an effective response to crimes committed by outsiders. Consequently, even small crimes including theft committed by outsiders were considered to be an assault on the community and were severely punished. The methods varied from beating and enslavement to executions. However, the response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included formal apology, compensation or blood feuds. Feud may also mean fief in reference to feudalism. ...


A Blood Feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies (as well as potential allies) that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished."[14] However, it is often difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and conquest. Feud may also mean fief in reference to feudalism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with feud. ... A code of honour is an unwritten rule in a society, often influenced by culture, religion, and popculture. ... The only atomic weapons ever used in war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan by the United States on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ...


Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material (eg. cattle, slave) compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution. It should be noted that the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Viking things.[15] Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts (e.g. trial by combat). One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. Blood money is money paid by a killer as compensation to the next of kin of a accidental death victim. ... Vikings were a Norwegian, Icelandic, Danish and Swedish people who lived around the coasts of Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... The Judicial Duel. ... A duel or duel of honour is a formalised type of armed combat in which two individuals participate. ...


In certain part of the world, nations in the form of ancient republics, monarchies or tribal oligarchies emerged. These nations were often united by common linguistic, religious or family ties. Moreover, expansion of these nations often occurred by conquest of neighbouring tribes or nation. Consequently, various classes of royalty, nobility, various commoners and slave emerged. Accordingly, the systems of tribal arbitration were submerged into a more unified system of justice which formalised the relation between the different "classes" rather than "tribes". The earliest and most famous example is Code of Hammurabi which set the different punishment and compensation according to the different class/group of victims and perpetrators. The Pentateuch (Old Testament) lays down the death penalty for kidnapping, magic, violation of the Sabbath, blasphemy, and a wide range of sexual crimes, although evidence suggests that actual executions were rare.[16] A further example comes from Ancient Greece, where the Athenian legal system was first written down by Draco in about 621 BC: the death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The word draconian derives from Draco's laws. Similarly, in medieval and early modern Europe, the death penalty was also used as a generalised form of punishment. For example, in 1700s Britain, there were 222 crimes which were punishable by death, including crimes such as cutting down a tree or stealing an animal.[17] An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For a detailed discussion about the contents of the Pentateuch, see the article Torah. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Look up magic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Look up Draconian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Draco is an Athenian law scribe, whose laws were described as Draconian. Draconian (D&D) refers to creatures unique to the Dragonlance fantasy world. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ...


The last several centuries have seen the emergence of modern nation-states. Almost fundamental to the concept of nation state is the idea of citizenship. This caused justice to be increasingly associated with equality and universality, which in Europe saw an emergence of the concept of natural right. Another important aspect is that emergence of standing police forces and permanent penitential institutions. The death penalty become an increasingly unnecessary deterrent and prevention of minor crimes such as theft. The 20th century was one of the bloodiest of the human history. Massive killing occurred as the resolution of war between nation-states. A large part of execution was summary execution of enemy combatants. Also, modern military organisations employed capital punishment as a means of maintaining military discipline. In the past, cowardice, absence without leave, desertion, insubordination, looting, shirking under enemy fire and disobeying orders were often crimes punishable by death. The method of execution since firearms came into common use has almost invariably been firing squad. Moreover, various authoritarian states—for example those with fascist or communist governments, or dictatorships—employed the death penalty as a potent means of political oppression. Partly as a response to such excessive punishment, civil organizations have started to place increasing emphasis on the concept of human rights and abolition of the death penalty. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence. ... Desertion is the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from an entity to which one has given. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the inconsiderate taking of valuables triggered by a change in authority or the absence thereof. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ...


Abolitionary movements

The lex talionis

Hammurabi receives his laws from Shamash.
Enlarge
Hammurabi receives his laws from Shamash.

The lex talionis (literally meaning "law of the tooth" but more commonly known by the principle "an eye for an eye") describes criminal law systems in which punishments fit the crime. As applied to the death penalty, application of the lex talionis restricts the range of capital punishment to murder, though other stipulations may extend it or limit it further. Lex talionis may seem severe from a modern perspective, in its origin it was reformist, involving a liberalisation of penalties compared to previous practices. The earliest known application of the lex talionis for death penalty crimes was in the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1750 BC). A similar example of the reforming introduction of the lex talionis is the Athenian Solon's (638 BC – 558 BC) restriction of the death penalty to murder (a reform of the previous laws instituted by Draco). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This diorite head is believed to represent king Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian Khammurabi, from Amorite Ammurapi, The Kinsman is a Healer; Ammu, paternal kinsman + Rapi, to heal; also transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... Lex talionis (literally the Latin for law as retaliation) or law of retaliation is the belief that one of the purposes of the law is to provide retaliation for an offended party. ... The phrase an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth expresses a form of retributive justice also known as lex talionis (Latin, law of retaliation). It may have originated in ancient near-Eastern and Middle Eastern law, such as Babylonian law. ... In ethics and law, Let the punishment fit the crime is the principle that the severity of penalty for a misdeed or wrongdoing should be reasonable and proportional to the severity of the infraction. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Solon Solon (Greek: Σόλων, ca. ... Look up Draconian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sacrifice and entertainment

