FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
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Encyclopedia > Public education


Public spending on education in 2005

Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. The term is generally applied to basic education, K -12 education or primary and secondary education: it is rarely, if ever, applied to post-secondary education, advanced education, or universities, colleges, or technical schools. Public education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally. Public education is often organized and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of public spending on education in 2005 as a percentage of the top government (USA - $734,893,675,000). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of public spending on education in 2005 as a percentage of the top government (USA - $734,893,675,000). ... “Taxes” redirects here. ...

Public education may be provided by a national, regional (province, state, territory, etc.), or local/municipal government, or a combination thereof. Where public education is provided by the state or a regional government, it is often referred to as "state education", a term which is rarely used when public education is provided by a local government.

Public education is typically provided to groups of students (classrooms; the "one-to-many" model of delivery), with a number of groups of students clustered in a school. However, the term "public education" is not synonymous with "public schooling". Public education can be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, supervising teachers, and/or distance learning. It can also be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. ...

The term "public education" is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, and it may want to have some control over, the provision of education which is not public education. Grants-in-aid of private schools, and voucher systems all provide examples of publicly funded education which is not public education. Conversely, a public school (including ones run by school districts) may rely heavily on non-public funding (such as high fees or private donations) but still be considered public by virtue of public ownership and control.

Public education often involves the following:

  1. compulsory student attendance (until a certain age or standard is achieved);
  2. certification of teachers and curricula, either by the government or by a teachers' organization;
  3. testing and standards provided by government.

The United Kingdom provides an anomalous use of the term "public school". In England the term "public school" refers to an elite of privately funded independent schools which had their origins in medieval schools funded by charity to provide education for the poor. (The anomaly points to one of the fundamentals of public education, which is inclusion: in times past the commitment to inclusion was demonstrated by reaching out through charity.) Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ...

Public education is generally available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and generally defray their costs (or even make a profit) by charging students tuition fees. The funding for public schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that even individuals who do not attend school (or whose dependents do not attend school) help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are often lax on compulsory school attendance because the children there are valuable laborers. It is these same children whose income-securing labor cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance. For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...

In some countries, such as Germany, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements. When these specific requirements are met, especially in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are then treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the public education system, even though they make decisions about hiring and school policy (not hiring atheists, for example), which the state might not make itself.

Proponents of public education assert it to be necessary because of the need in modern society for people who are capable of reading, writing, and doing basic mathematics. However, some libertarians argue that education is best left to the private sector; in addition, advocates of alternative forms of education such as unschooling argue that these same skills can be achieved without subjecting children to state-run compulsory schooling. In most industrialized countries or states, these views are distinctly in the minority. Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... Write redirects here. ... Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... An unschooler teaching herself gymnastics at Not Back to School Camp Unschooling is a form of education in which learning is based on the students interests, needs, and goals. ...

National public school systems


The first known Public Education System was established in Israel around 63-64 CE when the Head Rabbi, Yehoshua Ben Gamla, not only insisted that a unified system of teaching must be established, but dictated that every Jewish community , regardless of size, must establish a school to educate every child, male or female, over the age of 5, and that to insure the adequate education of all Jewish children, the wealthier members ofpenis the community must contribute to the cost of educating the less fortunate children. In other words he basically initiated the first known form of mass public education, as well as a system of taxation to finance it. Not only was religion to be taught , but poetry, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, metaphysics and more. Even the ratio of students to teachers was established.

This was a sort of culmination of Moses requirement, initiated over a thousand years prior, that all Jewish children must be educated in the laws of Judaism. Previously most children were home schooled or to some degree periodically given lessons at the synagogues established around the 6th century BCE.

