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Encyclopedia > Public broadcaster

Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the listening public. Except for the United States, it has traditionally been the dominant form of broadcasting in much of the world. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Note: broadcasting is also a term for hand sowing. ...


It is a system in which radio, television, and potentially other electronic media outlets receive some or all of their funding from the public. The broadcasters' funds can come directly from individuals through voluntary donations, licence fees, or indirectly as state subsidies that originated as taxes. Many public broadcasters supplement this with contributions from corporations, in return for underwriting spots. While these announcements resemble traditional advertisements on commercial broadcasting stations, there are usually limitations, such as a prohibition of making product claims, stating prices, or providing an incentive to buy. Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... Donation is a gift to a fund or cause, typically for charitable reasons. ... A television licence is an official licence required in some countries for all owners of a television receiver. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... A tax (also known as a duty) is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... A corporation is a legal person which, while being composed of natural persons, exists completely separately from them. ... An Underwriting Spot is an announcement made on Public Broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Commercial broadcasting now occurs in many countries around the world, and the number of countries with only public broadcasting has declined substantially. The mass media marketplace is tremendously competitive, and as such, it can be difficult for a public service broadcaster to survive amongst commercial interests. This may become even more of an issue with the increased number of channels that digital broadcasting provides. Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ...

 Defining, "public broadcasting" 

There is no standard definition of what public broadcasting is exactly, although a number of official bodies have attempted to pick out the key characteristics. Public service broadcasters generally transmit programming that aims to improve society by informing viewers. In contrast, the aim of commercial outlets is to provide popular shows that attract an audience—therefore leading to higher prices when advertising is sold. For this reason, the ideals of public broadcasting are often incompatible with commercial goals. Of course, public broadcasters also strive to entertain their viewers, but they can still come across as being overly paternalistic in nature.


The Broadcasting Research Unit lists the following as major goals or characteristics of a public broadcaster: 1 Geographic universality — The stations' broadcasts are available nationwide, with no exception. This criterion is failed by Five in the UK, which a substantial minority of the population cannot receive. Generally, the "nationwide" criterion is satisfied by either having member stations across the country (as is the case with PBS in the United States) or, as is the case with most other public broadcasters around the world, the broadcaster owning sufficient transmitters to broadcast nationwide. 2 Catering for all interests and tastes — as exemplified by the BBC's range of minority channels (BBC2, BBC Radio 3, etc.). 3 Catering for minorities — much as above, but with racial and linguistic minorities. (for example S4C in Wales, BBC Asian Network, Radio-Canada, Australia's SBS). 4Concern for national identity and community — this essentially means that the stations should in the most part commission programmes from within the country, which may be more expensive than importing shows from abroad. 5Detachment from vested interests and government — in other words, programming should be impartial, and the stations should not be subject to control by advertisers or government. Even when a station is removed from corporate and government interests, critics argue that it may nonetheless have a bias towards the values of certain groups (e.g., the middle class, leftist politics, etc.). 6 One broadcasting system to be directly funded by the corpus of users — For example, the licence fee in the case of the BBC,or member stations asking for donations in the case of the US's PBS/NPR. 7 Competition in good programming rather than numbers — quality is the prime concern with a true public service broadcaster. Of course, in practice, ratings wars are rarely concerned with quality, although that may depend on how you define the word "quality". 8 Guidelines to liberate programme makers and not restrict them — in the UK, guidelines, and not laws, govern what a programme maker can and cannot do, although these guidelines can be backed up by hefty penalties. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... BBC Two (or BBC2 as it was formerly styled) was the second UK television station to be aired by the BBC. History The channel was scheduled to begin at 7:20pm on April 20, 1964 and show an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts and... BBC Radio 3 is a domestic UK BBC radio station, which devotes most of its schedule to classical music. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru - Channel Four Wales) is a Welsh-language television channel broadcasting in Wales, United Kingdom, which was established in response to demands for a channel to cater for the Welsh-speaking minority population in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Asian Network logo BBC Asian Network studio at The Mailbox shopping centre, Birmingham. ... CBC redirects here, as this is the most common use of the abbreviation. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... A television licence (or more correctly broadcast receiver licence, as it usually also pays for public radio) is an official licence required in many countries for all owners of television (and sometimes also radio) receivers. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ...


