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Encyclopedia > Public broadcasting

Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the viewing or listening public. Except for the United States, it has traditionally been the dominant form of broadcasting in much of the world. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ...


It is a system in which radio, television, and potentially other electronic media outlets receive some or all of their funding from the public. The broadcasters' funds can come directly from individuals through voluntary donations, license fees, or indirectly as state subsidies (which may be funded through a specific taxes, such as a television licence). Many public broadcasters supplement this with contributions from corporations, in return for underwriting spots. While these announcements resemble traditional advertisements on commercial broadcasting stations, there are usually limitations, such as a prohibition of making product claims, stating prices, or providing an incentive to buy. Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... Donation is a gift to a fund or cause, typically for charitable reasons. ... A television licence is an official licence required in some countries for all owners of a television receiver. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... A television licence (or more correctly broadcast receiver licence, as it usually also pays for public radio) is an official licence required in many countries for all owners of television (and sometimes also radio) receivers. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... An underwriting spot is an announcement made on public broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Commercial broadcasting now occurs in many countries around the world, and the number of countries with only public broadcasting has declined substantially. The mass media marketplace is tremendously competitive, and as such, it can be difficult for a public service broadcaster to survive amongst commercial interests. This may become even more of an issue with the increased number of channels that digital broadcasting provides. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...

Contents

Defining public broadcasting

There is no standard definition of what public broadcasting is exactly, although a number of official bodies have attempted to pick out the key characteristics. Public service broadcasters generally transmit programming that aims to improve society by informing viewers. In contrast, the aim of commercial outlets is to provide popular shows that attract an audience—therefore leading to higher prices when advertising is sold. For this reason, the ideals of public broadcasting are often incompatible with commercial goals. Of course, public broadcasters also strive to entertain their viewers, but they can still come across as being overly paternalistic in nature.


The Broadcasting Research Unit lists the following as major goals or characteristics of a public broadcaster:

  1. Geographic universality — The stations' broadcasts are available nationwide, with no exception. This criterion is failed by Five in the UK, which a substantial minority of the population cannot receive. Generally, the "nationwide" criterion is satisfied by either having member stations across the country (as is the case with PBS in the United States) or, as is the case with most other public broadcasters around the world, the broadcaster owning sufficient transmitters to broadcast nationwide.
  2. Catering for all interests and tastes — as exemplified by the BBC's range of minority channels (BBC Two, BBC Radio 3, etc.).
  3. Catering for minorities — much as above, but with racial and linguistic minorities. (for example S4C in Wales, BBC Asian Network, Radio-Canada, Australia's SBS).
  4. Concern for national identity and community — this essentially means that the stations should in the most part commission programmes from within the country, which may be more expensive than importing shows from abroad.
  5. Detachment from vested interests and government — in other words, programming should be impartial, and the stations should not be subject to control by advertisers or government. Even when a station is removed from corporate and government interests, critics argue that it may nonetheless have a bias towards the values of certain groups (e.g., the middle class, leftist politics, etc.).
  6. One broadcasting system to be directly funded by the corpus of users — For example, the licence fee in the case of the BBC,or member stations asking for donations in the case of the US's PBS/NPR.
  7. Competition in good programming rather than numbers — quality is the prime concern with a true public service broadcaster. Of course, in practice, ratings wars are rarely concerned with quality, although that may depend on how you define the word "quality".
  8. Guidelines to liberate programme makers and not restrict them — in the UK, guidelines, and not laws, govern what a programme maker can and cannot do, although these guidelines can be backed up by hefty penalties.

Some of these definition points may not be acceptable everywhere. For example in the United States public broadcasting may see part of its mission to bring in foreign shows, e.g. shows from the CBC/Radio-Canada or the BBC. Five, launched in 1997, is the fifth and final national terrestrial analogue television channel to launch in the United Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... BBC Radio 3 is a radio station operated by the BBC within the United Kingdom. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Asian Network logo BBC Asian Network studio at The Mailbox shopping centre, Birmingham. ... CBC redirects here, as this is the most common use of the abbreviation. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... A television licence (or more correctly broadcast receiver licence, as it usually also pays for public radio) is an official licence required in many countries for all owners of television (and sometimes also radio) receivers. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known by the abbreviation CBC, is Canadas government-owned radio and television broadcaster. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


An alternative model for implementing public service media exists, known as Citizen Media. As it relates to broadcasting, this generally means a radio or television outlet which has some sort of public access, that is, most or much of the programming is created by members of the public which receives the programming. This can be in the form of community radio, campus radio, and public access television, although the latter is not a form of over-the-air broadcasting, as it is only available on cable television systems. Citizen Media, Participatory Media, or Democratic Media refers to any form of content produced by private citizens, which has as its goal to inform and empower all members of society. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Look up public access television in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Advantages and disadvantages

Public broadcasters may receive all or a substantial part of their funding from government sources, either from the general tax revenues or from licence fees. Since public broadcasters do not rely on advertising as a source of revenue to the same degree as commercial broadcasters, this allows public broadcasters to air programs that are less saleable to the mass market, such as public affairs shows, documentaries, and educational programs. The fact that public broadcasters do not chase ratings in the same way as commercial broadcasters often leads to the criticism that they are unresponsive to what their viewers want.


