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Encyclopedia > Public administration

Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. Public Administration is linked to pursuing the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice. Though public administration has historically referred to government management, it increasingly encompasses non-governmental organizations that are not acting out of self-interest. Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ...

Contents

The history of public administration

The evolution of the theory of Public Administration can be classified into four generations: one pre-generation and three succeeding generations.


The pre-generation

The pre-generation includes thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle and Machiavelli. Until the birth of the national state, the emphasis lay principally on the problems of moral and political nature, and on the organization of the public administration. The operation of this administration was a less urgent problem. Machiavelli wrote the book The Prince, which offered a guideline for European rulers. The operation of the administration, and not only the organization, also profited from the attention it received in this book. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ...


From the 16th century, the national state was the reigning model of the administrative organization in Western Europe. These states needed an organization for the implementation of law and order and for setting up a defensive structure. The need for expert civil servants, with knowledge about taxes, statistics, administration and the military organization grew. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ...


In the 18th century the need for administrative expertise grew even further. Therefore king Frederick William I of Prussia established professorates in Cameralism, an economic and social school of thought within 18th century Prussia to reform society, at the universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and Halle. The most well know professor of Cameralism was Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi (1717-1771), who linked Cameralism and the idea of natural law with each other, but the leading Public Administration scholar at that time was Christian Wolff, who was not a Cameralist. Cameralism is a predecessor of the modern science of public administration. Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Kameralism was a movement within 18th century Prussia to reform society. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Frankfurt an der Oder [ˈfraÅ‹kfÊŠrt] (German formal name: Frankfurt (Oder), Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord, Polish: Frankfurt nad OdrÄ…) is a town in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi (born on December 28, 1717 in Brücken, deceased on July 21, 1771 in Küstrin) was a leading German Kameralist in the 18th century. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... Christian Wolff is the name of at least two notable individuals: an eighteenth-century philosopher and mathematician - see Christian Wolff (philosopher) a twentieth_century composer _ see Christian Wolff (composer) a German actor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Kameralism was a movement within 18th century Prussia to reform society. ...


The first generation

Lorenz von Stein, since 1855 professor in Vienna, is considered the founder of the science of public administration. In the time of Von Stein the science of public administration was considered to be a form of administrative law, but Von Stein thought that opinion was too restrictive. Lorenz von Stein Lorenz von Stein (18 November 1815 – 1890) was a German economist, sociologist, and public administration scholar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


His opinions were innovative in several respects:

  • He considered the science of public administration a melting pot of several disciplines, like sociology, political sciences, administrative law and public finance. In the opinion of Von Stein the science of public administration was an integrating science.
  • According to Von Stein the science of public administration was an interaction between theory and practice. He considered the public administration as leading practically, but the theory had to form the base.
  • Von Stein thought that the science of public administration should strive to adopt a scientific method.

In the United States Woodrow Wilson was the first to consider the science of public administration. In an 1887 article entitled "The Study of Administration," Wilson wrote "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy."[1] Wilson was more influential to the science of public administration than Von Stein, primarily due to an article Wilson wrote in 1887 in which he argued in favor of four concepts: Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...

  • Separation between politics and the public administration.
  • Consideration of the government from a commercial perspective.
  • Comparative analysis between political and private organizations and political schemes.
  • Reaching effective management by training civil servants and assessing their quality.

The separation between politics and the public administration, which Wilson argued, has been the subject of fierce debates for a long time, and the different points of view on this subject differentiate periods in the science of public administration. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


The second generation

The discussion about the separation between politics and the public administration as argued by Wilson continued to play an important role up to 1945. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick were the founders of the Science of Administration. They integrated the ideas of earlier theorists like Henri Fayol into a comprehensive theory of administration. Gulick and Urwick believed that the thoughts of Fayol offered a systematic treatment of management, which was unique at that time. They believed that this could be applied as well for the management of companies as for administrative sciences. They did not want to separate the two disciplines, but believed a single Science of Administration, which exceeds the borders between the private and the public sector, could exist. Later on the Science of Administration would focus primarily on governmental organizations. The reasoning of the Science of Administration was largely borrowed from the fourteen principles of organization of Fayol. Luther Halsey III Gulick (January 17, 1892 in Osaka – January 10, 1993 in New York) was an expert on public administration. ... Lyndall Fownes Urwick (March 3, 1891-December 5, 1983) was an influential business consultant and thinker in the United Kingdom. ... Henri Fayol (born 1841 in Istanbul; died 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist. ...


