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Encyclopedia > Public art
La Joute by Jean-Paul Riopelle, an outdoor kinetic sculpture installation with fire jets, fog machines, and a fountain in Montreal.
La Joute by Jean-Paul Riopelle, an outdoor kinetic sculpture installation with fire jets, fog machines, and a fountain in Montreal.
Iron Man by Anthony Gormley, in Victoria Square Birmingham, UK.
Iron Man by Anthony Gormley, in Victoria Square Birmingham, UK.

The term public art properly refers to works of art in any media that has been planned and executed with the specific intention of being sited or staged in the public domain, usually outside and accessible to all. The term is especially significant within the art world, amongst curators, commissioning bodies and practitioners of public art, to whom it signifies a particular working practice, often with implications of site specificity, community involvement and collaboration. The term is sometimes also applied to include any art which is exhibited in a public space including publicly accessible buildings. Download high resolution version (896x592, 199 KB)La Joute, by Jean-Paul Riopelle (personal snapshot by Montrealais) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (896x592, 199 KB)La Joute, by Jean-Paul Riopelle (personal snapshot by Montrealais) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... La Joute, by Jean-Paul Riopelle, during the flaming phase of its kinetic cycle La Joute (the joust) (1969) is a public sculptural installation by Quebec sculptor Jean-Paul Riopelle, a member of the Automatiste movement. ... La Joute, by Jean-Paul Riopelle Jean-Paul Riopelle (7 October 1923 - 12 March 2002) was a painter and sculptor from Quebec. ... The Tinguely Fountain in front of the Tinguely Museum in Basel Kinetic art is sculpture that contains moving parts. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1512x2016, 1697 KB) Iron : Man. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1512x2016, 1697 KB) Iron : Man. ... Angel of the North Antony Gormley (born 1950) is an English sculptor. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article or section should include material from Site-Specific Nef pour quatorze reines by Rose-Marie Goulet, a memorial to the École Polytechnique Massacre, featuring sculptural elements integrated into a specially landscaped site Site specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ...

Contents

The scope of public art

Monuments, memorials and civic statuary are perhaps the oldest and most obvious form of officially sanctioned public art, although it could be said that architectural detail and even architecture itself is more widespread and fulfills the definition of public art. Increasingly most aspects of the built environment are seen as legitimate candidates for consideration as, or location for, public art, including, street furniture, lighting and graffiti. Public art is not confined to physical objects, dance, procession, street theatre even poetry have proponents that specialize in public art. For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Charlie Chaplin Statue A statue is a sculpture depicting a specific entity, usually a person, event, animal or object. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Street furniture is a collective term for objects and pieces of equipment installed on streets and roads for various purposes, including benches, bollards, post boxes, phone boxes, streetlamps, street lighting, traffic lights, traffic signs, bus stops, grit bins, tram stops, taxi stands, public lavatories, fountains and memorials, and waste receptacles. ... A streetlight in front of a red sky at night A street light, also known as a light standard, is a raised light on the edge of a road, turned on or lit at a certain time every night. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sculpture intended as public art is often constructed of durable, easily cared-for material, to avoid the worst effects of the elements and vandalism; however, many works are intended to have only a temporary existence and are made of more ephemeral materials. Permanent works are sometimes integrated with architecture and landscaping in the creation or renovation of buildings and sites, an especially important example being the programme developed in the new city of Milton Keynes, England. Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... For the kind of film, see ephemeral film. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of... , Milton Keynes (often abbreviated MK) is a large town in northern Buckinghamshire, in South East England, about 45 miles (75 km) north-west of London, and roughly halfway between London and Birmingham. ...


Some artists working in this discipline use the freedom afforded by an outdoor site to create very large works that would be unfeasible in a gallery, for instance Richard Long's 3 week walk, entitled "The Path Is the Place in the Line". Amongst the works of the last 30 years that have met greatest critical and popular acclaim are pieces by Robert Smithson, Christo, NONDA and Anthony Gormley where the artwork reacts to or incorporates its environment. In 1960, the Greek artist NONDA, resurrected a 200 year old tradition of exhibiting on the Pont Neuf Bridge in Paris, a tradition made famous by French painters Boucher and Chardin at the Place Dauphine nearby. NONDA Created vast and interactive exhibits under the bridge dedicated to the Poet Francois Villon. In 1963 he built the "Trojan Horse" under the bridge which he lived inside for two months. The Exhibitions were open to the public 24/7. Richard Long may be: Richard Long (actor) Richard Long (artist) Richard Long (broadcaster) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Smithsons Spiral Jetty set in Great Salt Lake, Utah. ... Christo Yavasheff (born June 13, 1935) is an artist popularly known as Christo. ... Angel of the North Antony Gormley (born 1950) is an English sculptor. ...