Some of these definition points may not be acceptable everywhere. For example in the United States public broadcasting may see part of its mission to bring in foreign shows, e.g. shows from the CBC/Radio-Canada or the BBC. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known by the abbreviation CBC, is Canadas government-owned radio and television broadcaster. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


An alternative model for implementing public service media exists, known as Citizen Media. As it relates to broadcasting, this generally means a radio or television outlet which has some sort of public access, that is, most or much of the programming is created by members of the public which receives the programming. This can be in the form of community radio, campus radio, and public access television, although the latter is not a form of over-the-air broadcasting, as it is only available on cable television systems. Citizen Media, Participatory Media, or Democratic Media refers to any form of content produced by private citizens, which has as its goal to inform and empower all members of society. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ...

Contents

Advantages and disadvantages

Public broadcasters receive all or a substantial part of their funding from government sources, either from the general tax revenues or from licence fees. Since public broadcasters do not rely on advertising as a source of revenue to the same degree as commercial broadcasters, this allows public broadcasters to air programs that are less saleable to the mass market, such as public affairs shows, documentaries, and educational programs. The fact that public broadcasters do not chase ratings in the same way as commercial broadcasters often leads to the criticism that they are unresponsive to what their viewers want.


Additionally, public broadcasting facilitates the implementation of cultural policy (an industrial policy and investment policy for culture). Some examples include: An industrial policy is any government regulation or law that encourages the ongoing operation of, or investment in, a particular industry. ... An investment policy is any government regulation or law that encourages or discourages foreign investment in the local economy, e. ...

  • The Canadian government is committed to official bilingualism (English and French). As a result, the public broadcaster, the CBC employs translators and journalists who speak both official languages and it encourages production of cross-cultural material. Quebec separatists argue that this is also a policy of cultural imperialism and assimilation.
  • In the UK, the BBC supports multiculturalism and diversity, in part by using on-screen commentators and hosts of different ethnic origins.
  • In New Zealand, the public broadcasting system provides support to Aboriginal (Maori) broadcasting, as a way to improve the opportunities and maintain the cultural heritage of these New Zealanders.

Critics of public broadcasting systems argue that this implementation of cultural policy imposes the values of the public broadcaster on the populace. However, it can also be argued that commercial broadcasting has a bias for certain values or cultural forms, such as pop culture,militarism,culture bias, and consumerism. Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... The Parti Québécois or PQ is a left wing political party that advocates national sovereignty for Quebec from Canada. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Cultural bias is interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to ones own culture. ... Consumerism is a term used to describe the effects of equating personal happiness with purchasing material possessions and consumption. ...


Public broadcasting, and also some pirate broadcasting, provides a counterweight to the commercial media. Advocates of deliberative democracy, argue that public broadcasting helps to maintain modern technological democracies. At the same time, public broadcasting systems have also been used by dictators and totalitarian governments to spread hatred and incite genocide. However, in theory in "western democracies" public broadcasting is not beholden to political parties, or the government of the day. This is especially true where the broadcaster is funded by television licence fees and so, theoretically, not dependent on the government for any of its funding. Pirate broadcasting is unlicensed broadcasting of radio and television. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... World dictatorships. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Implementation of public broadcasting around the world

The model, established in the 1920s, of the British Broadcasting Corporation – an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II – was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain. The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... For a historical list of territories that constituted the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ...


Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC has always relied on a subsidy from general revenues of the government. However, more recently CBC television has started taking advertising. This means they must compete with commercial broadcasting. Some argue that this dilutes their mandate as truly public broadcasters, who have no commercial bias to distort their presentation. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The rest of this section looks at some specific implementations of public broadcasting around the world.


Asia

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) is the sole public service broadcaster. Although a government department under administrative hierarchy, it enjoys editorial independence, and its director is promoted from within the department. It operates seven radio channels, and produces television programmes and broadcast on commercial television channels, as these channels are required by law to provide time slot for RTHK television programmes. The logo of RTHK Radio Television Hong Kong (abbreviation: RTHK; Chinese: 香港電台; Cantonese IPA: , Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 din6 toi4, Yale: hēung góng dihn tòih; Mandarin Pinyin: ) is a broadcasting organisation in Hong Kong that is operated as an independent department in the government under the Broadcasting Authority. ...