"All of the inhabitants of Gaul are completely devoted to superstitious rites. Indeed, therefore those who are afflicted by unusually severe diseases and those who are engaged in battles and dangers either sacrifice human victims or vow to ask Druids to perform such sacrifices. For they feel that unless one man's life be offered for that of another, the immortal gods cannot be placated..." (Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, Book VI) Gaius Julius Caesar (IPA: Classical Latin: IMP•C•IVLIVS•CAESAR•DIVVS1) (July 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. ... De Bello Gallico (literally On the Gallic Wars in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul. ...

Human sacrifice is well documented from the earliest times, but what was the rationale? According to Caesar, for the Celts it was "pro vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur" - roughly, "a life for a life". If the gods are displeased with someone for a wrongdoing, they demand blood payment and may send a disease to perform the execution. However, it is possible to negotiate with the gods and perform a substitution - somebody else's life will pay the blood debt instead. Similarly, there is a risk when going into battle that one might have some unpaid blood debt with the gods, for which reason the gods might ensure defeat and death. So as a safety precaution it was possible to promise the gods an alternative blood payment - presumably the blood of one's enemies, but again as a substitution for one's own blood. See also: Celts and human sacrifice. Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... The Celts practised human sacrifice on a limited scale as part of their religious rituals. ...

"Abraham Sacrificing Isaac" by Laurent de LaHire, 1650
"Abraham Sacrificing Isaac" by Laurent de LaHire, 1650

In Christian theology the doctrine of substitutionary atonement has a similar logic, but extended to a universal scale. The idea of substitutionary atonement is that humanity (from the dawn of time to the end of time) is sinful and that these sins or wrongdoings require compensation or atonement. The execution of Jesus of Nazareth is interpreted as a self-sacrifice on behalf of humanity. Key biblical texts indicate the idea of one life for many lives.[18] As regards the substitution, Christian theology draws parallels between the crucifixion and the story of how Abraham was permitted to substitute a lamb for his son Isaac when commanded by God to make a devotional sacrifice (the lamb is understood as symbolizing Christ).[19] See also: atonement, substitutionary atonement, propitiation, sacrifice. Laurent de LaHire: Abraham Sacrificing Isaac 1650 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Laurent de LaHire: Abraham Sacrificing Isaac 1650 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Christian theology practices theology from a Christian viewpoint or studies Christianity theologically. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... This page is about sin in the context of religion. ... Compensation has several different meanings as indicated below. ... The Atonement is the central doctrine of Christianity: everything else derives from it. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang there until dead. ... It has been suggested that Abraham (Hebrew Bible) be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Ishaq be merged into this article or section. ... The Atonement is the central doctrine of Christianity: everything else derives from it. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... Propitiation is a theological term denoting that by which God is rendered propitious, i. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporarybas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice...

Further examples of human sacrifice include the judicial hanging that was originally a sacrificial rite to Odin. Scandinavian religions demanded human sacrifices not only by hanging, but also by drowning the convict in a bog (see Kalevala which contains a chapter where Väinämöinen sentences the fatherless Son of Marjatta to be drowned in a bog; see also bog body, describing the archaeological finds of human sacrifices across Northern Europe). Some societies, such as the Aztec, used mass executions of prisoners of war as a religious rite. The perceived religious or instructive purpose of execution meant that many of the oldest methods of execution were intentionally brutal. Aztec human sacrifice, from Codex Mendoza, a postcortesian document, made by request of Viceroy Mendoza, but rendered by native scribes (tlacuilos) File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Aztec human sacrifice, from Codex Mendoza, a postcortesian document, made by request of Viceroy Mendoza, but rendered by native scribes (tlacuilos) File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Aztec sacrifice. ... Suicide by hanging. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ... Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs. ... Sculpture commemorating the moment when Aztecs found the omen from the god Huitzilopochtli signaling the location where their capital city Tenochtitlan should be built. ...