Additionally, public broadcasting facilitates the implementation of cultural policy (an industrial policy and investment policy for culture). Some examples include: Cultural Policy is a public policy toward art and culture. ... An industrial policy is any government regulation or law that encourages the ongoing operation of, or investment in, a particular industry. ... An investment policy is any government regulation or law that encourages or discourages foreign investment in the local economy, e. ...

  • The Canadian government is committed to official bilingualism (English and French). As a result, the public broadcaster, the CBC employs translators and journalists who speak both official languages and it encourages production of cross-cultural material. Quebec separatists argue that this is also a policy of cultural imperialism and assimilation.
  • In the UK, the BBC supports multiculturalism and diversity, in part by using on-screen commentators and hosts of different ethnic origins.
  • In New Zealand, the public broadcasting system provides support to Maori (native New Zealander) broadcasting, as a way to improve the opportunities, maintain the cultural heritage and promote the language of these New Zealanders.

Critics of public broadcasting systems argue that this implementation of cultural policy imposes the values of the public broadcaster on the populace. However, it can also be argued that commercial broadcasting has a bias for certain values or cultural forms, such as pop culture, militarism, culture bias, and consumerism. Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... The Parti Québécois or PQ is a left wing political party that advocates national sovereignty for Quebec from Canada. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Cultural bias is interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to ones own culture. ... “Consumerist” redirects here. ...


Public broadcasting, and also some pirate broadcasting, provides a counterweight to the commercial media. Advocates of deliberative democracy argue that public broadcasting helps to maintain modern democracies, since public broadcasters can engage in journalism for its own sake. In wealthier countries public broadcasters tend to not be beholden to political parties or the government of the day. This is especially true where the broadcaster is funded by licensing fees and so, theoretically, not dependent on the government for any of its funding. Pirate broadcasting is unlicensed broadcasting of radio and television. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ...


Implementation of public broadcasting around the world

The model, established in the 1920s, of the British Broadcasting Corporation – an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II – was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain. The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC has always relied on a subsidy from general revenues of the government, in addition to advertising revenue, to support its television service. This means they must compete with commercial broadcasting. Some argue that this dilutes their mandate as truly public broadcasters, who have no commercial bias to distort their presentation. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The rest of this section looks at some specific implementations of public broadcasting around the world.


Asia

Pakistan

In Pakistan, the public broadcaster is the state owned PBC which is short for "Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation". It consists of PTV (Pakistan Television) and Radio Pakistan. In the past PBC was funded publicly through money obtained from television, radio and VCR licensing. Pakistan entered into Television Broadcasting age with a small pilot TV Station established at Lahore from where transmission was first beamed in Black & White with effect from 26 November 1964. Television centres were established in Dhaka, Karachi and Rawalpindi/Islamabad in 1967 and in Peshawar and Quetta in 1974. PTV has various channels trasmitting throughout the world including PTV National, PTV World, PTV 2, PTV Global, PTV Bolan etc. Radio Pakistan has stations covering all the major cities, it covers 80% of the country serving 95.5 Million listeners. It has world service in 07 languages daily.


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) is the sole public service broadcaster. Although a government department under administrative hierarchy, it enjoys editorial independence, and its director is promoted from within the department. It operates seven radio channels, and produces television programmes and broadcast on commercial television channels, as these channels are required by law to provide time slot for RTHK television programmes. The logo of RTHK Radio Television Hong Kong (abbreviation: RTHK; Chinese: 香港電台; Cantonese IPA: , Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 din6 toi4, Yale: hēung góng dihn tòih; Mandarin Pinyin: ) is a broadcasting organisation in Hong Kong that is operated as an independent department in the government under the Broadcasting Authority. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


Japan

In Japan, the main public broadcaster is the national NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) , sometimes informally referred to as Radio Tokyo by English speakers. The broadcaster was set up in 1926 and was modelled on the British Broadcasting Company, the precursor to the British Broadcasting Corporation created in 1927. Much like the BBC, NHK is funded by a "receiving fee" by every Japanese household, with no commercial advertising and the maintenance of a position of strict political impartiality. NHK runs two national terrestrial TV stations (NHK General and NHK Educational) and three satellite only services (NHK BS-1, BS-2 and the hi-definition NHK Hi-Vision services). NHK also runs 3 national radio services and a number of international radio and television services, akin to the BBC World Service. NHK has also been an innovator in television, developing the world's first high definition television technology in 1964 and launching high definition services in Japan in 1981. NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on October 18, 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ...


Malaysia

In Malaysia, the public broadcaster is the state owned RTM which is short for "Radio Televisyen Malaysia" (Malaysian Radio and Television).RTM was previously funded publicly through money obtained from television licensing, however it is currently state subsidised as television licences has been abolished. The first RTM logo used from 1957-1963 The second RTM logo used from 1963-1969 The third RTM logo used from 1969-1978 The fourth RTM logo used from 1978-1987 The fifth RTM logo used from 1987-2004 The sixth RTM logo used from 2004-present Radio Televisyen... A television licence (or more correctly broadcast receiver licence, as it usually also pays for public radio) is an official licence required in many countries for all owners of television (and sometimes also radio) receivers. ...