The third generation

After 1945 the third generation arose which questioned the ideas of Wilson and the second generation. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Initially the distinction between politics and the public administration was strongly relativized by the third generation, but the discussion would continue. Because of the unsuccessful American intervention in Vietnam and the Watergate scandal politics got discredited and in the eighties there was again a plea in favor of bureaucracy, especially in the United States. The public administration had to detach itself from politics. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Watergate redirects here. ...


After Louis Brownlow from the University of Chicago chaired the Hoover Commission on the Reorganization of Government, he founded Public Administration Service on the University of Chicago campus (at 1313 E. 60th Street). From 193 until the late 1970s PAS provided consulting services to governments at all levels: cities counties, states, the federal government and many foreign countries.


Rational choice models of bureaucracy

An influential new stream of rational choice analysis in public administration was inaugurated by William Niskanen, whose (1971) 'budget-maximizing' model argued that rational bureaucrats will always and everywhere seek to increase their budgets, thereby contributing strongly to state growth. Niskanen went on to serve on the US Council of Economic Advisors under President Reagan, and his model provides a strong underpinning for the worldwide move towards cutbacks of public spending and the introduction of privatization in the 1980s and '90s. Niskanen's universalist approach was critiqued by a range of pluralist authors who argued that officials' motivations are more public interest-orientated. Rational choice theory is a way of looking at deliberations between a number of potential courses of action, in which rationality of one form or another is used either to decide which course of action would be the best to take, or to predict which course of action actually will... William A. Niskanen is chairman of the Cato Institute, a position he has held since 1985 following service on President Reagans Council of Economic Advisers. ... Budget-maximizing model is an influential new stream of public choice theory and rational choice analysis in public administration inaugurated by William Niskanen, in 1971. ...


The bureau-shaping model (put forward by Patrick Dunleavy) also argues against Niskanen that rational bureaucrats should only maximize the part of their budget that they spend on their own agency's operations or give to contractors or powerful interest groups (that are able to organize a flowback of benefits to senior officials). For instance, rational officials will get no benefit from paying out larger welfare checks to millions of poor people, since the bureaucrats' own utilities are not improved. Consequently we should expect bureaucracies to significantly maximize budgets in areas like police forces and defence, but not in areas like welfare state spending. Bureau-shaping is a rational choice model of bureaucracy that argues that rational officials will not want to maximize their budgets, but instead to shape their agency so as to maximize their personal utilities from their work. ... Image:Dunleavy4. ...


New public management (NPM) and its potential successors

Outside the USA, Critics argue that NPM has failed in the UK and other countries where it has been applied, so that it is now 'dead'. One claimed successor to NPM is digital era governance focusing on themes of reintegrating responsibilities into government, needs-based holism (doing things in joined-up ways) and digitalization (exploiting the transformational capabilities of modern IT| and digital storage). In the public administration debate about new public management or NPM, the concept of digital era governance (or DEG) is claimed by Patrick Dunleavy, Helen Margetts and their co-authors as replacing NPM since around 2000-05. ...


Public administration as an academic discipline

A Public Administrator can fill many voids. The academic field evolved in the United States from both academic political science and law as a separate study in the 1910s. In Europe, notably England and Germany (Max Weber), it started as a separate scholarly field in the 1890s, but it was first taught in Continental universities in the 1720s. The Federalist Papers several times referred to the importance of good administration, and scholars such as John A. Rohr see a long history behind the constitutional legitimacy of government bureaucracy. For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... John A. Rohr is professor at the Center for Public Administration and Policy at Virginia Tech. ... Legitimacy in political science, is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law as an authority. ...


A few public administration theorists advocate a bright line differentiation of the professional field from related academic disciplines like political science and sociology. But, in general, the interdisciplinary nature of PA is acknowledged and it is viewed as a field of study rather than a discipline.