Japan

In Japan, the main public broadcaster is the national NHK, sometimes informally referred to as Radio Tokyo by English speakers. The broadcaster was set up in 1926 and was modelled on the British Broadcasting Company, the precursor to the British Broadcasting Corporation created in 1927. Much like the BBC, NHK is funded by a "receiving fee" by every Japanese household, with no commercial advertising and the maintenance of a position of strict political impartiality. NHK runs two national terrestrial TV stations (NHK General and NHK Educational) and three satellite only services (NHK BS-1, BS-2 and the hi-definition NHK Hi-Vision services). NHK also runs 3 national radio services and a number of international radio and television services, akin to the BBC World Service. NHK has also been an innovator in television, developing the world's first high definition television technology in 1964 and launching high definition services in Japan in 1981. NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo Domo-kun, the mascot of NHK satellite channel BS-2 NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on October 18, 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... MILSTAR:A communication satellite A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ...


Europe

In most countries in Europe, state broadcasters are funded through a mix of advertising and public money, either through a licence fee or directly from the government. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


Germany

Following World War II, when regional broadcasters had been merged into one national network by the Nazis to create a powerful means of propaganda, the Allies insisted on a de-centralized, independent structure for German public broadcasting and created regional public broadcasting agencies that, by and large, still exist today. In addition to these nine regional radio and TV broadcasters, which cooperate within ARD, a national television service (ZDF) was later created in 1961 and a national radio service with two networks (Deutschlandradio) emerged from the remains of Cold War propaganda stations in 1994. All services are mainly financed through license fees paid by everybody who keeps a radio or TV set "ready for use", and are governed by councils of representatives of the "societally relevant groups". Public TV and radio stations spend about 60 % of the ~10 Bil. € spent altogether for broadcasting in Germany per year. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... ARD may refer to: ARD (broadcaster), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the German association of public broadcasters. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... DeutschlandRadio is the national German radio network. ... The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


Netherlands

Main article: Public-service broadcasting in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands a different system is used to most other countries. Public-broadcasting associations are allocated money and time to broadcast their programmes on the publicly owned television and radio channels. The time and money is allocated in proportion to their membership numbers. The system is intended to reflect the diversity of all the groups composing the nation. Publieke Omroeps logo Public-service broadcasting in the Netherlands is provided jointly by a number of broadcasting organizations under the tutelage of the Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS). ...


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has a strong tradition of public service broadcasting. In addition to the British Broadcasting Corporation, there is also Channel 4 a state-owned commercial public service broadcaster, and S4C a Welsh language broadcaster in Wales. Furthermore, the two commercial analogue broadcasters ITV and Five (TV) also have significant public service obligations imposed as part of their licence to broadcast. In the United Kingdom the term public service broadcasting (PSB) refers to broadcasting intended for the public benefit rather than for purely commercial concerns. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Channel 4 is a public-service television broadcaster in the United Kingdom (see British television). ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru - Channel Four Wales) is a Welsh-language television channel broadcasting in Wales, United Kingdom, which was established in response to demands for a channel to cater for the Welsh-speaking minority population in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... ITV (Independent Television) is the name popularly given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. In England, Wales and southern Scotland, the network has been rebranded to ITV1 by ITV plc, the owners of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


North America

Canada

In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national CBC, which operates two television networks (CBC Television and SRC), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Two, La Première Chaîne and Espace musique) and two 24-hour news channels (CBC Newsworld and RDI) in both of Canada's official languages. CBC's television operations are funded in part by advertisements, in addition to tax dollars from the federal government (Newsworld and RDI are funded entirely be commercials). CBC's radio operations are commercial-free. In recent years, the CBC was frequently battered by budget cuts and labor disputes. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... CBC Television is the primary English language television service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... Télévision de Radio-Canada, often simply Radio-Canada, is the main French language television service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... CBC Radio Two is an FM radio network in Canada, operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... La Première Chaîne is the news and information service of la Société Radio-Canada, the French-language public broadcaster in Canada. ... Espace musique is the French language musical radio service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation / Société Radio-Canada, the national public broadcaster in Canada. ... CBC Newsworld is a Canadian 24-hour cable news television channel operated by the CBC. It broadcasts into over 10 million homes nation-wide, as well as into some northern states in the U.S. It is the worlds third-oldest television service of this nature, after CNN in... Réseau de linformation (RDI) is a 24 hour Canadian French language cable television news channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada. ...


