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Encyclopedia > Ptolemy
Ptolemy

A medieval artist's rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus.
Born after 83 AD
Roman Province of Egypt
Died 161 AD
Roman Province of Egypt
Occupation mathematician, geographer, astronomer, astrologer

Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος; after 83161 AD), known in English as Ptolemy, was a Greek[1] or Egyptian[2] mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who flourished in Roman Egypt. He was probably born in Thebaid at Ptolemais of Hermias and died in Alexandria.[3] Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... The name Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus comes from the Greek Ptolemaios, which means warlike. ... Image File history File links Ptolemaeus. ... For other uses, see number 83. ... The Roman Empire 120, with Aegyptus province highlighted See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... The Roman Empire 120, with Aegyptus province highlighted See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. ... For other uses, see number 83. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for the next 900 years. ... The Thebaid is the region of ancient Egypt containing the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises, three of which would be of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise that is now known as the Almagest (in Greek, Η Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, "The Great Treatise", originally Μαθηματικἠ Σύνταξις, "Mathematical Treatise"). The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the astrological treatise known as the Tetrabiblos ("Four books") in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος; c. ... Horoscopic astrology is a form of astrology which uses a horoscope or chart to gain information from the position of cosmic bodies. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ...

Contents

The Name Ptolemy

Though considered a member of Alexandria's Greek society, Ptolemy's biographical details were never recorded. Some scholars have assumed that Ptolemy may have been a Greek[1][4] while others have assumed that he may have been a Hellenized Egyptian.[2][4][5][6][7] He was often known in later Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian",[8] suggesting that he may have had origins in southern Egypt.[6] Ptolemy is also known to have used Babylonian astronomical data.[9][10] Arabic redirects here. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Babylonian astronomy refers to the astronomy that developed in Mesopotamia, the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient kingdoms of Sumer, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea were located. ...


Ptolemy is a Greek name. It occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. It was quite common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, and there are several among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself King of Egypt: Ptolemy I Soter; all the Kings after him, until Rome conquered Egypt, were also Ptolemies. There is no evidence on Ptolemy's ancestry, but most scholars consider it unlikely that Ptolemy was related to the royal family.[citation needed] The name Ptolemy or Ptolemaeus comes from the Greek Ptolemaios, which means warlike. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ...


Claudius is a Roman name; it implies Ptolemy was a Roman citizen. It would have been customary for the first Ptolemy to be a citizen, whether Ptolemy or an ancestor, to take the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, who was in some sense responsible for the citizenship. If, as was not uncommon, this Roman was the Emperor, the citizenship would have been granted between 41 and 68 AD, when the Claudii were Emperors. The astronomer would also have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The Persian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (ca. 780-850 AD), the founder of algebra, who revised and updated Ptolemy's Geography, was of the opinion that Ptolemy was a descendant of a Roman emperor named Claudius and that was why he and his ancestors possessed that name. In the naming convention used in ancient Rome, derived from that of the Etruscan civilization, the names of male patricians normally consist of three parts (tria nomina): the praenomen (given name), nomen gentile or gentilicium (name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (belonging to a family within the gens). ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the series of the first five Roman Emperors. ... In the naming convention used in ancient Rome, derived from that of the Etruscan civilization, the names of male patricians normally consist of three parts (tria nomina): the praenomen (given name), nomen gentile or gentilicium (name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (belonging to a family within the gens). ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... al-KhwārizmÄ« redirects here. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ...


Astronomy

Further information: Almagest

The Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek astronomers such as Hipparchus had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions; Ptolemy, however, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets.[11] The Almagest also contains a star catalogue, which is an appropriated version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky (only the sky Hipparchus could see). Through the Middle Ages it was spoken of as the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an almost mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria.[12] The Almagest was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name). Because of its reputation, it was widely sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.[13] Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until an equally systematic presentation of a heliocentric geometrical model by Nicolaus Copernicus. Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... Babylonian astronomy refers to the astronomy that developed in Mesopotamia, the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient kingdoms of Sumer, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea were located. ... For the Athenian tyrant, see Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus). ... A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalog that lists stars. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... Copernicus redirects here. ...