At present, RTM operates 8 national, 16 state and 7 district radio stations as well as 2 national terrestrial television channels called RTM1 and RTM2. RTM is also currently doing tests on a new digital television channel called RTMi. Tests involving 2000 residential homes in the Klang Valley began in September 2006 and is expected to be complete by March 2007. Klang Valley is the area in central Selangor, Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs naturally delineated by hilly areas and the Port Klang coastline. ...


Europe

In most countries in Europe, state broadcasters are funded through a mix of advertising and public money, either through a licence fee or directly from the government. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Germany

Following World War II, when regional broadcasters had been merged into one national network by the Nazis to create a powerful means of propaganda, the Allies insisted on a de-centralized, independent structure for German public broadcasting and created regional public broadcasting agencies that, by and large, still exist today. In addition to these nine regional radio and TV broadcasters, which cooperate within ARD, a second national television service (ZDF) was later created in 1961 and a national radio service with two networks (Deutschlandradio) emerged from the remains of Cold War propaganda stations in 1994. All services are mainly financed through license fees paid by everybody who keeps a radio or TV set "ready for use", and are governed by councils of representatives of the "societally relevant groups". Public TV and radio stations spend about 60 % of the ~10 Bil. € spent altogether for broadcasting in Germany per year. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – the Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany), is a joint organization of Germanys regional public broadcasting agencies. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... DeutschlandRadio is the national German radio network. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


Netherlands

Main article: Public-service broadcasting in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands a different system is used to most other countries. Public-broadcasting associations are allocated money and time to broadcast their programmes on the publicly owned television and radio channels. The time and money is allocated in proportion to their membership numbers. The system is intended to reflect the diversity of all the groups composing the nation. Publieke Omroeps logo Public-service broadcasting in the Netherlands is provided jointly by a number of broadcasting organizations under the tutelage of the Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS). ...


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has a strong tradition of public service broadcasting. In addition to the British Broadcasting Corporation, there is also Channel 4, a state-owned commercial public service broadcaster, and S4C, a Welsh language broadcaster in Wales. Furthermore, the two commercial analogue broadcasters ITV and Five also have significant public service obligations imposed as part of their licence to broadcast. In the United Kingdom the term public service broadcasting (PSB) refers to broadcasting intended for the public benefit rather than for purely commercial concerns. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... This article is about the British television station. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... Five, launched in 1997, is the fifth and final national terrestrial analogue television channel to launch in the United Kingdom. ...


North America

Canada

In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (the CBC), which operates two television networks (CBC Television and SRC), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Two, La Première Chaîne and Espace musique) and two 24-hour news channels (CBC Newsworld and RDI) in both of Canada's official languages. CBC's television operations are funded in part by advertisements, in addition to tax dollars from the federal government (Newsworld and RDI are funded entirely by commercials). CBC's radio operations are commercial-free. In recent years, the CBC was frequently battered by budget cuts and labour disputes. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... CBC Television is a Canadian English language television network. ... Télévision de Radio-Canada[1] is a Canadian French language television network. ... CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... CBC Radio Two is an FM radio network in Canada, operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... La Première Chaîne is the news and information service of la Société Radio-Canada, the French-language public broadcaster in Canada. ... Espace musique is the French language musical radio service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation / Société Radio-Canada, the national public broadcaster in Canada. ... CBC Newsworld is a Canadian 24-hour cable news television channel operated by the CBC. It broadcasts into over 10 million homes nation-wide, as well as into some northern states in the U.S. It is the worlds third-oldest television service of this nature, after CNN in... Réseau de linformation (RDI) is a 24 hour Canadian French language cable television news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. ...


In addition, several provinces operate public broadcasters; these are not CBC subentities, but distinct networks in their own right. These include the English-language TVOntario and the French-language TFO in Ontario, Télé-Québec in Quebec, SCN in Saskatchewan, public radio station CKUA in Alberta, and Knowledge Network in British Columbia. Some of the provincial broadcasters operate through conventional transmitters, while others are cable-only channels. TVOntario, officially the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, is an educational public television broadcaster in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... TFO is a French language educational public television network in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Télé-Québec is the television network operated by the provincial government of Quebec, Canada. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Saskatchewan Communications Network is a Saskatchewan public television educational channel owned by the Saskatchewan government. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... CKUA is a Canadian radio station. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Knowledge Network (call sign CKNO) is a public television educational television network in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735...