According to the Jewish/Roman historian Josephus, who wrote during the first century, every Jewish child in his day over the age of 5 was able to read and write.[see Jewish Encyclopedia and Wikipedia]

Scottish education

Main article: Education in Scotland

The Church of Scotland was established in 1560, during the Protestant Reformation period as the official state religion in Scotland, and in the following year it set out to provide a school in every parish controlled by the local kirk-session, with education to be provided free to the poor, and the expectation that church pressure would ensure that all children took part. In 1633 the Parliament of Scotland introduced local taxation to fund this provision. Schooling was not free, but the tax support kept fees low, and the church and charity funded poorer students. This had considerable success, but by the late 18th century the physical extent of some parishes and population growth in others led to an increasing role for "adventure schools" funded from fees and for schools funded by religious charities, initially Protestant and later Roman Catholic. Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Executive Education Department Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary languages English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... Reformation redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

In 1872 education for all children aged 5 to 13 was made compulsory with "public schools" (in the Scots meaning of schools for the general public) under local school boards. The leaving age was raised to 14 in 1883, and a Leaving Certificate Examination was introduced in 1888 to set national standards for secondary education. School fees were ended in 1890. The Scottish Education Department ran the system centrally, with local authorities running the schools with considerable autonomy. In 1999, following devolution from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the new Scottish Parliament, central organisation of education was taken over by departments of the Scottish Executive, with running the schools coming under unitary authority districts. The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ... The Scottish Education Department (SED) was the body responsible for schooling in Scotland, founded in 1872, when education was made compulsory. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas of Scotland which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils which have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 (as chosen by Na h-Eileanan an Iar) of being known...

United States public schools

In the United States, all powers which are not assigned to the federal government by the U.S. Constitution are reserved to the people or individual states. Since the federal Constitution does not mention education, and the U.S. Supreme Court has held conclusively there is no federal Constitutional right to an education, public education has always been under the general control of the individual states. The steadily expanding role of the federal government in public education since the late nineteenth century has recently become a subject of heated debate, as many states (and more than a few Senators and members of Congress) perceive the U.S. Government to be overstepping its constitutional bounds. Educational oversight Secretary Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Raymond Simon National education budget $1. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... This article describes the government of the United States. ...

The systemic breadth required to implement statewide public education is such that most states employ a three-tiered model of decentralisation that parallels the general decentralisation model of state/county/township. To wit, there is usually a state superintendent of schools, who shuttles back and forth between the state department of education, the state board of education, and the state government itself. Statewide education policies are then regionally decentralised to intermediate school districts, or their equivalents by other names. These are invariably associated with counties, or with groups of counties; but the boundaries are not necessarily the same as the county boundaries. The intermediate school district is constituted of however many local school districts are assigned to its jurisdiction.

In most states, these county and regional "intermediate" school districts and controlling boards merely implement state education policy at the local level, and provide a channel through which the local districts communicate upward to the state board of education, state superintendent, and department of education.

Local school districts are managed by local school boards, which own and operate the public primary and secondary schools within their boundaries. They typically have no authority over private or parochial (religiously-affiliated) schools, or over home-schooling. Michigan and Iowa, however, limit home schooling to the parents of the children, and require the parents to be certified teachers. In California, where - as in most states - the licensing of teachers is limited to the public schools, teachers are not "certified"; they are "credentialed." School districts are a form of special-purpose district in the United States (amongst some other places) which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. ... This article or section should be merged with board of education A school board (or school committee) is an elected council that helps determine educational policy in a small regional area, such as a city, state, or province. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The first American public school was authorized on January 2,1643 by the Town of Dedham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony — nearly 150 years before the establishment of the United States. Im looking for information on the history of letter grading in the United States. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Norfolk County Settled 1635 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Administrator Bill Keegan  - Board of    Selectmen Marie-Loise Kehoe Mike Butler James MacDonald Carmen DelloIocono Dennis Teehan Area  - Town  10. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on...

The Regents of the University of the State of New York, established on 1 May 1784, was the first accrediting agency in the United States. It was a collective of public and private schools, as well as libraries, museums, etc. It is affiliated with the New York State Department of Education.

After the Revolution, the U.S. began to stress importance on education, focusing on elementary (K-8th grade) education. Schools were publicly supplied, but not free. Until the 1830s, public mass education remained a social issue. Education reformers such as Horace Mann helped jump start the common school movement. In 1837, Mann became the first Secretary of the Board of Education for Massachusetts. Mann was at the forefront in promoting the institution of common schools. His influence on education in Massachusetts soon spread to the U.S. as a whole. By 1870, all states provided free elementary schooling. Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859) was an American education reformer and abolitionist. ...