In many cultures the entertainment value of suffering was valued, as seen in Roman executions. For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Public executions were the norm until recently, whether atop an Aztec pyramid or on a gallows in the town square. Public executions still occurred in Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century and continue to occur in other countries such as Iran and Saudi Arabia. Sculpture commemorating the moment when Aztecs found the omen from the god Huitzilopochtli signaling the location where their capital city Tenochtitlan should be built. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ...


Some feel that public execution can be justified on the grounds that it is important that justice, especially for the most heinous crimes, is seen to be done. An alternative justification is that the deterrent effect is greater if execution is in public. In practice, public executions have often better served the purposes of entertainment.


The practice in some countries of selecting a small group of witnesses, usually including officials and family members of victims, can be seen as a compromise between a public interest in witnessing justice and the avoidance of a descent into entertainment.


Movements towards "humane" execution

Dr. Guillotin
Dr. Guillotin

In early New England, public executions were a very solemn and sorrowful occasion, sometimes attended by large crowds, who also listened to a Gospel message [20] and remarks by local preachers [21] and politicians. The Connecticut Courant records one such public execution on December 1, 1803, saying, "The assembly conducted through the whole in a very orderly and solemn manner, so much so, as to occasion an observing gentleman acquainted with other countries as well as this, to say that such an assembly, so decent and solemn, could not be collected anywhere but in New England." [22] Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... The states of New England are Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Trends in most of the world have long been to move to less painful, or more "humane", executions. France developed the guillotine for this reason in the final years of the 18th century while Britain banned drawing and quartering in the early 19th century. "Hanging by the neck until dead", which causes death by suffocation was replaced by "hanging" where the subject is dropped to dislocate the neck and sever the spinal cord. In the U.S., electrocution and the gas chamber, which were introduced as more humane alternatives to hanging, have been almost entirely superseded by lethal injection, which in turn has been criticised as being too painful. Nevertheless, some countries still employ slow hanging methods, beheading by sword and even stoning, although the latter is rarely employed. The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... To be hanged, drawn, and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Suicide by hanging. ... The first electric chair, which was used to execute William Kemmler in 1890 The electric chair is a device used in 11 states in the United States for execution of criminals convicted of capital crimes. ... The gas chamber once used at San Quentin State Prison in California for the purpose of capital punishment. ... Lethal injection involves injecting a person with fatal doses of drugs to cause death. ... Stoning or lapidation is a form of capital punishment in which the convicted criminal is put to death by having stones thrown at him or her, generally by a crowd. ...

The statement that the government shall not inflict cruel and unusual punishment for crimes is found in the English Bill of Rights signed in 1689 by William of Orange and Queen Mary II who were then the joint rulers of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. ...

Anti-death penalty movements

Marquis of Beccaria
Marquis of Beccaria

Although the death penalty was briefly banned in China between 747 and 759, modern opposition to the death penalty stems from the book of the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene ("On Crimes and Punishments"), published in 1764. In this book Beccaria aimed to demonstrate not only the injustice, but even the futility from the point of view of social welfare, of torture and the death penalty. Influenced by the book, Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg, famous enlightened monarch and future Emperor of Austria, abolished the death penalty in the then-independent Granducato di Toscana (Tuscany), the first permanent abolition in modern times. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the Reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. In 2000 Tuscany's regional authorities instituted an annual holiday on 30 November to commemorate the event. Image File history File links Beccaria. ... Image File history File links Beccaria. ... Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads. ... Events The Franks capture Narbonne; the Saracens are completely driven out of Japanese poet Otomo no Yakamochi compiled the first Japanese poetry anthology Manyoshu. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... ... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, a deterrent, revenge, a punishment, or as a method for the extraction of information or confessions (i. ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... A poppy field in Tuscany Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining, as the final day of November. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A penal code can be defined as that portion of a states laws that deal with defining the elements of particular crimes and specifying the punishment for each crime. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining, as the final day of November. ...


In 1849, the Roman Republic became the first country to ban the capital punishment in its constitutions. Portugal abolished the death penalty in 1867; the last execution had taken place in 1846. 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In the United States, the state of Michigan was the first state to ban the death penalty, on March 1, 1847. The 160-year ban on capital punishment has never been repealed, and as such the state is considered to be the first democracy in recorded history to have eliminated capital punishment. Currently, 12 states of the U.S. and the District of Columbia ban capital punishment. Official language(s) English de-facto Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 11th 96,716 sq mi  250,494 km² 239 miles  385 km 491 miles  790 km 41. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ...