His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres,[14] in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe. He estimated the Sun was at an average distance of 1210 Earth radii while the radius of the sphere of the fixed stars was 20,000 times the radius of the Earth.[15]


Ptolemy presented a useful tool for astronomical calculations in his Handy Tables, which tabulated all the data needed to compute the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets, the rising and setting of the stars, and eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Ptolemy's Handy Tables provided the model for later astronomical tables or zījes. In the Phaseis (Risings of the Fixed Stars) Ptolemy gave a parapegma, a star calendar or almanac based on the appearances and disappearances of stars over the course of the solar year. This article discusses astronomical eclipses. ... ZÄ«j is the generic name applied to books in Arabic, Persian, and some other languages that tabulate parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ...


His model and computational methods were adopted and modified in the Arabic speaking world and in India, since they were of sufficient accuracy to satisfy the needs of astronomers, astrologers, timekeepers, calendar keepers, and navigators. This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ...


Geography

Main article: Geographia (Ptolemy)

Ptolemy's other main work is his Geographia. This too is a compilation of what was known about the world's geography in the Roman Empire during his time. He relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire, but most of his sources beyond the perimeter of the Empire were unreliable. The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Marinos of Tyre (Μαρίνος ο Τύριος) Ο Μαρίνος από την Τύρο (περί το 170 - 250 μ.Χ.) ήταν Έλληνας γεωγράφος και χαρτογράφος από την Τύρο. Θεωρείται ως ο θεμελιωτής της μαθηματικής γεωγραφίας, περιγράφοντας με μεγαλύτερη σαφήνεια από όλους τους παλαιότερους γεωγράφους τη βόρεια Ευρώπη, υποστηρίζοντας το μεσημβρινό των Μακάρων ως αφετηρία για τη μέτρηση των μηκών, προηγούμενος έτσι του Πτολεμαίου Κλαύδιου, συντάσσοντας γεωγραφικούς πίνακες. Ο Πτολεμαίος τον περιλαμβάνει στη Γεωγραφική του Υφήγηση, αναφέροντας τα Περί Μαρίνου γεωγραφικής υφηγήσεως, Διόρθωσις του πλάτους εγνωσμένης γης διαστάσεως από των φαινομένων και . ... A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information about places and place-names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with an atlas. ... Persia redirects here. ...


The first part of the Geographia is a discussion of the data and of the methods he used. As with the model of the solar system in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred in book 8 to express it as the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc (the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as you go from the equator to the polar circle). In books 2 through 7, he used degrees and put the meridian of 0 longitude at the most western land he knew, the "Blessed Islands", probably the Cape Verde islands (not the Canary Islands, as long accepted) as suggested by the location of the six dots labelled the "FORTUNATA" islands near the left extreme of the blue sea of Ptolemy's map here reproduced. The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John... The polar circle in Finland, 1975. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... In the Fortunate Isles, also called the Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed (μακαρων νησοι makarôn nêsoi), heroes and other favored mortals in Greek mythology and Celtic mythology were received by the gods into a blissful paradise. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...

A 15th century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia (circa 150), indicating the countries of "Serica" and "Sinae" (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of "Taprobane" (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the "Aurea Chersonesus" (Malay Peninsula).
A 15th century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia (circa 150), indicating the countries of "Serica" and "Sinae" (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of "Taprobane" (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the "Aurea Chersonesus" (Malay Peninsula).

Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. In the second part of the Geographia he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. His oikoumenè spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Blessed Islands in the Atlantic Ocean to the middle of China, and about 80 degrees of latitude from Thule Shetlands to anti-Meroe (east coast of Africa); Ptolemy was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe, and an erroneous extension of China southward blocked off any awareness of the Pacific Ocean. Download high resolution version (1344x915, 810 KB)Ptolemys 150 CE World Map (redrawn in the 15th century). ... Download high resolution version (1344x915, 810 KB)Ptolemys 150 CE World Map (redrawn in the 15th century). ... Ptolemys world map, reconstituted from Ptolemys Geographia (circa 150), indicating Sinae (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of Taprobane (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the Aurea Chersonesus (Southeast Asian peninsula). ... The Roman army consists of 400,000 men. ... Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the lay of the land, or the physiogeographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geographia, however, date only from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes. It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2-7 are cumulative texts - texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy (Bagrow 1945). This means that information contained in different parts of the Geography is likely to be of different date. Maximus Planudes (c. ...

A printed Ptolemaic map from the 16th century
A printed Ptolemaic map from the 16th century

Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenes (3rd century BC), but Ptolemy improved projections. It is known that a world map based on the Geographia was on display in Autun, France in late Roman times. In the 15th century Ptolemy's Geographia began to be printed with engraved maps; the earliest printed edition with engraved maps was produced in Bologna in 1477, followed quickly by a Roman edition in 1478 (Campbell, 1987). An edition printed at Ulm in 1482, including woodcut maps, was the first one printed north of the Alps. The maps look distorted as compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were inaccurate. One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth as too small: while Eratosthenes found 700 stadia for a great circle degree on the globe, in the Geographia Ptolemy uses 500 stadia. It is highly probable that these were the same stadion since Ptolemy switched from the former scale to the latter, between the Syntaxis and the Geographia and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly. If they both used the Attic stadion of about 185 meters, then the older estimate is 1/6 too large, and Ptolemy's value is 1/6 too small, a difference recently explained as due to ancient scientists' use of simple methods of measuring the earth, which were corrupted either high or low by a factor of 5/6, due to air's bending of horizontal light rays by 1/6 of the earth's curvature. See also Ancient Greek units of measurement and History of geodesy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 576 pixelsFull resolution (8073 × 5813 pixel, file size: 18. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 576 pixelsFull resolution (8073 × 5813 pixel, file size: 18. ... See map for the navigational aid The acronym MAPS could refer to: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Mail Abuse Prevention System Multi-jurisdictional Automated Preclearance System Mid-Atlantic Percussion Society Medical Advanced Pain Specialists Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Multidisciplinary Academic PerspectiveS Metropolitan Area ProjectS Category: ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The Mercator projection shows courses of constant bearing as straight lines. ... Autun is a town in the Saône-et-Loire département in Burgundy, France, and has a history which dates back to Roman times. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... The Greek system of weights and measures was built mainly upon the Egyptian, and formed the basis of the later Roman system. ... The Greek system of weights and measures was built mainly upon the Egyptian, and formed the basis of the later Roman system. ... Man has always been interested in the Earth on which he lives. ...


Because Ptolemy derived many of his key latitudes from crude longest day values, his latitudes are erroneous on average by roughly a degree (2 degrees for Byzantium, 4 degrees for Carthage), though capable ancient astronomers knew their latitudes to more like a minute. (Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'.) He agreed (Geographia 1.4) that longitude was best determined by simultaneous observation of lunar eclipses, yet he was so out of touch with the scientists of his day that he knew of no such data more recent than 500 years ago (Arbela eclipse). When switching from 700 stadia per degree to 500, he (or Marinos) expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly (a point 1st realized by P.Gosselin in 1790), resulting in serious over-stretching of the earth's east-west scale in degrees, though not distance. Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in geography until the invention of the marine chronometer at the end of the 18th century. It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony to the persistent popularity of this influential work in the history of cartography. A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ...


Interestingly, some of his maps shown parts of the "new world". This topography fits apparently parts of New England and Canada. Some have seen Antarctica and South America too, misplaced near China. All this always before Columbus travel. This is similar to Piri Reis enigmas. [2] Piri Reis (originally Hadji Muhammad) was an Ottoman admiral born around 1465, in Gallipoli on the Dardanelles. ...