The Land Ordinance of 1785 established a mechanism for funding public education in the United States. Until at least the 1840s, however, most schools continued to be privately owned and operated[1]. A General Land Office diagram showing the theoretical sectioning of a standard survey township. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The Michigan Legislature established the Michigan State Normal School in 1849, the first teacher-training institution west of Albany, New York, and only the sixth in the nation. Elevated to collegiate status within a few years, the Michigan State Normal College became Eastern Michigan College in 1956 and Eastern Michigan University in 1959. Founded as a co-educational institution, it was the first institution of higher learning to serve both men and women in Michigan, and one of the first in the nation. The Michigan Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Eastern Michigan University is a comprehensive, co-educational public university located in Ypsilanti, Michigan. ...

Coeducation and the emergence of modern high schools; the expansion of compulsory education. The growth of extracurricular activities (1850s-1950s). The principle of equality in education, generally and especially as between the sexes, becomes a standard to achieve.

Separate Roman Catholic and Jewish schools come to be established in the mid-nineteenth century, first in New York City and later across the country. This was in response to the overly anti-Catholic and anti-Jewish positions presented by most textbooks used in public schools throughout the nation, in the interest of promoting Protestant hegemony throughout the United States.

The United States Supreme Court's 1954 ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was a hallmark in American education law. It overturned the 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson which had found that public schools segregated by race were permissible so long as both systems were "equal." The schools that were racially segregated before 1954 were still racially segregated afterward, however. The schools were all part of the same local school system instead of separate districts, and the psychological effect of the decision upon the public was ultimately much more important than the lack of any immediate, real effect. Most schools in America were not segregated at the time, and most of those that had been gradually became as desegregated as they could get, given the overall composition of the community. Those public schools that aggressively refused to desegregate into the 1970s were forced to do so by means of desegregation busing in the affected parts of the country. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... “Plessy” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Congress finally passed the G.I. Bill in 1944. As a result, many veterans of the Armed Services attended undergraduate and graduate school after World War II who previously could not have afforded to do so. This was the first step in a broad social equalization of American higher education and, through that, of American business management and the elite professions of law and medicine. The Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 (better known as the G.I. Bill) provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

The State of California implemented a comprehensive "Master Plan" for higher education in 1959, which was initially successful in helping to provide higher education to as many Californians as were qualified and wanted to pursue it. It was seriously undermined over the next 20 years, however, by a number of factors. First, in the sixty years since the end of World War II, California's population has more than quintupled, but the infrastructure of the state — including its educational system — did not grow proportionately to the rise in population to adequately serve the needs of the state (and the infrastructure is still trailing markedly behind the rest of the nation as California enters the twenty-first century). Second, the California State College system transformed itself into California State University, which was never anticipated by the institutional stratification components of the Master Plan. Third, the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978 severely, and negatively, affected the funding of all public education in the state, including public colleges and universities. As a consequence of these three principal factors, and other less important ones, the California Master Plan is largely regarded now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, as a well-intended idea that ultimately failed because its framers neglected to realize that all things change over time - whereas the Master Plan implicitly presumed that change would not occur. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 was developed by Clark Kerr, during the administration of Gov. ... Proposition 13 was a ballot initiative enacted by the voters of the state of California on June 6, 1978. ...

In 1964, broad access to higher education was further guaranteed by the creation of Title IV Federal Financial Aid Programs. Many state governments also created their own programs. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Theresa S. Shaw, Chief Operating Officer, Office of Federal Student Aid Federal Student Aid, an office of the U.S. Department of Education, plays a central and essential role in Americas postsecondary education community. ...

The Department of Health, Education and Welfare was reorganized under the Carter administration as the U.S. Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services. The new federal Education Department began operation in 1980. The United States Department of Education was created in 1979 (by PL 96-88) as a Cabinet-level department of the United States government, and began operating in 1980. ...