Alberta also has a semi-public television network, ACCESS, which is licensed to provide some public service programming but is owned and operated by a commercial broadcaster. The network, formerly a public broadcaster operated by the provincial government, was sold to CHUM Limited in 1995. CJRT-FM in Toronto also operated as a public government-owned radio station for many years; while no longer funded by the provincial government, it still solicits most of its budget from listener and corporate donations and is permitted to air only a very small amount of commercial advertising. One television station, CFTU in Montreal, operates as an educational station owned by the Université de Montréal. Some other universities have dedicated cable channels to broadcast educational programming, but no other university in Canada operates a conventional broadcast television station. CJAL is an educational television station in Edmonton, Alberta branded as ACCESS, Albertas provincial educational broadcasting service. ... This article is about the history of the CHUM Limiteds former assets, for the current ownership see CTVglobemedia. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... CJRT-FM is a Canadian public radio station, which broadcasts at 91. ... CFTU, which uses the on-air brand Canal Savoir, is a Quebec-based commercial-free educational television channel owned by the Université de Montréal. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The Université de Montréal (UdeM) (translated into English commonly as (the) University of Montreal) is one of six universities in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...


Some local community stations also operate non-commercially with funding from corporate and individual donors. In addition, cable companies are required to produce a local community channel in each licensed market. Such channels have traditionally aired community talk shows, city council meetings and other locally oriented programming, although it is becoming increasingly common for them to adopt the format and branding of a local news channel. Community Channel Community Channel broadcasts across the UK on digital cable (NTL and Telewest) and digital terrestrial television (Freeview), and also both the UK and Republic of Ireland on digital satellite television (Sky). ...


Canada also has a large number of campus radio and community radio stations. Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ...


United States

The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned both PBS and NPR.
The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned both PBS and NPR.

Public broadcasting in the United States is as old as broadcasting itself. Most early public stations were operated by state colleges and universities, and were often run as part of the schools' cooperative extension services. Stations in this era were internally funded, and did not rely on listener contributions to operate; some accepted advertising. Networks such as Iowa, South Dakota, and Wisconsin Public Radio began in this way. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 502 KB) Summary The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned the PBS and the NPR. Photograph taken 2005-11. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 502 KB) Summary The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned the PBS and the NPR. Photograph taken 2005-11. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... The U.S. National Association of Educational Broadcasters (NAEB) began as the Association of College University Broadcasting Stations (ACUBS). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... The cooperative extension service, also known as the Extension Service of the USDA, is a non-formal educational program implemented in the United States that is designed to help people use research-based knowledge to improve their lives. ... Iowa Public Radio is a proposed radio network in the U.S. state of Iowa that would combine the operations of current public radio stations run by Iowa State University, the University of Iowa, and University of Northern Iowa. ... South Dakota Public Broadcasting, or SDPB for short, is a network of PBS television and NPR radio stations serving the state of South Dakota. ... Wisconsin Public Radio is a network of radio stations in the state of Wisconsin devoted to public radio programming. ...


The concept of a "non-commercial, educational" station per se does not show up in U.S. law until the 1940s, when the FM band was moved to its present location; the part of the band between 88.1 and 91.9 MHz is reserved for such stations, though they are not limited to those frequencies. Educational television, the forerunner of modern U.S. public television, evolved in big cities in the 1950s; in rural areas, it was not uncommon for colleges to operate commercial stations instead (e.g., the University of Missouri's KOMU-TV, an NBC affiliate). In most of the world, the FM broadcast band, used for broadcasting FM radio stations, goes from 87. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The University of Missouri System is the designated public research and land-grant university system of the state of Missouri. ... KOMU-TV (Channel 8) is the NBC affiliate serving the cities of Columbia and Jefferson City, MO along with several surrounding counties in central Missouri. ... This article is about the television network. ...


In the United States, public broadcasting is decentralized and is not government operated, but does receive some government support. The majority of funding comes from community support to hundreds of public radio and public television stations, each of which is an individual entity licensed to one of several different non-profit organizations, municipal or state governments, or universities. These organizations often produce their own programs, but many largely depend upon national producers and program distributors such as National Public Radio (NPR), Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Public Radio International (PRI), American Public Television (APT), and American Public Media. U.S. government support is filtered through a separate organization, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). “NPR” redirects here. ... “PBS” redirects here. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a Minneapolis-based American public radio organization. ... American Public Television (APT) is a distributor and source of programming for public television stations in the United States and networks worldwide. ... American Public Media logo American Public Media is the brand under which Minnesota Public Radio distributes public radio programming outside of the state of Minnesota. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ...


Television

In the United States the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) (formerly National Educational Television) television network operates on a largely viewer-supported basis (see telethon), with commercial sponsors of specific programs. Over time, sponsorship announcements ("underwriting") have slowly transformed into something resembling regular TV advertisements, though they are usually shorter and have a more muted tone than what normally appears on commercial and cable TV, and many organizations still only receive a short thanks for their contributions. Underwriting may only issue declarative statements (including slogans) and may not include "calls to action". Most communities also have public access services on local cable television stations, which are sometimes supported in part through donations. “PBS” redirects here. ... The color NET logo was incorporated into a model building at the beginning and end of Mister Rogers Neighborhood from 1969 to 1970. ... The 2005 Telethon on Seven Perth. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ...


