He was nominated co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three. Although he was probably king in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority to herself, he was intended by her to be the successor of his father. When Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian, later Augustus Caesar) invaded Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra tried to send Caesarion to India for safety, but the Romans intercepted and captured him. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC – the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. Cleopatra's consort Mark Antony had committed suicide prior to Octavian's entry into the capital; she followed his example by committing suicide on August 12, 30 BC.
Octavian now had to deal with the fate of the captured teenage Pharaoh. Octavian was a grand-nephew and adoptive son of Caesarion's father. But he feared that "too many Caesars", as he put it, would threaten his claim to being the sole successor of his adoptive father. He decided that his adoptive brother must be put to death. Octavian then assumed control of Egypt. The year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the traditional chronological system of Egypt. In lists of the time Octavian himself appears as a Pharaoh and the successor to Caesarion.
PtolemyXV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek:Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ' Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC.
PtolemyXV was named co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three.
Caesarion is the subject of a poem written in 1918 by Konstantinos Petrou Kavafis (English translation).
Ptolemy XIV (lived 60 BC/59 BC - 44 BC, reigned 47 BC - 44 BC), a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
Following the death of his older brother Ptolemy XIII of Egypt on January 13, 47 BCE, he was proclaimed Pharaoh and co-ruler by their older sister and remaining Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
It has been assumed but remains uncertain that Cleopatra poisoned her co-ruler to replace him with PtolemyXVCaesarion, her son by Caesar who was proclaimed co-ruler on September 2, 44 BC and whom his mother intended to support as successor of his father.
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