Artists making Public art range from the greatest masters such as Michelangelo, Pablo Picasso, and Joan Miró, to those who specialize in public art such as Claes Oldenburg and Pierre Granche, to anonymous artists who make surreptitious interventions. For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... “Picasso” redirects here. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Spanish (Catalan) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a Goldsmith and Watchmaker. ... Claes Oldenburg is gay (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... Pierre Granche (1948-1997) was a French-Canadian sculptor. ...


Interactive public art

Public fountain sculpture that is also a musical instrument (hydraulophone), which any member of the public can play at any time of the day or night.

Some forms of public art are designed to encourage audience participation in a hands-on way. Examples include public art installed at hands-on science museums such as the main architectural centerpiece out in front of the Ontario Science Centre. This permanently installed artwork is a fountain that is also a musical instrument (hydraulophone) that members of the public can play at any time of the day or night. Members of the public interact with the work by blocking water jets to force water through various sound-producing mechanisms inside the sculpture. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (2658 × 1671 pixels, file size: 451 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of outdoor public art sculpture I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (2658 × 1671 pixels, file size: 451 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of outdoor public art sculpture I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Waterflute (reedless) hydraulophone with 45 finger-embouchure holes, allowing an intricate but polyphonic embouchure-like control by inserting one finger into each of several of the instruments 45 mouths at the same time. ... Waterflute (reedless) hydraulophone with 45 finger-embouchure holes, allowing an intricate but polyphonic embouchure-like control by inserting one finger into each of several of the instruments 45 mouths at the same time. ...


Percent for art

Public art is usually installed with the authorization and collaboration of the government or company that owns or administers the space. Some governments actively encourage the creation of public art, for example, budgeting for artworks in new buildings by implementing a Percent for Art policy. 1% of the construction cost for art is a standard, but the amount varies widely from place to place. Administration and maintenance costs are sometimes withdrawn before the money is distributed for art (City of Los Angeles for example). Many locales have "general funds" that fund temporary programs and performances of a cultural nature rather than insisting on project-related commissions. The majority of European countries, Australia and many cities and states in the USA, have percent for art programs. This requirement is implemented in a variety of ways. The government of Quebec requires that the budget for all new publicly funded buildings set aside 1% for artwork. New York City has a law that requires that no less than 1% of the first twenty million dollars, plus no less than one half of 1% of the amount exceeding twenty million dollars be allocated for art work in any public building that is owned by the city. The maximum allocation for any commission in New York is $400,000.[1] In contrast, the city of Toronto requires that 1% all of construction costs be set aside for public art, with no set upper limit (although in some circumstances, the municipality and the developer might negotiate a maximum amount). In Britain percent for art is discretionary for local authorities, who implement it under the broader terms of a section 106 agreement otherwise known as 'planning gain', in practice it is negotiable, and seldom ever reaches a full 1%, where it is implemented at all. A percent for art scheme exists in Ireland and is widely implemented by many local authorities. The term percent for art refers to a program, often a city ordinance, where a fee, usually some percentage of the project cost, is placed on large scale development projects in order to fund and install public art. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Town and Country Planning Act 1990 was passed to better regulate the way in which large and small scale developments were approved by local authorities in England and Wales. ...


Public art and politics

Guerrilla art in New York

Public art has often been used for political ends. Perhaps finding its greatest expression in the widespread use of public art by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War, that led directly to the policy developed by Lenin to install public art of heroes and artists in every village in the Soviet Union. However, Lenin himself should not be blamed for this since he insisted that art in a revolutionary society should be temporary and should avoid the creation of hero cults. The emergence of monumental sculpture in the Soviet Union should be more properly associated with 'Stalinization.' Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the state. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Far Eastern Republic Chinese Volunteers White Movement Allied Intervention: Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania  Turkey UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements  German Empire  Mongolia Warlords Commanders Vladimir Lenin... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ...