See also: Education in the United States#Funding

A number of issues swirl around the problems of public education but these concerns dominate conversations regarding school finance: Educational oversight Secretary Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Raymond Simon National education budget $1. ...

  • Private and public good of education
    • Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations discusses, at length, the importance of an educated populace. Studies show comparisons of the cost of one year of school to the cost of one year of prison demonstrating that prison is far more costly. Though the links between education and prisons are debatable, evidence suggests a strong correlation between lack of education and likelihood of committing a crime and being incarcerated. States with low-dropout rates have a lower rate of incarceration.
    • The public good comes into question as well when considering how school districts set their boundaries, granting and limiting access to students based on their physical and financial positions in the community. Debates over the borders of school districts frequently involve issues of race and class.
  • Autonomy
    • Responding to criticisms of failures of management because of highly centralized structures, site-based management has come to the fore as a way to improve academic performance with localized solutions.
  • Concept of fiscal federalism
    • Funding is multi-layered. While it is generally the local tax base which is responsible for supporting the schools, a certain amount of funding is also passed on from the state and federal levels. Recently, as the federal government reduces support for education the schools are forced into painful fiscal adjustments as promised moneys never arrive.
  • The funding of programs for students with special mental or physical needs and the extent of access, inclusion, and opportunity provided to such students.
  • Efficiency
  • Equal opportunity (Title IX, No Child Left Behind, Brown v. Board of Education, Proposition 13)

For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Adam Smith An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776 during the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Fiscal federalism is the system of transfer payments or grants by which a federal government shares its revenues with lower levels of government. ... Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, now known as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of its principal author, but more commonly known simply as Title IX, is a 76-word United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: No person... Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Proposition 13 was a ballot initiative enacted by the voters of the state of California on June 6, 1978. ...

School vouchers

Main article: School voucher

In recent years, politicians have criticized the public education system, arguing that it has failed in some areas, particularly inner-cities. School performance is generally measured by student performance on standardized tests, typically administered by the state. One major problem facing the modern education system is how to fix schools that consistently "underperform" - have large numbers of students who score poorly on the test. A school voucher, also called an education voucher, is a certificate by which parents are given the ability to pay for the education of their children at a school of their choice, rather than the public school (UK state school) to which they were assigned. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a consistent manner. ...

One solution advocated by Milton Friedman and advocated politically by the United States Republican Party is the use of school vouchers. Students in districts with underperforming schools would be given money by the government to attend the school of their choice. Proponents argue that this would put the public schools in competition with private ones, and that competition would result in better choices for the public. In addition, a recent publication by the United States Department of Education has admitted that the average cost of public education per pupil is slightly more than double the cost per pupil of a private education, even though public schools have more students per teacher. Thus, there was no economy of scale as the per pupil cost should theoretically decline the more students there are per teacher. When looking at the cost of public education versus private, one should consider the enormous cost of special education which the public school bears not only for the students who attend public school, but also the ones that attend private school. Students with special needs at a private school have their services paid for by the local public school's budget. Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... ...

Milton Friedman has argued that this is the result of public schools having no accountability to the market, and subsequently no accountability to parents or students. This lack of accountability, he believes, not only contributes to an inefficient use of resources and taxpayer dollars, but a poor education that does not fulfill the needs of students and parents. The vouchers would offer choice to parents and students if a public school did not provide them with the quality education they desired, as the voucher could be used at other public or private schools. Schools that lose students lose money, and schools that gain students gain money, thus providing a strong incentive to become efficient and accountable. Friedman does not deny that some schools will be hurt or close as a result, but he argues that it is necessary to eliminate the deadweight from the school system to bring efficiency and accountability back to education. Friedman and supporters of the voucher system believe that the market accountability will create positive results that can be emulated by even the worst public schools.