Anti-death penalty themes in arts and media

Executions of the Third of May by Goya.
Executions of the Third of May by Goya.

Many artist and writers in modern period have advocated abolition of death penalty. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ...


Victor Hugo's The Last Day of a Condemned Man (Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné) describes the thoughts of a condemned man just before his execution; also notable is its preface, in which Hugo argues at length against capital punishment. Victor-Marie Hugo. ...


In The Chamber by John Grisham, a young lawyer tries to save his Klansman grandfather who committed murders. The novel is noted for presentation of anti-death penalty materials. The Chamber (1994) is a legal/suspense novel by noted American author John Grisham. ... Grishams 2005 novel The Broker John Grisham (born February 8, 1955), is a former politician, retired attorney, American novelist and author best known for his works of modern legal drama. ...


Capital punishment has been the basis of many motion pictures including Dead Man Walking based on the book by Sister Helen Prejean, The Green Mile, and The Life of David Gale. Dead Man Walking is a work of non-fiction by Sister Helen Prejean, a Roman Catholic nun and one of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Medaille. ... Sister Helen Prejean Sister Helen Prejean (b. ... The Green Mile is a 1999 movie, directed by Frank Darabont, based on the Stephen King novel The Green Mile (book). ... The Life of David Gale is a 2003 motion picture that tells the fictional story of a philosophy professor, David Gale, who was dedicated to the abolition of the death penalty and who was sentenced to death for the rape and murder of a colleague and fellow abolitionist. ...

See List of protest songs for a list of protest songs about capital punishment. This page is a list of films about and/or containing capital punishment. ... For information about protest songs in general, see Protest song. ...


Debate

Main article: Capital punishment debate

The death penalty is often the subject of controversy. Supporters of capital punishment argue that capital punishment deters crime, prevents future murders, and is appropriate retribution for the crime of murder. Opponents of capital punishment argue that capital punishment does not deter crime more than life imprisonment, violates human rights, leads to wrongful executions, and discriminates against minorities and the poor. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Capital punishment because the split violates the Wikipedia:Content forking guideline. ...


Religious views

Main article: Religion and capital punishment
Execution by hanging in Kuwait. Doctors examine the bodies to confirm death.
Execution by hanging in Kuwait. Doctors examine the bodies to confirm death.

The official teachings of Judaism technically approve the death penalty in principle but the standard of proof required for application of death penalty is extremely stringent, and in practice, it has been abolished by various Talmudic decisions, making the situations in which a death sentence could be passed effectively impossible and hypothetical. Most major world religions do not take an unambiguous position on the morality of capital punishment. ... Image File history File links Hanginkuwait. ... Image File history File links Hanginkuwait. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people with around 14 million followers (as of 2005 [1]). It is one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. ...


Christianity in theological terms follows the teaching of Thomas Aquinas who accepted the death penalty as a necessary deterrent and prevention method but not as the means of vengeance. The Roman Catholic Church holds that the death penalty is no longer necessary if it can be replaced by incarceration.[23] The position of other Christian denominations, at least among (academic) theologians, follow similar reasoning of Thomas Aquinas. In Protestantism, it is common for each follower or minister to have their own personal position on the death penalty. Both proponents and opponents derive their own stance from the Bible itself as well as from their own personal beliefs. Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... For other uses of the term, see Catholic Church (disambiguation). ...


Scholars of Islam hold it to be permissible but the victim or the family of victim has the right to grant pardon. The teachings of other religions also tend to discourage death penalty as the means of vengeance but accept it as the means of deterrent and prevention, while the question of the effectiveness of incarceration as a substitute remain outside of the theological. Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Methods of execution

See also: List of methods of capital punishment

Jurisdictions using capital punishment typically restrict its use to a small number of criminal offences, principally murder, with rare applications for treason and equated mortal sins such as apostasy. Historically—and still today under certain systems of law—the death penalty was applied to a wider range of offences, including robbery or theft, child molestation, and kidnapping. It has also been frequently used by the military for crimes including looting, insubordination, and mutiny. Armies based on conscription have used death penalty as means of coercion and maintaining discipline. Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation or state. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Thief redirects to here. ... Sexual abuse is physical or psychological abuse that involves crimes in most countries. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the inconsiderate taking of valuables triggered by a change in authority or the absence thereof. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... Mutiny is the crime of conspiring to disobey orders that the mutineer is legally obliged to obey, for example by crew members of a ship. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ...