Emerging artists and professionals alike still use public art to promote their ideas or to establish censorship-free contact between viewer and artist. Some public art is intended to be ephemeral, going so far as to include temporary installations and performance pieces. In some cases the line between graffiti and "guerrilla" public art is blurred, for example in the case of John Fekner on billboards, the early works of Keith Haring, executed without permission in advertising poster holders in the New York City Subway, and the current work of Banksy. In many cases such public art is spontaneously created in the urban environment, often without the consent of authorities or in the case of political struggle, against the laws. For other uses, see Censor. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... John Fekner (b. ... Harings Radiant Baby Keith Haring (May 4, 1958 - February 16, 1990) was a pre-eminent artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York street culture of the 1980s. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ... Banksy is a well-known yet pseudo-anonymous[1] English graffiti artist, possibly named Robert Banks. ...


Public art is an effective tool of social emancipation or achieving a political goal. There are many examples of spontaneous public art getting official recognition: worth mentioning are, for example, world famous Belfast, and Los Angeles murals which, in time of conflict, have been the only existing communication for a members of socially, ethnically and racially divided community's and proved to be an effective tool in establishing a dialogue and hence solving the cleavage in the long run. State sponsored public art, particularly murals, are often used by totalitarian regimes as a tool of mass-control and propaganda. This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ...


Controversy

Damien Hirst's controversial Virgin Mother, in the plaza of Lever House, New York City.
Damien Hirst's controversial Virgin Mother, in the plaza of Lever House, New York City.

In some cases the funding or siting of public art can prove controversial leading to heated debates about who has control of the public realm. Richard Serra's Tilted Arc was removed from a New York City plaza in 1989 after a concerted campaign by office workers who found their routine was disrupted by the work, leading to a public court hearing that found against the work. This particular case also provides a good example of how public opinion can be managed by people with the power to shape and distort perception. It is not commonly recognized that the office workers were not against the sculpture until a small handful of conservative officials created the occasion for the expression of disapproval. The same officials, led by William Diamond, created a "kangaroo court" where the salvaging of the piece was practically impossible. Whereas the integrity of Serra's minimalist work is recognized worldwide, the case of 'Tilted Arc' should be a reminder of how public opinion management often has little to do with intellectual rigor and more to do with the power to manipulate the general lack of cultural education of non-artworld audiences. The case against 'Tilted Arc' was exacerbated by the news media who found it to be more expedient to play up to antiart populism than to provide fair coverage. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 136 KB) The author of this photograph is me, David Shankbone. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 136 KB) The author of this photograph is me, David Shankbone. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991) Damien Hirst (born June 7, 1965) is an English artist and the most prominent of the group that has been dubbed Young British Artists (or YBAs). ... Lever House, designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and located at 390 Park Avenue in New York City, is the quintessential and seminal glass box International Style skyscraper, and holds the distinction of being the first curtain wall in New York City. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born 2 November 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... Tilted Arc was a sculpture commissioned by the U.S. General Service Administrations Arts-in-Architecture program for the Federal Plaza in New York, NY. It was designed by Richard Serra and constructed in 1981, and dismantled, after much debate, in 1989. ...


Another example of this is the case against Museum Director Dennis Barrie and the Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center in their showing of the Robert Mapplethorpe retrospective, "The Perfect Moment". In order to defend Mapplethorpe's work before a jury that was largely ignorant of developments in modern and contemporary art, the defendants "manipulated" jurors by appealing to their ignorance, relying on formalist ideology and clichés of the alienated artist, rather that on contemporary poststructuralism and theories of cultural difference. In this second case, artworld defenders find themselves turning into crisis management experts rather than giving their publics the benefit of cultural knowledge.