As a field, public administration can be compared to business administration, and the MPA viewed as similar to an MBA for those wishing to pursue governmental or non-profit careers. An MPA often entails substantial ethical and sociological aspects not usually found in business schools. There are derivative and related degrees that address public affairs, public policy, and the like. Differences often connote program emphases on policy analysis techniques or other topical focuses such as the study of international affairs as opposed to focuses on constitutional issues such as separation of powers, administrative law, problems of governance and power, and participatory democracy.


Public administration theory is the domain where discussions of the meaning and purpose of government, bureaucracy, budgets, governance, and public affairs take place in the field. In recent years, public administration theory has occasionally connoted a heavy orientation toward critical theory and postmodern philosophical notions of government, governance, and power, but many public administration scholars support a classic definition of the term which gives weight to constitutionality, service, bureaucratic forms of organization, and hierarchical government. Public administration theory is the amalgamation of history, organizational theory, social theory, political theory and related studies focused on the meanings, structures and functions of public service in all its forms. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century...


There is minor tradition that holds that the more specific term public management refers to ordinary, routine or typical management concerns, but in the context of achieving public good. Others see public management as a new, economically driven perspective on the operation of government. This latter view is often termed "new public management" by its advocates and can be seen as a reform attempt aimed at reemphasizing the professional nature of the field versus its academic, moral or disciplinary characteristics. Public administration includes many routine concerns that are only distinct from private management in the goals advanced, the types of infrastructure used, and the scale. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ...