Electric chair as used for electrocutions. The electric chair was developed in the late 1880s by a dentist with support from Thomas Edison (who had a financial interest in having direct current used in providing electricity, whereas the electric chair uses alternating current) and is still in use today.
Electric chair as used for electrocutions. The electric chair was developed in the late 1880s by a dentist with support from Thomas Edison (who had a financial interest in having direct current used in providing electricity, whereas the electric chair uses alternating current) and is still in use today.

Even in ancient times, methods of execution were sometimes chosen so that the extent of suffering during execution was related to the perceived seriousness of the crime or the class and status of the criminal. Roman citizens might be allowed to commit suicide while low class persons might be crucified. Image in the public domain, courtesy of PDImages. ... Image in the public domain, courtesy of PDImages. ... The first electric chair, which was used to execute William Kemmler in 1890 The electric chair is a device used in 11 states in the United States for execution of criminals convicted of capital crimes. ... The term electrocution can mean either: death by electric shock, usually by accident or deliberate execution by electric shock, in an electric chair See also: Capital punishment (death penalty) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847–October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life in the 20th century. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang there until dead. ...


In medieval Europe, the method of execution often depended on the social class of the condemned. The nobility were usually beheaded in as painless and honourable a method as possible, generally with either sword or an axe (which occasionally failed horribly). Those in the working class, serfs, peasants, and possibly the bourgeoisie were usually executed publicly, by a more gruesome and painful method, such as the wheel or being hung, drawn and quartered . In Scandinavia, the noblemen were beheaded with a sword, and commoners with an axe. Specific crimes sometimes warranted specific methods of execution: suspected witchcraft, religious heresy, atheism, or homosexuality were typically punished by burning at the stake. Unsuccessful regicides generally merited a horrible death. A wide range of offences could be punished by death, including robbery and theft, even if nobody was physically harmed in the action. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Beheading. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ... Drawing and quartering was part of the penalty anciently ordained in England for treason. ... Witchcraft, in various historical, religious and mythical contexts, is the use of certain kinds of alleged supernatural or magical powers. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Atheism, in its broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of gods. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... The broad definition of Regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ...

Damiens
Enlarge
Damiens

Such methods of execution continued into the modern era. In 1757 in France, Robert-François Damiens suffered a horrible but customary execution for his attempted regicide against King Louis XV. His hand, holding the weapon used in the regicide attempt, was burnt, and his body was wounded in several places. Then, molten lead and other hot liquids were poured on the wounds. He was then drawn and quartered, and what remained of his body was burnt at the stake. Inhumane methods of execution and class inequalities were abolished in France during the French Revolution, which imposed the guillotine, seen as a painless and instantaneous method of execution, for all. However, during the Reign of Terror, other forms of execution, such as massed cannon fire and mass drownings, were also used. Image File history File links Robert-damiens. ... Image File history File links Robert-damiens. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Robert-François Damiens Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ... The broad definition of Regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Louis XV (February 16, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ...