Astrology

The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian' as imagined by a 16th century artist
The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian' as imagined by a 16th century artist

Ptolemy's treatise on astrology, the Tetrabiblos, was the most popular astrological work of antiquity and also enjoyed great influence in the Islamic world and the medieval Latin West. The Tetrabiblos is an extensive and continually reprinted treatise on the ancient principles of horoscopic astrology in four books (Greek tetra means "four", biblos is "book"). That it did not quite attain the unrivalled status of the Almagest was perhaps because it did not cover some popular areas of the subject, particularly electional astrology (interpreting astrological charts for a particular moment to determine the outcome of a course of action to be initiated at that time), and medical astrology. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1076, 308 KB) Claudius Ptolemäus, Picture of 16th century book frontispiece File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ptolemy Almagest ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1076, 308 KB) Claudius Ptolemäus, Picture of 16th century book frontispiece File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ptolemy Almagest ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος; c. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... Horoscopic astrology is a form of astrology which uses a horoscope or chart to gain information from the position of cosmic bodies. ... Electional astrology (called Muhurt or Muhurtha in Hindu astrology) concerns itself with finding the best time to do a particular activity. ... This old document shows the anciently-held link between the 12 signs of the Zodiac and the various parts of the body Medical astrology (traditionally known as Iatromathematics) is an ancient medical system that associates various parts of the body, diseases and drugs as under the influence of the Sun...


The great popularity that the Tetrabiblos did possess might be attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art of astrology and as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as a manual. It speaks in general terms, avoiding illustrations and details of practice. Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and dismissing practices (such as considering the numerological significance of names) that he believed to be without sound basis. An ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) (from the Greek word ephemeros = daily) is a device giving the positions of astronomical objects in the sky. ... Numerology is any of many systems, traditions or beliefs in a mystical or esoteric relationship between numbers and physical objects or living things. ...


Much of the content of the Tetrabiblos may well have been collected from earlier sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be rationalized. It is, indeed, presented as the second part of the study of astronomy of which the Almagest was the first, concerned with the influences of the celestial bodies in the sublunar sphere. Thus explanations of a sort are provided for the astrological effects of the planets, based upon their combined effects of heating, cooling, moistening, and drying. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A planet (from the Greek πλανήτης, planetes or wanderers) is a body of considerable mass that orbits a star and that produces very little or no energy through nuclear fusion. ...


Ptolemy's astrological outlook was quite practical: he thought that astrology was like medicine, that is conjectural, because of the many variable factors to be taken into account: the race, country, and upbringing of a person affects an individual's personality as much if not more than the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the precise moment of their birth, so Ptolemy saw astrology as something to be used in life but in no way relied on entirely. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Nurture is usually defined as the process of caring for and teaching a child as they grow. ...


Music

Ptolemy also wrote an influential work, Harmonics, on music theory and the mathematics of music. After criticizing the approaches of his predecessors, Ptolemy argued for basing musical intervals on mathematical ratios (in contrast to the followers of Aristoxenus and in agreement with the followers of Pythagoras) backed up by empirical observation (in contrast to the overly theoretical approach of the Pythagoreans). Ptolemy wrote about how musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations and vice versa in Harmonics. This is called Pythagorean tuning because it was first discovered by Pythagoras. However, Pythagoras believed that the mathematics of music should be based on the specific ratio of 3:2 whereas Ptolemy merely believed that it should just generally involve tetrachords and octaves. He presented his own divisions of the tetrachord and the octave, which he derived with the help of a monochord. Ptolemy's astronomical interests also appeared in a discussion of the music of the spheres. Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... Aristoxenus (Greek: Ἀριστόξενος) of Tarentum (4th century BC) was a Greek peripatetic philosopher, and writer on music and rhythm. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... The Pythagoreans were a Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ... The tetrachord is a concept of music theory borrowed from ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... A monochord is an ancient musical and scientific laboratory instrument. ... Musica universalis or music of the spheres is a medieval philosophical concept that regards the proportions in the movements of the celestial bodies - the sun, moon and planets - as a form of musica (the medieval Latin name for music). ...