In addition, several provinces operate public broadcasters; these are not CBC subentities, but distinct networks in their own right. These include TVOntario, which operates two networks (English TVO and French-language TFO), Télé-Québec, SCN in Saskatchewan, public radio station CKUA in Alberta, and Knowledge Network in British Columbia. Some of the provincial broadcasters operate through conventional transmitters, while others are cable-only channels. Alberta also has a semi-public television network, ACCESS, which is licensed to provide some public service programming but is owned and operated by a commercial broadcaster. The network, formerly a public broadcaster operated by the provincial government, was sold to CHUM Limited in 1995. CJRT-FM in Toronto also operated as a public government-owned radio station for many years; while no longer funded by the provincial government, it still solicits most of its budget from listener and corporate donations and is permitted to air only a very small amount of commercial advertising. TVOntario, officially the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, is an educational public television broadcaster in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... TFO is a French language educational public television network in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Télé-Québec is the television network operated by the provincial government of Quebec, Canada. ... Saskatchewan Communications Network is a Saskatchewan public television educational channel owned by the Saskatchewan government. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... CKUA is a Canadian radio station, orignally located at the University of Alberta it is now situated in the city centre of Edmonton. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Knowledge Network (call sign CKNO) is a public television educational television network in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... CJAL is an educational television station in Edmonton, Alberta branded as ACCESS, Albertas provincial educational broadcasting service. ... CHUM Limited is a media company based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CJRT-FM is a Canadian public radio station, which broadcasts at 91. ...


Some local community stations also operate non-commercially with funding from corporate and individual donors. In addition, cable companies are required to produce a local community channel in each licensed market. Such channels have traditionally aired community talk shows, city council meetings and other locally oriented programming, although it is becoming increasingly common for them to adopt the format and branding of a local news channel. Community Channel Community Channel broadcasts across the UK on digital cable (NTL and Telewest) and digital terrestrial television (Freeview), and also both the UK and Republic of Ireland on digital satellite television (Sky). ...


Canada also has a large number of campus radio and community radio stations. Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ...


United States

The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned both PBS and NPR.
The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned both PBS and NPR.

Public broadcasting in the United States is as old as broadcasting itself. Most early public stations were operated by state colleges and universities, and were often run as part of the schools' cooperative extension services. Stations in this era were internally funded, and did not rely on listener contributions to operate; some accepted advertising. Networks such as Iowa, South Dakota, and Wisconsin Public Radio began in this way. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 502 KB) Summary The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned the PBS and the NPR. Photograph taken 2005-11. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 502 KB) Summary The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s that spawned the PBS and the NPR. Photograph taken 2005-11. ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [[UIUC]], known as the U of I, is the flagship campus in the University of Illinois system. ... The U.S. National Association of Educational Broadcasters (NAEB) began as the Association of College University Broadcasting Stations (ACUBS). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... The cooperative extension service, also known as the Extension Service of the USDA, is a non-formal educational program implemented in the United States that is designed to help people use research-based knowledge to improve their lives. ... Iowa Public Radio is a proposed radio network in the U.S. state of Iowa that would combine the operations of current public radio stations run by Iowa State University, the University of Iowa, and University of Northern Iowa. ... South Dakota Public Broadcasting, or SDPB for short, is a network of PBS television and NPR radio stations serving the state of South Dakota. ... Wisconsin Public Radio is a network of radio stations in the state of Wisconsin devoted to public radio programming. ...


The concept of a "non-commercial, educational" station per se does not show up in U.S. law until the 1940s, when the FM band was moved to its present location; the part of the band between 87.9 and 91.9 MHz is reserved for such stations. Educational television, the forerunner of modern U.S. public television, evolved in big cities in the 1950s; in rural areas, it was not uncommon for colleges to operate commercial stations instead. In most of the world, the FM broadcast band, used for broadcasting FM radio stations, goes from 87. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ...


In the United States, public broadcasting is decentralized and is not government operated, but does receive some government support. The majority of funding comes from community support to hundreds of public radio and public television stations, each of which is an individual entity licensed to one of several different non-profit organizations, municipal or state governments, or universities. These organizations often produce their own programs, but largely depend upon national producers and program distributors such as National Public Radio (NPR), Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Public Radio International (PRI), American Public Television (APT), and American Public Media. U.S. government support is filtered through a separate organization, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ... The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States, with some member stations available by cable in Canada. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a not-for-profit corporation based in the United States founded in 1983 to develop non-commercial audio programming for public radio and other audio venues. ... American Public Television (APT) is a distributor and source of programming for public television stations in the United States and networks worldwide. ... American Public Media logo American Public Media is the brand under which Minnesota Public Radio distributes public radio programming outside of the state of Minnesota. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ...