US public broadcasting for television has, from the late 1960s onward, dealt with severe criticism from conservative politicians and think-tanks, which allege that its programming has a leftist bias. In contrast to European public broadcasting systems, which tend to dominate their national marketplaces, US public broadcasting is, and has always been, a niche service that provides programming not found elsewhere on the system, such as cultural programs, documentaries, and public affairs shows. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Radio

The first publicly funded radio station in the United States was KPFA of the Pacifica Radio Network in Berkeley, California, founded by pacifists Lew Hill and John Lewis in 1946. Pacifica now operates five stations - Berkeley; Los Angeles; Houston; Washington, D.C.; and New York City, and distributes syndicated programming via satellite to affiliates. KPFA is a listener-sponsored radio station located in Berkeley, California, broadcasting to the San Francisco Bay area on 94. ... Pacifica Radio Network. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... Lewis Hill (1919-1957) was the founder of Pacifica Radio, the first listener-supported radio station in the United States. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... “Houston” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


A public radio network, National Public Radio (NPR), was created in 1970, following the passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 which established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This network (generally exclusive of Pacifica) is colloquially though inaccurately referred to as Public Radio. Independent local public radio stations buy their programming from distributors such as NPR; Public Radio International (PRI); American Public Media (APM); The Public Radio Exchange (PRX); and Pacifica, most often distributed through the Public Radio Satellite System (PRSS). Around these distributed programs, stations fill varying amounts of local programming. “NPR” redirects here. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a Minneapolis-based American public radio organization. ... American Public Media logo American Public Media is the brand under which Minnesota Public Radio distributes public radio programming outside of the state of Minnesota. ...


Public radio stations in the U.S. tend to broadcast a mixture of news and talk radio programming along with some music. Some of the larger operations split off these formats into separate stations or networks. Public music stations are probably best known for playing classical music, although other formats have been used, including the time-honored "eclectic" music format that is rather freeform in nature (common among college radio stations; jazz is another public radio programming staple. Also, XM Satellite Radio provides a station of public radio programs licensed from all three content providers. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Freeform, or freeform radio, is a radio station programming format in which the disc jockey is given total control over what music to play, regardless of music genre or commercial interests. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... “XM” redirects here. ...


Local stations derive most of the funding for their operations through regular pledge drives and corporate sponsorship (euphemistically termed "underwriting" on-air). The local stations then contract with program distributors and also provide some programming themselves. NPR produces some of its own programming such as Morning Edition; Weekend Edition; and All Things Considered. PBS and PRI, by contrast, do not create their own content. NPR also receives some direct funding from private donors, foundations, and from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Some other public networks, such as Pacifica, are almost entirely member-funded and do not receive significant sponsorship from corporations or governmental sources. Fundraising is the term referring to the process of soliciting and gathering money by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ... Morning Edition is an American radio news program produced and distributed by National Public Radio (NPR). ... Weekend Edition is the name given to a set of American radio news magazines produced and distributed by National Public Radio (NPR). ... All Things Considered (ATC), is a news radio program in the United States, broadcast on the National Public Radio network. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ... Pacifica may refer to: Pacifica (song), a famous instrumental surf rock song, recorded by Los Straitjackets. ...


Oceania

Australia

In Australia, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is funded entirely through an Australian Government grant-in-aid, which has made it vulnerable to cuts in government spending. The multicultural Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), another public broadcaster, now accepts limited sponsorship and advertising. Imparja is an Aboriginal community broadcaster in Australia that receives funding from the Federal Government. Most of its programs are bought from Australia's commercial broadcasters, and it only airs a small amount of local content. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... Imparja Television (callsign IMP) is a commercial television network servicing remote eastern and central Australia. ...


In addition, there are a number of community television stations (most operating as Channel 31 despite being unrelated across different states) and radio stations that survive almost entirely on donations and corporate sponsorship. They are organised similarly to PBS and NPR stations in the US, however are much less powerful; largely due to competition from the ABC and SBS. They also take on the role that public access stations have in the US. Channel 31 is the frequency reserved for community television stations in Australian capital cities. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the former public broadcaster BCNZ (formerly NZBC) was broken up into separate state-owned corporations, Television New Zealand (TVNZ) and Radio New Zealand (RNZ). While RNZ remains commercial-free, about 90% of funding for TVNZ comes from selling advertising during programmes on their two stations. TVNZ continues to to be a public broadcaster; however like CBC Television in Canada it is essentially a fully commercial network in continuous ratings battles with other stations. The TVNZ Television Centre in Central Auckland. ... Radio New Zealand Limited is New Zealands public service radio broadcaster. ...


Programmes offered on TVNZ include popular shows like Desperate Housewives, ER, Lost, Cold Case, and Dancing with the Stars. TVNZ operates two stations: TVONE and TV2 and hold majority ratings in the country. Because of its high ratings some of the most expensive advertising slots in the country are charged. Desperate Housewives is an American television comedy-drama series, created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as show runner, and produced by ABC Studios - The Walt Disney Companys main television studio - and Cherry Productions. ... ER is an Emmy-winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. ... “LOST” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold case (disambiguation). ... Countries with their own version Dancing with the Stars is the name for a number of international television series based on the format of the British series Strictly Come Dancing. ...