Both cases highlight the fact that the artworld is hardly homogeneous and is itself constituted by people with different ideas and investments. Competing parties often appeal to liberal power and a corresponding notion of "the public" as a way to gain legitimacy and authority. Artists, curators, educators and administrators have now started to be more sensitive to the specific needs and interests of audiences. The idea of a homogenous public is replaced by different and sometimes competing publics. Whereas the influence of identity politics in the 1980s has allowed new social movements (social groups that are based on differences of gender, class, race, sexuality, age, and ability, as well as peace, health, environmental and consumer movements and other public interest groups) to effectively criticize the idea of a coherent public, the space of the "universal" remains as necessary concept in social theory. The concept of "the public" has since shifted to that of the "community". Recent developments in public art now demonstrate an appeal to a friendlier notion of the public in the form of community arts. This interactive approach, however, often risks reducing political complexity in favor of a more innocent idea of the identity of a community. The new role of the artist-as-ethnographer or artist-as-social-worker allows artists to focus on social issues, but it also allows artists and public art agencies to treat communities in essentializing terms.


Developments in community art have curbed avant-garde tendencies among artists in favor of an aesthetic conformism that responds to the management of publics required by public arts administrators and granting agencies. Current forms of community art that seek community involvement, and sometimes the community creation of artworks, allow for greater involvement on the part of nonart constituencies, but also have the unintentional effect of alienating artworld audiences who usually dislike manipulative demagoguery. A significant example of how vanguard public artists continue to face repression is the case of Steve Kurtz, member of the art collective Critical Art Ensemble. After the death of his partner, Hope Kurtz, the Kurtz home was inspected by the FBI for what the ambulance medics decided was material that looked suspicious. In a post 9-11 context of the criminalization of dissent, Kurtz has been unfairly hounded by Federal Justice Department prosecutors who ignore that Kurtz is an artist and have decided to treat a civil case of mail and wire fraud as a federal offense. Mixing artworld sophistication with user-friendly ways of testing for genetically modified organisms in food, CAE have unintentionally demonstrated how the U.S. government's increasing militarization of the public sphere protects capitalist investments in the undemocratic protection of intellectual property. The case against Kurtz and his collaborator Robert Ferrell make it difficult to maintain politically innocent notions of public space. Moreover, the kind of work they produce is a good example of how idealist aesthetics and assumptions of universal validity are inadequate for a serious discussion of public art. Community art groups like the Viennese WochenKlausur (Weeks of Enclosure) work with various expert agencies and make use of contemporary art strategies in order to find solutions to pressing social problems. Their projects are temporary and involve communities in ways that make use of sophisticated theories of representation that do not reduce people and social issues to simplistic and reductive stereotypes. The kind of critical practice adopted by CAE and WochenKlausur challenge the celebratory approach to public art, which, too often, offers bandaid solutions to social inequality and the dissolution of urban life caused by the boom and bust cycles of capitalist development. This article is about the Post 9/11 world. ...


Victor Pasmore's Apollo Pavilion in the English New Town of Peterlee has been a focus for local politicians and other groups complaining about the governance of the town and allocation of resources. In this case artists and cultural leaders from the region have mounted a campaign to rehabilitate the reputation of the work with the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art commissioning artists Jane and Louise Wilson to make a video installation about the piece in 2003. The Apollo Pavilion is a controversial piece of public art in the New Town of Peterlee in County Durham in the North East of England. ... A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Peterlee is a new town in County Durham, England. ... The BALTIC Centre as viewed from the Millennium Bridge The BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art is an arts centre located on the South Bank of the River Tyne close to the Gateshead Millennium Bridge, in Gateshead in the north-east of England. ... Jane and Louise Wilson (born 1967) often known just as The Wilson Sisters are British artists are twin sisters who have exhibited and worked together throughout their career. ... Video installation is a contemporary art method that combines video technology with installation art. ...


House, a large 1993–4 work by Rachel Whiteread in East London, was destroyed by the local council after a few months — in this case the artist and her agent had only secured temporary permission for the work. Rachel Whiteread CBE (born 1963) is a British artist, best known for her sculptures, which typically take the form of casts, and first woman to win the Turner Prize. ...