Television

In the United States the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television network operates on a largely viewer-supported basis (see telethon), with commercial sponsors of specific programs. Over time, sponsorship announcements have slowly transformed into something resembling regular TV advertisements, though they are usually shorter and have a more muted tone than what is seen on commercial TV, and many organizations still only receive a short thanks for their contributions. Most communities also have public access services on local cable television stations, which are sometimes supported in part through donations. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States, with some member stations available by cable in Canada. ... The 2005 Telethon on Seven Perth. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ...


US public broadcasting for television has been under severe criticism from conservative politicians and think-tanks, which allege that its programming has a leftist bias. In contrast to European public broadcasting systems, which tend to dominate their national marketplaces, US public broadcasting is a niche service that provides programming not found elsewhere on the system, such as cultural programs, documentaries, and public affairs shows.


Radio

The first publicly funded radio network in the United States was the Pacifica Radio Network, founded by pacifist Lew Hill in 1946. Pacifica now operates six stations in Berkeley; Los Angeles; Houston; Washington, D.C.; and New York City, and distributes syndicated programming via satellite to affiliates. Pacifica Radio Network. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... Lewis Hill (1919-1957) was the founder of Pacifica Radio, the first listener-supported radio station in the United States. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


The second public radio network, National Public Radio (NPR), was created in 1970, following the passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 which established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This network (generally exclusive of Pacifica) is commonly referred to as Public Radio. Independent local public radio stations buy their programming from distributors such as NPR; Public Radio International (PRI); American Public Media (APM); and Pacifica, most often distributed through the Public Radio Satellite Service (PRSS). Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a not-for-profit corporation based in the United States founded in 1983 to develop non-commercial audio programming for public radio and other audio venues. ... American Public Media logo American Public Media is the brand under which Minnesota Public Radio distributes public radio programming outside of the state of Minnesota. ...


Public radio stations in the U.S. tend to broadcast a mixture of news and talk radio programming along with some music. Some of the larger operations split off these formats into separate stations or networks. Public music stations are probably best known for playing classical music, although other formats have been used, including the emerging "eclectic" music format that is rather freeform in nature (common among college radio stations, though a well-known eclectic NPR member station is KCRW in California). There are also public college radio stations using an FCC Class D license. XM Satellite Radio provides a station of public radio programs licensed from all three content providers. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Freeform, or freeform radio, is a radio station programming format in which the disc jockey is given total control over what music to play, regardless of music genre or commercial interests. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... KCRW (89. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... XM redirects here. ...


Local stations derive most of the funding for their operations through regular pledge drives and corporate sponsorship. The local stations then contract with program distributors and also provide some programming themselves. NPR produces some of its own programming such as Morning Edition; Weekend Edition; and All Things Considered. PBS and PRI do not create their own content. NPR also receives some direct funding from private donors, foundations, and from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Fundraising is the term referring to the process of soliciting and gathering money by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ... Morning Edition is an American radio news program produced and distributed by National Public Radio (NPR). ... Weekend Edition is the name given to a set of American radio news programs produced and distributed by National Public Radio (NPR). ... All Things Considered, sometimes abbreviated ATC, is a news radio program in the United States, broadcast on the National Public Radio network. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ...


Oceania

Australia

In Australia, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is funded entirely through an Australian Government grant-in-aid, which has made it vulnerable to cuts in government spending. The multicultural Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), another public broadcaster, now accepts limited sponsorship and advertising. Imparja is an Aboriginal community broadcaster in Australia that receives funding from the Federal Government. Most of it's programs are bought from Australia's commercial broadcasters though, and it only airs a small amount of local content. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC (formerly the Australian Broadcasting Commission) is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... This article describes the national government of Australia. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... Imparja Television (callsign IMP) is a commercial television network servicing remote eastern and central Australia. ...


In addition, there are a number of community television stations (most operating as Channel 31 despite being unrelated across different states) and radio stations that survive almost entirely on donations and corporate sponsorship. They are organised similarly to PBS and NPR stations in the US, however are much less powerful; largely due to competition from the ABC and SBS. They also take on the role that public access stations have in the US. Channel 31 is the frequency reserved for community television stations in Australian capital cities. ... Public access television is a cable television service that allows members of the public to use a cable companys facilities and equipment to create and broadcast their own content. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the former public broadcaster BCNZ (formerly NZBC) was broken up into separate state-owned corporations, Television New Zealand (TVNZ) and Radio New Zealand (RNZ). While RNZ remains commercial-free, TVNZ although claims they are a Public Service Broadcaster about 90% of funds are from selling advertising during programmes on their two stations, and show they are a fully commercial network being in continuous ratings battles with other stations. A former TVNZ logo from the late 1990s A former TVNZ logo from the late 1980s and early 1990s Television New Zealand (TVNZ) is the main broadcaster of television in New Zealand. ... Radio New Zealand Limited is New Zealands public service radio broadcaster. ...