The Government owns a network of reserved channels for non-commercial regional access broadcasting, and some of them have been awarded to local community trusts to provide public service and access television. Examples are Triangle TV in Auckland and Wellington; and Channel 7 in Taranaki. Triangle TV is a televison station in Auckland, New Zealand. ...


Latin America

Despite a moderate state presence in television media since the 1970s, Latin America has never had a strong history of European style public service radio or television. The closest model to the British BBC is that of Chile's Televisión Nacional, an open channel which serves the entire country (including Easter Island and Antarctica bases). Televisión Nacional, popularly known as channel 7 because of its Santiago frequency, is governed by a seven-member board appointed by the Chilean Senate. It is meant to be independent of political pressures, although accusations of bias have been made, especially during election campaigns. Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN) is Chiles national television station. ... “Rapa Nui” redirects here. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ...


In most Latin American countries, the private sector has taken the leading role in the development of television networks. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be either very weak and under-funded (as the Argentinian ATC), or to be clearly under the control of the party in power (like Cuban Cubavisión and Venezuelan VTV). Starting from these singularities, commercial broadcasting quickly and effectively conquered its audiences, leaving public and state broadcasting a token role. In some countries, such as Ecuador, where broadcasting was originally legally defined as a commercial venture, a public broadcaster was never born. Motto En unión y libertad(Spanish) In Union and Freedom Anthem Himno Nacional Argentino Capital (and largest city) Buenos Aires Official languages Spanish Demonym Argentinian, Argentine Government Federal republic  -  President Néstor Kirchner  -  Vice President Daniel Scioli  -  Chief of Cabinet Alberto Fernández Independence from Spain   -  May Revolution 25... Canal 7 Argentina is an Argentine television network. ... Cubavision International (Spanish: Cubavision Internacional) is an internationally-broadcast Spanish language channel run by Cubas national broadcaster, Cuban Television. ... CIVT, also known as BC CTV, CTV 9 and CTV British Columbia, is a Bell Globemedia television station in Vancouver, British Columbia, and is a part of the CTV Television Network. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Recently, under the initiative of the Venezuelan government of Hugo Chávez, and with the support of the governments of Argentina, Uruguay and Cuba, the public news channel Telesur was created with the declared intent of giving Latin America a continent-wide news channel that can present world news with a Latin American vision and perspective. There is an ongoing debate on whether Telesur will be able become a neutral and fair news channel able to counter the huge influence of American networks like CNN, or whether it will end up as a propaganda tool of the Venezuelan government, which owns a 51 percent share of said channel. [1] Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías(IPA: ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... For the unrelated telecommunications company in Suriname, see Telesur (Suriname). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


List of public broadcasters

North America

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Knowledge Network (call sign CKNO) is a public television educational television network in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... “NPR” redirects here. ... “PBS” redirects here. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a Minneapolis-based American public radio organization. ... Pacifica Radio Network. ... Saskatchewan Communications Network is a Saskatchewan public television educational channel owned by the Saskatchewan government. ... Télé-Québec is the television network operated by the provincial government of Quebec, Canada. ... TFO is a French language educational public television network in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... TVOntario, officially the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, is an educational public television broadcaster in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... CKUA is a Canadian radio station. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... CJRT-FM is a Canadian public radio station, which broadcasts at 91. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... CFTU, which uses the on-air brand Canal Savoir, is a Quebec-based commercial-free educational television channel owned by the Université de Montréal. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Annenberg may refer to: Moses Annenberg Walter Annenberg Leonore Annenberg, former United States Chief of Protocol and current head of the Annenberg Foundation The Annenberg Foundation The Annenberg Center for Communication of the University of Southern California The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania The Annenberg Institute... CPB may refer to: the Corporation for Public Broadcasting the Communist Party of Britain This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Look up create in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... American Public Media logo American Public Media is the brand under which Minnesota Public Radio distributes public radio programming outside of the state of Minnesota. ... PRX may refer to: PRX - A telephone switching platform developed by Philips. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Latin America

Canal 7 Argentina is an Argentine television network. ... LW 83 TV Channel 10 Tucuman is one of the two free-to-air channels in the province of Tucumán. ... San Miguel de Tucumán (usually referred to as simply Tucumán) is the largest city in northwestern Argentina, with a population (2001) of 525,853. ... Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN) is Chiles national television station. ... Señal Colombia is a Colombian Television Channel established by the Government. ... Telecaribe is a regional television station for the Caribbean region of Colombia. ... For other places with the same name, see Barranquilla (disambiguation). ... Telepacífico is a Colombian regional public television network, created in 1986 as the city of Cali celebrated its 450th anniversary. ... Cubavision International (Spanish: Cubavision Internacional) is an internationally-broadcast Spanish language channel run by Cubas national broadcaster, Cuban Television. ... Venezolana de Televisión (or VTV) is a state-owned television station that can be seen throughout Venezuela under the signal of channel 8. ... Televisión Educativa is an educational television station in Venezuela that is owned and maintained by the INCE (Instituto Nacional de Cooperación Educativa), a government agency. ... ViVe (Visión Venezuela) is a cultural television network funded by the Venezuelan national government that was inaugurated on November 11, 2003 and whose objective consists of spreading information related to achievements made by Hugo Chávez’s political possess and the encouragement of Venezuelan cultural. ... For the unrelated telecommunications company in Suriname, see Telesur (Suriname). ...