Opponents of the voucher system believe this will sap money from public schools, potentially destroying them. Another criticism is that private schools, unlike public schools, are not required to accept any student who comes through their doors. Furthermore, the use of tax-supported vouchers to support private schools amounts to a government subsidy for those schools. The state, unlike in the case of public schools, has far less control over the curriculum and operation, including employment policies of these private schools. Because of this, critics of the voucher scheme argue that it would violate both the principle of "no taxation without representation" as unlike a public school board, the trustees of private schools are not elected by the populace. In addition, some critics argue it would violate the separation of church and state (vouchers would help fund schools with religious curricula or that may hire and fire based on criteria such as remarriage after divorce.) Others note that is a broad reading of the constitution.

Alternative/charter schools

Also in recent years, there has been a proliferation in alternative schools. Most prominent of these has been the movement towards charter schools. Charter schools are public schools (both owned publicly and publicly funded), which are run independently of the local school district and tend to have less bureaucracy, with mixed results on the students' performance on standardized tests. Additionally, charter schools can have a "theme": some specialize in teaching mathematics and science, others in teaching students who are considered "at-risk." Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States which have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools, in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each charter school... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States which have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools, in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each charter school... Originally a standardized test was simply a standard test – of academic achievement or of knowledge in a specific academic or vocational domain. ...

Bilingual education

Bilingual education, the teaching of students in two languages, has become a contentious topic in recent decades. See bilingual education for main article. Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. ...

Proposed abolition

The Alliance for the Separation of School & State and various libertarian groups have proposed abolishing public education. In 1963, Nathaniel Branden wrote an essay, Common Fallacies About Capitalism, which devoted a section to excoriating public education. Branden compared education to shoes, arguing that private enterprise is more efficient at providing goods and services than the government. Branden's essay was published in Ayn Rand's Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal[2]. Paleoconservatives argue that modern national public education systems serve as ideological enforcement mechanisms in a managerial state. The Alliance for the Separation of School & State, of Fresno, California, is one of the largest U.S. advocacy organizations supporting an end to public education. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Nathaniel Branden (b. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] known for creating a philosophy she named Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the... The term paleoconservative (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) refers to an American branch of conservative Old Right thought that stands against both the mainstream tradition of the National Review magazine and the neoconservatives. ... Managerial State is a paleoconservative concept used in critiquing modern social democracy in Western countries. ...

Such proposals face considerable barriers, as all 50 state constitutions mandate public funding of education. For instance, Article VIII of the Virginia Constitution requires the legislature to "provide for a system of free public elementary and secondary schools for all children of school age throughout the Commonwealth"[3]. The Constitution of Virginia is a United States state constitution. ...

See also

Free education is a policy stance in politics that ensures education for its citizens up to a certain level. ... This is a list of articles on education organized by country: Education in Afghanistan Education in Albania Education in Algeria Education in Argentina Education in Armenia Education in Australia Education in Austria Education in Bangladesh Higher Education in Bangladesh Education in Belarus Education in Belgium Education in Bolivia Education in...


  • Heller, Frank: Lessons from Maine: Education Vouchers for Students since 1873, Cato Institute, Sep. 10, 2001.
  • Thattai, Deeptha: A History of Public Education in the United States.
  • Michael Pons, NEA: School Vouchers: The Emerging Track Record
  • Li Yi. 2005. The Structure and Evolution of Chinese Social Stratification. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3331-5

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Public Education Network: Resources (0 words)
Public Education Network (PEN) is a national organization of local education funds (LEFs) and individuals working to improve public schools and build citizen support for quality public education in low-income communities across the nation.
To build public demand and mobilize resources for quality public education for all children through a national constituency of local education funds and individuals.
Our strategic plan seeks to elevate public education to a pre-eminent position in the public arena, and re-establish its place as the prime public institution fundamental to a democratic and civil society.
Public Education in the United States - MSN Encarta (1838 words)
After the American Revolution (1775-1783), the founders of the United States argued that education was essential for the prosperity and survival of the new nation.
Their reform efforts focused on elementary education, on the idea that all young children should be schooled, and on the notion that the content of education should be the same for everyone.
Public financing for secondary education was rare until 1874, when a Michigan Supreme Court decision involving the city of Kalamazoo established that communities could use local property taxes to support high schools.
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