Programmes offered on this so-called PSB include popular shows like Desperate Housewives, E.R, Lost, Cold Case & Dancing With The Stars. TVNZ is no different to any other commercial TV network worldwide and its two stations TVONE & TV2 hold majority ratings in the country. The company has sparked criticism for its role as a PSB with its high advertising content. Because of its high ratings some of the most expensive advertising slots in the country are charged.


The Government owns a network of reserved channels for non-commercial regional access broadcasting, and some of them have been awarded to local community trusts to provide public service and access television. Examples are Triangle TV in Auckland and Wellington; and Channel 7 in Taranaki. Triangle TV is a televison station in Auckland, New Zealand. ...


Latin America

Latin America has never had a history of European style public service radio or television except for Chile's Televisión Nacional, an open channel which serves the entire country (including Easter Island and Antarctica bases). Televisión Nacional, popularly known as channel 7 because of its Santiago frequency, is governed by a seven-member board appointed by the Chilean Senate. It is meant to be independent of political pressures, although accusations of bias have been made, especially during election campaigns. Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN) is Chiles national television station. ... motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Discovered by Europeans April 5, 1722 by Jakob Roggeveen Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3. ... The snowcapped Andes above downtown Santiago Santiago (Spanish:  ) is Chiles capital and largest city. ...


State broadcasters tend to be either very weak and under-funded (as the Argentinian ATC), or to be clearly under the control of the party in power (like Cuban Cubavisión and Venezuelan VTV). Starting from these singularities, commercial broadcasting quickly and effectively conquered its audiences, leaving public and state broadcasting a token role. In some countries, such as Ecuador, where broadcasting was originally legally defined as a commercial venture, a public broadcaster was never born. For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation). ... ATC is an abbreviation of: Adaptive Transform Coding, a method of coding for speech signals Agreement on Textiles and Clothing Air traffic control Air Training Command, the predecessor to Air Education and Training Command of the United States Air Force Air Training Corps Air Training Corps (New Zealand) ALCOA Technical... CIVT, also known as BC CTV, CTV 9 and CTV British Columbia, is a Bell Globemedia television station in Vancouver, British Columbia, and is a part of the CTV Television Network. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


List of public broadcasters

North America

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... Knowledge Network (call sign CKNO) is a public television educational television network in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ... The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States, with some member stations available by cable in Canada. ... PRI logo Public Radio International, or PRI, is a not-for-profit corporation based in the United States founded in 1983 to develop non-commercial audio programming for public radio and other audio venues. ... Pacifica Radio Network. ... Saskatchewan Communications Network is a Saskatchewan public television educational channel owned by the Saskatchewan government. ... Télé-Québec is the television network operated by the provincial government of Quebec, Canada. ... TFO is a French language educational public television network in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages None Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total... TVOntario, officially the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, is an educational public television broadcaster in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... CKUA is a Canadian radio station, orignally located at the University of Alberta it is now situated in the city centre of Edmonton. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... CJRT-FM is a Canadian public radio station, which broadcasts at 91. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages None Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total... CFTU, which uses the on-air brand Canal Savoir, is a Quebec-based commercial-free educational television channel owned by the Université de Montréal. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Annenberg may refer to: Moses Annenberg Walter Annenberg Leonore Annenberg, former United States Chief of Protocol and current head of the Annenberg Foundation The Annenberg Foundation The Annenberg Center for Communication of the University of Southern California The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania The Annenberg Institute... ... American Public Media logo American Public Media is the brand under which Minnesota Public Radio distributes public radio programming outside of the state of Minnesota. ... The Public Radio Exchange, or PRX, is a nonprofit web-based platform for digital distribution, review, and licensing of radio programs. ...