Notes

  1.   Survey of research findings: Roger Hood, The Death Penalty: A World-wide Perspective, Oxford, Clarendon Press, third edition, 2002, p. 230)
  2.   Etymology of "capital"
  3.   e.g.: Peter Waldmann (1999). "Rachegewalt: Zur Renaissance eines für überholt gehaltenen Gewaltmotivs in Albanien und Kolumbien". Zürcher Beiträge zur Sicherheitspolitik und Konfliktforschung 54: 141–160. - article covers general work in the area of blood feuds and then discusses the resurgence of the blood feud in Albania and Columbia; also: Jonas Grutzpalk. "Blood Feud and Modernity: Max Weber’s and Émile Durkheim’s Theories". Journal of Classical Sociology 2 (2): 115–134.
  4.   Translated from Waldmann, op.cit., p.147.
  5.   Grutzpalk, op.cit., p.117.
  6.   Examples of detailed studies of particular feud systems are: Monalinda E. Doro (2005). "Case Studies on Rido: Conflict Resolution among Meranao in Baloi, Lanao del Norte": –. - rido is the local term for blood feud; the location named is in the Philippines on the island of Mindanao; also: John Lindow (1994). "Bloodfeud and Scandinavian Mythology". Alvíssmál 4: 51–68.
  7.   Lindow, op.cit. (primarily discusses Icelandic things).
  8.   2 Corinthians 5:14-15 and 1 Peter 2:24.
  9.   Genesis 22.
  10.   Brown, Keith (1986). Bloodfeud in Scotland 1573–1625: Violence, Justice and Politics in an Early Modern Society, Edinburgh: John Donald., p.29, quoted in: Lindow, op.cit.
  11.   e.g.: University College London News (2004), Research on blood feuds in Albania and Kosovo; Mortimer, Majlinda, "Blood feuds blight Albanian lives", BBC News, 23 September 2005.
  12.   e.g.: UK Home Office, Operational Guidance Note: Albania (12 January 2006), esp. pp.4-5: "As a result of blood feuds in 2004, 670 families were self-imprisoned, 650 families accepted legal procedures instead of personal vendettas for resolving the conflict, 54 families were living under protection outside the country and 160 children were prevented from attending school due to fear of revenge, of which 73 were considered to be in serious danger. These figures showed a decrease over 2003 when 1,370 families were reported to be self-imprisoned at home and 711 children prevented from attending school due to fear of revenge."
  13.   Schabas, William. The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052181491X.
  14.   Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center
  15.   Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center
  16.   Sermon preached before the execution of Caleb Adams
  17.   Caleb Adams' life-story as told by a local pastor
  18.   Article from the Connecticut Courant (December 1, 1803)
  19.   The Roman Catholic Church actually states that capital punishment should be avoided unless it is the only way to defend society from the offender in question, and that with today's penal system such a situation requiring an execution is either rare or non-existant, Papal encyclical, Evangelium Vitae
  20.   Death Penalty Information Center, "Recent Developments in the Juvenile Death Penalty".
  21.   Rob Gallagher, Table of juvenile executions in British America/United States, 1642-1959.
  22.   Death Penalty Information Center, "Recent Developments in the Juvenile Death Penalty"; Death Penalty Information Center, "International Perspectives on the Death Penalty", citing "As China Signs Rights Treaty, It Holds Activist", New York Times (October 6, 1998).
  23.   UNICEF, Convention of the Rights of the Child - FAQ: "The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely and rapidly ratified human rights treaty in history. Only two countries, Somalia and the United States, have not ratified this celebrated agreement. Somalia is currently unable to proceed to ratification as it has no recognized government. By signing the Convention, the United States has signalled its intention to ratify—but has yet to do so."
  24.   Angus Reid Consultants, "Italians Opposed to Death Penalty" (Opinion poll published in October 2005)
  25.   Death Penalty Information Center, "Public Opinion About the Death Penalty"
  26.   Death Penalty Information Center, "GALLUP POLL: Public Divided Between Death Penalty and Life Imprisonment Without Parole" (June 2004)
  27.   Death Penalty Information Center, "Public Opinion About the Death Penalty"
  28.   Harris Poll, "More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Continue to Support the Death Penalty" (January 2004)

(Redirected from 2 Corinthians) See also: First Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... (Redirected from 1 Peter) In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of the term, see Catholic Church (disambiguation). ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...

External links

Resources opposing capital punishment

Resources favoring capital punishment

  • Pro Death Penalty.com
  • Pro Death Penalty Resource Page
  • Clark County, Indiana, Prosecutor's Page on capital punishment
  • In Favor of Capital Punishment - Quotes supporting Capital Punishment
  • Execution of Caleb Adams: Caleb Adams was publicly executed in Windham, Connecticut, USA, on November 29, 1803 for the brutal murder of six-year-old Oliver Woodworth.

Windham is a town located in Windham County, Connecticut. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Religious views on the death penalty

  • The Dalai Lama - Message supporting the moratorium on the death penalty
  • Buddhism & Capital Punishment from The Engaged Zen Society
  • Orthodox Union website: Rabbi Yosef Edelstein: Parshat Beha'alotcha: A Few Reflections on Capital Punishment
  • Jews and the Death Penalty - by Naomi Pfefferman (Jewish Journal)
  • Priests for Life - Lists several Catholic links



  Results from FactBites:
 
Capital punishment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4535 words)
Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the State as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences.
Historically, the execution of criminals and political opponents was used by nearly all societies both to punish crime and to suppress political dissent.
On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land.
The last public hanging in Dorset (515 words)
Public executions were for centuries one of the most popular forms of entertainment in England and Dorchester as an assize town certainly witnessed its fair share.
The memory of his first public execution (Martha Brown who killed her husband in a crime of the heart) undoubtedly inspired the novel "Tess of the d'Urbervilles".
The Victorian Age had just begun and the era of public executions in England had run its course, The morality of the age deeming that the spectacle of executions as a public entertainment could no longer be justified.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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