16 Tons, Seth Wulsin's vast 2006 work includes the demolition of the raw material it works with, namely a former skyscraper jail, Caseros Prison, located in the middle of Buenos Aires. The prison is guarded by the Argentine military 24 hours a day, so that, in order to gain authorization to carry out the project, Wulsin had to engage a huge network of local, city and national government agencies, as well as groups of former prisoners of the jail, former political prisoners, human rights groups, and the military. [1] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Seth Wulsin artist, was born on April 15, 1981, in Spring Valley, New York. ... Northeastern view of Caseros, March 2006 Western semi-opaque window grids of Caseros, reflecting the sun, March, 2006 The Caseros Prison (in Spanish, Cárcel de Caseros) is a prison in Parque Patricios, a neighborhood in the southern part of Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


Sustainability of Public Art

Public art need not merely be a demonstration of personal innovation. Since existing in a public open space, it has a design challenge to activate the characters in its surroundings by using visual exhibition of art. The concept of “sustainability” might be integrated as a response the environmental deficiency of a city, as public art existed in an urban space. Sustainable development has been promoted by the United Nations since 1980s, which includes economical, social, and ecological aspects. A sustainable public art work would be an action for urban regeneration and disassembling. Sustainability has been widely adopted in many environmental planning and engineering projects recently, and it challenges artists to respond the needs of an opening space in public. The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Bibliography

Between Earth and Sky (Ariel Moscovici, France, 2002) explores the cycle of building, erosion and renewal. The work stands outside Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan.
  • "One Place After Another", Miwon Kwon. MIT Press, 2003.
  • Public Art by the Book, edited by Barbara Goldstein. 2005.
  • "Dialogues in Public Art", edited by Tom Finkelpearl. MIT Press, 2000.
  • "The Interventionists: Users' Manual for the Creative Disruption of Everyday Life", edited by Nato Thompson and Gregory Sholette. MASS MoCA, 2004.
  • "Conversation Pieces: Community + Communication in Modern Art", Grant Kester. University of California Press, 2004.
  • Mapping the Terrain: New Genre Public Art, edited by Suzanne Lacy. Bay Press, 1995.
  • "Evictions: Art and Spatial Politics", Rosalyn Deutsche. MIT Press, 1998.
  • "In/Different Spaces: Place and Memory in Visual Culture", Victor Burgin. University of California Press, 1996.
  • Art, Space and the City: Public Art and Urban Futures, Malcolm Miles. 1997.
  • Spirit Poles and Flying Pigs: Public Art and Cultural Democracy in American Communities, Erika Lee Doss. 1995
  • Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Context, and Controversy, Harriet Senie and Sally Webster. 1993.
  • On the Museum's Ruins, Douglas Crimp. MIT Press, 1993.
  • Art For Public Places: Critical Essays, by Malcolm Miles et al. 1989.
  • "Marching Plague: Germ Warfare and Global Public Health", Critical Art Ensemble. Autonomedia, 2006.
  • The Lansing Area Arts Attitude Survey, by Suzanne Love and Kim Dammers. Michigan State University Center for Urban Affairs, 1978?

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 267 pixelsFull resolution (2284 × 761 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 267 pixelsFull resolution (2284 × 761 pixel, file size: 1. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: TáibÄ›i YÄ«língyÄ«; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. ... Alternative meaning: Taipei County City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ...

See also

The term percent for art refers to a program, often a city ordinance, where a fee, usually some percentage of the project cost, is placed on large scale development projects in order to fund and install public art. ... Is a term to define art projects that are based in a community setting. ... Creative Time is a public arts organization based in New York. ... A mural is a painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large permanent surface. ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ... Nef pour quatorze reines by Rose-Marie Goulet, a memorial to the École Polytechnique Massacre, featuring sculptural elements integrated into a specially landscaped site Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... This is a partial list of sculptors. ... The Sculpture Trail leads you through the forest on a walk that lasts about 2 hours, showing 12 interesting sculptures from different artists that are interested in the area. ... Plop art is a derogatory term for public art sculptures made for corporate office plazas, the spaces in front of government buildings, and other public areas, including parks. ... Public Art Fund project at Lincoln Center: Nancy Rubinss Big Pleasure Point, August 2006 The Public Art Fund is a non-profit organization founded in 1977 by Doris Freedman (d. ... The term environmental sculpture is variously defined. ... Street art is any art developed in public spaces — that is, in the streets — though the term usually refers to art of an illicit nature, as opposed to government sponsored initiatives. ...

References

  1. ^ Percent for Art in NYC New York City Department of Cultural Affairs website. Retrieved September 4, 2007.

is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


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Public art - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1414 words)
Public art is not confined to physical objects, dance, procession, street theatre even poetry have proponents that specialise in public art.
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State sponsored public art, particularly murals, are often used by totalitarian regimes as a tool of mass-control and propaganda.
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