Africa

The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state-owned broadcaster in South Africa and provides 18 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 4 television broadcasts to the general public. ...

Asia

Israel Broadcasting Authority (often referred to as the IBA) (Hebrew: רשות השידור, Reshut haShidur) is Israels state broadcasting network. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... NHK (日本放送協会, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... The first RTM logo used from 1957-1963 The second RTM logo used from 1963-1969 The third RTM logo used from 1969-1978 The fourth RTM logo used from 1978-1987 The fifth RTM logo used from 1987-2004 The sixth RTM logo used from 2004-present Radio Televisyen... Taiwan Public Television Service Foundation (PTS, 公共電視文化事業基金會) is the first independent public broadcasting institution in the Republic of China (ROC). ... Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) was established on November 23, 1997 following a demand that the electronic media in India should be made free from the Government control and given autonomy in their functioning. ... For the electronica band, see All India Radio (band). ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the major television broadcaster in Mainland China. ... Television Programs RTHK produces public affairs television programs which are broadcast by Hong Kongs three commercial television channels, TVB, ATV and Cable TV. These programmes include Hong Kong Connection (鏗鏘集), A Week in Politics (議事論事), Media Watch (傳媒春秋) and Police Magazine... For other uses, see KBS. Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) is South Koreas premier public broadcaster and one of four major Korean television networks. ...

Australasia (Oceania)

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Imparja Television (callsign IMP) is a commercial television network servicing remote eastern and central Australia. ... Radio New Zealand Limited is New Zealands public service radio broadcaster. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ...