Asia

Israel Broadcasting Authority (often referred to as the IBA) (Hebrew: רשות השידור, Reshut haShidur) is Israels state broadcasting network. ... NHK (日本放送協会, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo Domo-kun, the mascot of NHK satellite channel BS-2 NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ... The first RTM logo used from 1957-1963 The second RTM logo used from 1963-1969 The third RTM logo used from 1969-1978 The fourth RTM logo used from 1978-1987 The fifth RTM logo used from 1987-2004 The sixth RTM logo used from 2004-present Radio Televisyen... Taiwan Public Television Service Foundation (PTS, 公共電視文化事業基金會) is the first independent public broadcasting institution in the Republic of China (ROC). ... Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) was established on November 23, 1997 following a demand that the electronic media in India should be made free from the Government control and given autonomy in their functioning. ... // All India Radio (AIR for short), officially known as Akashwani (Devanagari: आकाशवाणी, ākāshvānÄ«) is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. ... nikatdarshan () is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... Television Programs RTHK produces public affairs television programs which are broadcast by Hong Kongs three commercial television channels, TVB, ATV and Cable TV. These programmes include Hong Kong Connection (鏗鏘集), A Week in Politics (議事論事), Media Watch (傳媒春秋) and Police Magazine... For other uses, see KBS. Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) is South Koreas premier public broadcaster and one of four major Korean television networks. ...

Australasia (Oceania)

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC (formerly the Australian Broadcasting Commission) is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Imparja Television (callsign IMP) is a commercial television network servicing remote eastern and central Australia. ... Radio New Zealand Limited is New Zealands public service radio broadcaster. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ...

Europe

Current logo ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – the Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany), is a joint organization of Germanys regional public broadcasting agencies. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... The Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR) is a public broadcaster in the German Bundesland North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office is in Köln. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Current logo of Norddeutscher Rundfunk. ... Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich: St. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Stuttgart [], located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of approximately 590,000 (as of September 2005) in the city and around 3 million in the metropolitan area. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... Map of the nine regional broadcasting members of Germanys ARD radio/TV network. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Current logo of Radio Bremen. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Arte is a Franco-German TV network, which aims to promote quality programming related to the world of arts and culture. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... BRF headquarters in Eupen. ... Council of the German Speaking Community in Belgium (Eupen) Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-Speaking Community of Belgium (Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgiens in German, short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... Bulgarian National Television is a Bulgarian language public television station founded in 1959 which began broadcast on December 26. ... BVN-TV or short BVN (het Beste van Vlaanderen en Nederland; the best of the Netherlands and Flanders - also called: het Beeld van Vlaanderen en Nederland; The image of the Netherlands and Flandre) is a public television channel for Dutch and Flemish viewers all over the world. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... Logo of ÄŒeská televizes ÄŒT1 channel. ... Channel 4 is a public-service television broadcaster in the United Kingdom (see British television). ... Danmarks Radio (normally referred to as just DR) is Denmarks national broadcasting corporation. ... Duna TV or Duna Televízió is one of two state-owned television companies in Hungary. ... Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi (Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση — Hellenic Broadcasting [and] Television) is Greeces state-owned public television broadcasting corporation. ... Eesti Televisioon or ETV is the national public television station of Estonia. ... Logo France télévisions headquarters in Paris France Télévisions is the French public national television broadcaster. ... GBC, Gibraltars public service broadcaster has provided the community with a radio and television service since 1963. ... Croatian Radiotelevision or Hrvatska radiotelevizija (HRT) is the Croatian public broadcasting company. ... Lithuanian National Radio and Television (Lithuanian:  ) is the national public broadcasting company of Lithuania. ... Macedonian Radio Television (Македонска Радио Телевизија - Makedonska Radio Televizija - MRT) is the public broadcasting organization of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Magyar Televízió (or Hungarian Television) is a Hungarian national public service television company, which operates two channels, called M1, M2. ... Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian state-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. ... ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk, literally Austrian Broadcasting) is the national Austrian public service broadcaster. ... Public Broadcasting Services Limited (PBS) is Maltas public broadcasting company, responsible for the TVM television channel and the Radio Malta and Radju Parlament(106. ... Publieke Omroeps logo Publieke Omroep is the Dutch broadcasting company that is responsible for the Dutch TV Channels Nederland 1, Nederland 2 & Nederland 3. ... VARA is a public broadcasting organization in the Netherlands, established in 1927. ... The VPRO (originally an acronym for Vrijzinnig Protestantse Radio Omroep, or free-thinking protestant radio broadcasting company, but since long the acronym has been kept but its meaning dropped) was established in the Netherlands in 1926 as a religious broadcasting organization, linked to the protestant pillar. ... Its subsidiaries are: RTP - Radiotelevisão Portuguesa (Portuguese RadioTelevision), the television broadcaster. ... Radio France is a French public service radio broadcaster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Rundfunkanstalt Südtirol (Italian: Radiotelevisione Azienda Speciale, Ladin: Radiotelevijion- Azienda per Südtirol, South Tyrol Broadcasting Agency) is a public broadcasting service for the mostly German-speaking Autonomous Province of South Tyrol, Italy whose purpose is to relay programmes from public broadcasters of Austria, Germany, German and Romansh Switzerland. ... South Tyrol-Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige, German and Ladin: Südtirol; official in Italian: Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige, official in German: Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol, official in Ladin: Provinzia Autonòma de Balsan - Südtirol) is an autonomous province of Italy that belongs to the region... RTBF official logo RTBF or Radio télévision belge de la communauté française is the national broadcasting organisation of the government of the French-speaking southern part of Belgium, the counterpart to the Dutch-speaking VRT in the northern part of the country. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... In computer science, the code generation is a compilation stage that outputs machine code in the target language. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Radio Telefís Éireann[1] (RTÉ; IPA: ,  ) is the Public Service Broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland. ... RTS Logo Serbian Broadcasting Corporation (Radio television of Serbia, Serbian: Радио-телевизија Србије, Radio-televizija Srbije) is the public broadcaster in Serbia. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH) is the state broadcaster in Albania, founded in 1938 under Italian rule and operated from Tirana. ... Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE) is the public Spanish broadcasting corporation. ... Radiotelevizija Slovenija or RTV Slovenija (English: Radio-Television Slovenia) is the national public broadcasting organization of Slovenia. ... Ríkisútvarpið (IPA: ) or RÚV (English: The National Icelandic Broadcasting Service) is Icelands main public-service broadcaster. ... S4C (Sianel Pedwar Cymru - Channel Four Wales) is a Welsh-language television channel broadcasting in Wales, United Kingdom, which was established in response to demands for a channel to cater for the Welsh-speaking minority population in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... Slovak Television (in Slovak: Slovenská televízia) is a state owned public television network in Slovakia. ... SRG SSR idée suisse is the Swiss public broadcasting organisation, founded in 1931. ... Sveriges Radio (SR) - Swedish Radio Ltd - is Swedens national publicly-funded radio broadcaster. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... Corporate logo of the Turkish Radio-Television Corporation Old Corporate logo, 1980s-2001 // Introduction The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu, TRT), founded in 1964, is a national publicly-funded broadcaster based in Turkey. ... Televiziunea Română (pronunciation: télévizju:nèa ro:mÄ«nÉ™), more commonly referred to as TVR (pronunciation: tévéré) is the national state-owned public service television broadcaster of Romania. ... Telewizja Polska Spółka Akcyjna (TVP S.A., Polish Television) is Polands public television network broadcasting corporation. ... Sjónvarp Føroya (SvF) means Television of the Faroes. ... VRT official logo The communications tower at the headquarters of VRT in Brussels. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... YLE (Yleisradio in Finnish, Rundradion in Swedish), Finlands National Broadcasting Company, was founded in 1926. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ...