Notable public administration/bureaucracy scholars

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Graham T. Allison is a professor at Harvard University. ... Paul Henson Appleby (1891-1963) was an important theorist of public administration in democracies. ... Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877), IPA (see [[1]]), was a nineteenth century British economist. ... Chester Irving Barnard (1886–1961) was a telecommunications executive and author of Functions of the Executive, an influential 20th century management book, in which Barnard presented a theory of organization and the functions of executives in organizations. ... ASA Presidential Photo Reinhard Bendix (February 25, 1916-February 28, 1991) was an accomplished sociologist born in Berlin, Germany. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... Lynton Keith Caldwell is an American political scientist, and the Arthur F. Bentley Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Indiana University Bloomington, where he retired in 1984. ... Michel Crozier (6 November 1922, Sainte-Menehould, Marne) is a French sociologist and member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques since 1999. ... Robert Alan Dahl (b. ... Albert Venn Dicey (February 4, 1835 – April 7, 1922) was a British jurist and constitutional theorist who wrote An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (1885). ... Anthony Downs is a noted scholar in public policy, and since 1977 is a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington D.C.. Downs has served as a consultant to many of the nations largest corporations, including the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the White House. ... Public choice theory is a branch of economics that studies the decision-making behavior of voters, politicians and government officials from the perspective of economic theory. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Image:Dunleavy4. ... Bureau-shaping is a rational choice model of bureaucracy that argues that rational officials will not want to maximize their budgets, but instead to shape their agency so as to maximize their personal utilities from their work. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Dorman Bridoman Eaton (1823-1899), American lawyer, was born at Hardwick, Vermont, on 27 June 1823. ... Mark Evans may refer to: Mark Evans, a pioneering Young British Artist who’s work explores contemporary life and culture. ... James W. Fesler is a well-known scholar of public administration, and the Alfred Cowles Professor Emeritus of Government at Yale University. ... Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) was a social worker, consultant, and author of books on democracy, human relations, and management. ... H. George Frederickson is the Edwin O. Stene Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at the University of Kansas. ... Louis C. Gawthrop is Eminent Scholar and Professor, Government and Public Administration at the University of Baltimore. ... Frank Johnson Goodnow, Ph. ... Charles T. Goodsell is Professor Emeritus at Virginia Techs Center for Public Administration and Policy. ... Luther Gulick is the name of: Luther Gulick (physician) (1865–1918), an American physical education instructor, international basketball official, and founder of the Camp Fire Girls Luther Gulick (social scientist) (1892–1993), a scholar of public administration This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same... Hugh Heclo is Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Public Affairs at George Mason University. ... E. Pendleton Herring (October 1903-2004) was a political scientist who served as Director of the Bureau of the Budget, as Secretary of graduate education at Harvard University, and in numerous other academic and public roles. ... Otto Hintze (1861-1940) was a historian of public administration. ... Father Edward Albert Hughes (August 28, 1918 - October 12, 1980) was a Roman Catholic priest who served as an assistant pastor from June 16, 1948 to June 18, 1960 at St. ... Ralph Hummel is Professor of Public Administration at The University of Akron. ... Patricia Wallace Ingraham is Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at the Maxwell School, Syracuse University. ... Barry Karl is the William Henry Bloomberg Professor of philanthropy and volunteerism at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. ... Valdimer Orlando Key, Jr. ... Harold Joseph Laski (Manchester, June 30, 1893 – March 24, 1950 in London) was an English political theorist, economist, author, and lecturer, and served as the 1945-1946 chairman of the Labour Party. ... The cover of Harold Lasswell on Political Sociology from the University of Chicago Press. ... Charles Edward Lindblom (b. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Michael Lipsky is currently a Research Professor at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... Norton E. Long (1910 - Dec. ... Theodore J. Lowi is a professor of political science at Cornell University. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Laurence E. Lynn, Jr. ... James G. March is Professor Emeritus at Stanford University. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Howard E. McCurdy is professor of public affairs in the public administration and policy department at American University McCurdy is considered an expert on space policy and NASA. McCurdy received his bachelors and masters degrees from the University of Washington and his Ph. ... This article is about the sociologist. ... Professor Henry Mintzberg, OC , OQ , Ph. ... Frederick C. Mosher was a professor of government at the University of Virginia who strongly influenced a generation of scholars in public administration with his many writings. ... Richard Elliott Neustadt (June 26, 1919 - October 31, 2003) was an American political historian specializing in the U.S. Presidency. ... William A. Niskanen is chairman of the Cato Institute, a position he has held since 1985 following service on President Reagans Council of Economic Advisers. ... Rational choice theory is a way of looking at deliberations between a number of potential courses of action, in which rationality of one form or another is used either to decide which course of action would be the best to take, or to predict which course of action actually will... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... One of the developers of the systemic-anarchic perspective of organizational decision making known as the Garbage Can Model. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Elinor Ostrom is the Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science at Indiana University, Bloomington She has authored many books in the fields of organizational theory, political science, and public administration. ... Gerrit Abraham van Poelje (Maasdijk, January 31, 1884 - The Hague, 8 September 8, 1976) was a Dutch civil servant, lawyer and public administration scholar. ... Cyril Northcote Parkinson (born July 30, 1909 in Barnard Castle, Durham County- died March 9, 1993 in Canterbury, Kent) was a naval historian and author of some sixty books, the most famous of which was his best seller Parkinsons Laws, which led him to be also considered as an... Parkinsons Law as commonly referenced states that work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion. ... Ken Rasmussen is professor of public administration at the University of Regina Graduate School of Public Policy. ... Emmette Redford (September 23, 1904-January 30, 1998) was born in San Antonio, Texas. ... John A. Rohr is professor at the Center for Public Administration and Policy at Virginia Tech. ... David H. Rosenbloom is Distinguished Professor of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at American University. ... S.N. Sadasivan is an Indian author, social historian, and public administration guru. ... Allen Schick is a governance fellow of the Brookings Institution and also a professor of political science at the University of Maryland. ... [[Image:--~~~~Philip Selzick is professor emeritus of law and society at the [[University of California at Berkeley]]. A noted author in [[organizational theory]], [[law and society]], and [[public administration]], Selznicks work has been pathbreaking in several fields in such books as [[The Moral Commonwealth]], [[TVA and the Grass Roots... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... Theda Skocpol (born May 4, 1947 in Detroit, Michigan) is a sociologist and political scientist at Harvard University, presently serving as Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. ... Stephen Skowronek is Pelatiah Perit Professor political and social science at Yale University. ... Lorenz von Stein Lorenz von Stein (18 November 1815 – 1890) was a German economist, sociologist, and public administration scholar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Camilla Stivers is Distinguished Professor of Public Administration at Levin College of Cleveland State University. ... Joseph Strayer (1904–1987) was an influential 20th century American medieval historian. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915) was an American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... Henri Fayol (born 1841 in Istanbul; died 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist. ... Alain Touraine (1925- ) is a French sociologist born in Hermanville-sur-Mer. ... Thomas Frederick Tout (1855-1929) was an important 19th and 20th Century historian. ... Paul P. Van Riper was educated at the University of Chicago. ... Dwight Waldo (1913 – 27 October 2000) was an American political scientist and is perhaps the defining figure in modern public administration. ... Gary Wamsley is professor emeritus at Virginia Techs Center for Public Administration and Policy. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aaron Wildavsky (1930-1993) was a political scientist most noted for his work on risk. ... James Q. Wilson (born May 27, 1931) is the Ronald Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University in California, and a professor emeritus at UCLA. He has a Ph. ... William F. Willoughby was an author of public administration texts including works on budgeting. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Deil S. Wright is Alumni Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina. ...