Europe

ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – the Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany), is a joint organization of Germanys regional public broadcasting agencies. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... The Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR) is a public broadcaster in the German Bundesland North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office is in Köln. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Current logo of Norddeutscher Rundfunk. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Radio Bremen, the smallest public radio and television broadcaster in Germany, based in Bremen. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The Arte building in Strasbourg Arte (Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne) is a Franco-German TV network, which aims to promote quality programming related to the world of arts and culture. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Bulgarian National Television is a Bulgarian language public television station founded in 1959 which began broadcast on December 26. ... BRF headquarters in Eupen. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... BVN-TV or short BVN (het Beste van Vlaanderen en Nederland; the best of the Netherlands and Flanders - also called: het Beeld van Vlaanderen en Nederland; The image of the Netherlands and Flandre) is a public television channel for Dutch and Flemish viewers all over the world. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Logo of ÄŒeská televizes ÄŒT1 channel. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Danmarks Radio (normally referred to as just DR) is Denmarks national broadcasting corporation. ... Duna TV or Duna Televízió is one of two state-owned public television companies in Hungary. ... Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi (Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση — Hellenic Broadcasting [and] Television) is Greeces state-owned public television broadcasting corporation. ... Eesti Televisioon or ETV is the national public television station of Estonia. ... Logo France télévisions headquarters in Paris France Télévisions is the French public national television broadcaster. ... GBC, Gibraltars public service broadcaster has provided the community with a radio and television service since 1963. ... Croatian Radiotelevision or Hrvatska radiotelevizija (HRT) is the Croatian public broadcasting company. ... Lithuanian National Radio and Television (Lithuanian:  ) is the national public broadcasting company of Lithuania. ... Magyar Televízió (or Hungarian Television) is a Hungarian national public service television company, which operates two channels, called M1, M2. ... Macedonian Radio Television (Македонска Радио Телевизија - Makedonska Radio Televizija - MRT) is the public broadcasting organization of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian state-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. ... ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk, literally Austrian Broadcasting) is the national Austrian public service broadcaster. ... Public Broadcasting Services Limited (PBS) is Maltas public broadcasting company, responsible for the TVM television channel and the Radio Malta and Radju Parlament(106. ... Publieke Omroeps logo Publieke Omroep is the Dutch broadcasting company that is responsible for the Dutch TV Channels Nederland 1, Nederland 2 & Nederland 3. ... Logo of BNN BNN or Barts Neverending Network (formerly Barts News Network, as a pun on Cable News Network) is a Dutch public broadcasting association supported by the Netherlands Public Broadcasting. ... The Evangelische Omroep (EO, English:Evangelical Broadcast) is one of the public broadcast associations in the Netherlands. ... Kro (sometimes referred to as the Warlord Kro) is a is a Marvel Comics supervillain. ... LLiNK is A Dutch public broadcasting association supported by the Netherlands Public Broadcasting. ... NCRV or Nederlandse Christelijke Radio Vereniging (Dutch Christian Radio Association) is a radio and television broadcaster in the Netherlands, mostly transmitting over Nederland 1. ... In Greek mythology, King Tros of Dardania, son of Erichthonius from whom he inherited the throne and the father of three named sons: Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. ... The Omroepvereniging VARA (VARA Broadcasting Association) is a public broadcasting organization in the Netherlands, founded in 1925 as the Vereeniging van Arbeiders Radio Amateurs (Association of Worker Radio Amateurs). ... The VPRO (originally an acronym for Vrijzinnig Protestantse Radio Omroep, or free-thinking protestant radio broadcasting company, but since long the acronym has been kept but its meaning dropped) was established in the Netherlands in 1926 as a religious broadcasting organization, linked to the protestant pillar. ... Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, S.A., commonly known as RTP and Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (Portuguese for Radio and Television of Portugal), and as one of its subsidiaries, RTP; is the Portuguese public service broadcasting organization. ... Radio France is the French public service radio broadcaster. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rundfunkanstalt Südtirol (Italian: Radiotelevisione Azienda Speciale, Ladin: Radiotelevijion- Azienda per Südtirol, South Tyrol Broadcasting Agency) is a public broadcasting service for the mostly German-speaking Autonomous Province of South Tyrol, Italy whose purpose is to relay programmes from public broadcasters of Austria, Germany, German and Romansh Switzerland. ... RTBF official logo RTBF or Radio télévision belge de la communauté française is the national broadcasting organisation of the government of the French-speaking southern part of Belgium, the counterpart to the Dutch-speaking VRT in the northern part of the country. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... In computer science, the code generation is a compilation stage that outputs machine code in the target language. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Radio Telefís Éireann[1] (RTÉ; IPA: ,  ) is the Public Service Broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland. ... Radio Television of Serbia (Serbian: (PTC) or ) is the public broadcaster in Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH) is the state broadcaster in Albania, founded in 1938 under Italian rule and operated from Tirana. ... Radiotelevizija Slovenija or RTV Slovenija (English: Radio-Television Slovenia) is the national public broadcasting organization of Slovenia. ... Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE) is the public Spanish broadcasting corporation. ... Ríkisútvarpið (IPA: ) or RÚV (English: The National Icelandic Broadcasting Service) is Icelands main public-service broadcaster. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru, which is Welsh for Channel Four Wales) is a television channel in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Sjónvarp Føroya (SvF) means Television of the Faroes. ... SRG SSR idée suisse is the Swiss public broadcasting organisation, founded in 1931. ... The STV Tower: Slovak TVs headquarters in Bratislava Slovak Television (STV; Slovenská televízia in Slovak) is a state-owned public television network in Slovakia. ... Sveriges Radio (SR) - Swedish Radio Ltd - is Swedens national publicly-funded radio broadcaster. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... Sveriges Utbildningsradio (UR) — the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company — is a public-service corporation dedicated to serving the needs of the Swedish general public by providing educational programming on radio and television. ... TG4 (Irish: TG Ceathair or TG a Ceathair; IPA: /tiː dÊ’iː kʲahəɾʲ/) is a television channel in Ireland, aimed at Irish-language speakers and established as a wholly owned subsidiary by Radio Telefís Éireann on 31 October 1996. ... Telewizja Polska Spółka Akcyjna (TVP S.A., Polish Television) is Polands public television network broadcasting corporation. ... Televiziunea Română (pronunciation: télévizju:nèa ro:mÄ«nÉ™), more commonly referred to as TVR (pronunciation: tévéré) is the national state-owned public service television broadcaster of Romania. ... TRT Headquarters in Ankara TRT, the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), was founded in 1964, it is the national public broadcaster of Turkey. ... VRT official logo The communications tower at the headquarters of VRT in Brussels. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... YLE (Yleisradio in Finnish, Rundradion in Swedish), Finlands National Broadcasting Company, was founded in 1926. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ...

See also

Citizen Media, Participatory Media, or Democratic Media refers to any form of content produced by private citizens, which has as its goal to inform and empower all members of society. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... Corporate media is a term used by some political progressives which refers to a system of media production, distribution, ownership, and funding which is dominated by corporations, and is governed by the capitalist imperatives of maximizing profits for the investors, stockholders, and advertisers. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Pirate broadcasting is unlicensed broadcasting of radio and television. ... Religious broadcasting is broadcasting religious organizations, usually with a religious message. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
public television: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3344 words)
Public broadcasters receive all or a substantial part of their funding from government sources, either from the general tax revenues or from licence fees.
Since public broadcasters do not rely on advertising as a source of revenue to the same degree as commercial broadcasters, this allows public broadcasters to air programs that are less saleable to the mass market, such as public affairs shows, documentaries, and educational programs.
Public music stations are probably best known for playing classical music, although other formats have been used, including the emerging "eclectic" music format that is rather freeform in nature (common among college radio stations, though a well-known eclectic NPR member station is KCRW in California).
Public Service Broadcasting (1366 words)
Public service broadcasting is based on the principles of universality of service, diversity of programming, provision for minority audiences including the disadvantaged, sustaining an informed electorate, and cultural and educational enrichment.
The roots of public service broadcasting are generally traced to documents prepared in support of the establishment of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) by Royal Charter on 1 January 1927.
Public service broadcasters were reassessing their missions and were building new alliances with book publishers, computer software manufacturers, and commercial production houses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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