See also

Citizen Media, Participatory Media, or Democratic Media refers to any form of content produced by private citizens, which has as its goal to inform and empower all members of society. ... Commercial broadcasting - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... Corporate media is a term of derision used by some media critics in the political discourse in the United States and elsewhere, particularly by leftists and progressives, to imply that the mainstream media is manipulated by large multinational corporations. ... Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution. ... Pirate broadcasting is unlicensed broadcasting of radio and television. ... Religious broadcasting is broadcasting religious organizations, usually with a religious message. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
public television: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3344 words)
Public broadcasters receive all or a substantial part of their funding from government sources, either from the general tax revenues or from licence fees.
Since public broadcasters do not rely on advertising as a source of revenue to the same degree as commercial broadcasters, this allows public broadcasters to air programs that are less saleable to the mass market, such as public affairs shows, documentaries, and educational programs.
Public music stations are probably best known for playing classical music, although other formats have been used, including the emerging "eclectic" music format that is rather freeform in nature (common among college radio stations, though a well-known eclectic NPR member station is KCRW in California).
Public Service Broadcasting (1366 words)
Public service broadcasting is based on the principles of universality of service, diversity of programming, provision for minority audiences including the disadvantaged, sustaining an informed electorate, and cultural and educational enrichment.
The roots of public service broadcasting are generally traced to documents prepared in support of the establishment of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) by Royal Charter on 1 January 1927.
Public service broadcasters were reassessing their missions and were building new alliances with book publishers, computer software manufacturers, and commercial production houses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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