References

  1. ^ Wilson, Woodrow, "The Study of Administration," Political Science Quarterly 2 (June 1887)

See also

Accountability is a concept in ethics with several meanings. ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... Her Majestys Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports UK Government Ministers. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses. ... Budget theory is the academic study of political and social motivations behind government and civil society budgeting. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A nonprofit organization (sometimes abbreviated to not-for-profit, non-profit, or NPO) is an organization whose primary objective is to support some issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes. ... NGO redirects here. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Social Innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society. ... The word docket can mean: Look up docket in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Local government of the United States. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Professional Administration is the study of contemporary organizational principles with an emphasis on their applications in the modern workplace whether in the administrative and leadership skills of private, public organization, and non-profit organizations. ... Public administration includes many routine concerns that are only distinct from private management in the goals advanced, the types of infrastructure used, and the scale. ... Public administration theory is the amalgamation of history, organizational theory, social theory, political theory and related studies focused on the meanings, structures and functions of public service in all its forms. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... Public policy schools teach students policy analysis, public policy, public administration, and public affairs. ... Look up Record in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Public Administration (science). ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Dwight Waldo (1913 – 27 October 2000) was an American political scientist and is perhaps the defining figure in modern public administration. ...

Societies for Public Administration

The association sponsoring conferences and providing professional services primarily to those who study the implementation of government policy, public administration, and, to a lesser degree, programs of civil society. ... به خاطر اعمال تخریبی یک کاربر مشخص AOL، ویکی‌پدیا معمولاً proxyهای AOL را می‌بندد. متأسفانه ممکن است تعداد زیادی از کاربران AOL از یک خادم proxy واحد استفاده کنند، و در نتیجه کاربران بی‌تقصیر AOL معمولاً ندانسته بسته می‌شوند. از دردسر ایجاد شده عذر می‌خواهیم. اگر این اتفاق برای شما افتاد، لطفاً به یکی از مدیران از یک نشانی پست الکترونیک AOL پیغام بفرستید. حتماً نشانی IPی را در فوق داده شده ذکر کنید. بازگشت به صفحهٔ اصلی. گرفته شده از «http://fa. ...

External links

Canada

  • The Institute of Public Administration of Canada

People's Republic of China

  • Hong Kong Public Administration Association

Europe

  • National Institute of Public Administration - Europe/Portugal

Holland

India

  • Indian Institute of Public Administration

Philippines

Poland

  • National School of Public Administration, Warsaw, Poland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

Suggested reading

  • Smith, Kevin B. and Licari, Michael J. Public Administration - Power and Politics in the Fouth Branch of Government, ISBN 1-933220-04-X

  Results from FactBites:
 
Public administration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1444 words)
The term public administration sometimes is taken to refer to bureaucracy (as in Federal Administration).
Cameralism is a predecessor of the modern science of public administration.
Public administration theory is the domain where discussions of the meaning and purpose of government, bureaucracy, budgets, governance, and public affairs take place in the field.
public administration: Information from Answers.com (1477 words)
Public administration is, broadly speaking, the study and implementation of policy.
The term public administration sometimes is taken to refer narrowly to government bureaucracy (as in Federal Administration).
Kameralism is a predecessor of the modern science of public administration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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