Other works

His Optics, a work which survives only in a poor Arabic translation and in about twenty manuscripts of a Latin translation of the Arabic, made by Eugene of Palermo (circa 1154). In it he writes about properties of light, including reflection, refraction and colour. The work is a significant part of the early history of optics. Eugenius of Palermo (also Eugene, Latin: Eugenius Siculus, Italian: Eugenio da Palermo; circa 1130 – 1202) was an amiratus of the Kingdom of Sicily in the late twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... // The Beginnings of Geometrical Optics The Greek term τα όπτικά referred specifically to matters of vision[1], and hence early optics was concerned with the problem of how we see. ...


Named after Ptolemy

Ptolemaeus is an ancient lunar impact crater close to the center of the near side. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Overview of the Trilogy Spoiler warning: The Bartimaeus Trilogy is a trilogy of books that feature a unique set of characters. ... Aphex Twin (born Richard David James on August 18, 1971 in Limerick, Ireland) is a Cornish electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, acid and drum and bass. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b enc. Britannica 2007, "Claudius Ptolemaeus" [1]
  2. ^ a b George Sarton (1936). "The Unity and Diversity of the Mediterranean World", Osiris 2, p. 406-463 [429].
  3. ^ Jean Claude Pecker (2001), Understanding the Heavens: Thirty Centuries of Astronomical Ideas from Ancient Thinking to Modern Cosmology, p. 311, Springer, ISBN 3540631984.
  4. ^ a b Victor J. Katz (1998). A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, p. 184. Addison Wesley, ISBN 0321016181.

    "But what we really want to know is to what extent the Alexandrian mathematicians of the period from the first to the fifth centuries C.E. were Greek. Certainly, all of them wrote in Greek and were part of the Greek intellectual community of Alexandria. And most modern studies conclude that the Greek community coexisted [...] So should we assume that Ptolemy and Diophantus, Pappus and Hypatia were ethnically Greek, that their ancestors had come from Greece at some point in the past but had remained effectively isolated from the Egyptians? It is, of course, impossible to answer this question definatively. But research in papyri dating from the early centuries of the common era demonstrates that a significant amount of intermarriage took place between the Greek and Egyptian communities [...] And it is known that Greek marriage contracts increasingly came to resemble Egyptian ones. In addition, even from the founding of Alexandria, small numbers of Egyptians were admitted to the privaleged classes in the city to fulfill numerous civic roles. Of course, it was essential in such cases for the Egyptians to become "Hellenized," to adopt Greek habits and the Greek language. Given that the Alexandrian mathematicians mentioned here were active several hundred years after the founding of the city, it would seem at least equally possible that they were ethnically Egyptian as that they remained ethnically Greek. In any case, it is unreasonable to portray them with purely European features when no physical descriptions exist." George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Title page of the 1621 edition of Diophantus Arithmetica, translated into Latin by Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac. ... The pappus of a Cirsium arvense This article is about a flower structure. ... Hypatia could refer to: Hypatia of Alexandria (?370–415), a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher. ...

  5. ^ John Horace Parry (1981). The Age of Reconnaissance, p. 10. University of California Press. ISBN 0520042352.
  6. ^ a b Martin Bernal (1992). "Animadversions on the Origins of Western Science", Isis 83 (4), p. 596-607 [602, 606].
  7. ^ Ptolemy, Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2007.
  8. ^ J. F. Weidler (1741). Historia astronomiae, p. 177. Wittenberg: Gottlieb. (cf. Martin Bernal (1992). "Animadversions on the Origins of Western Science", Isis 83 (4), p. 596-607 [606].)
  9. ^ Asger Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy, New York: Springer, 2001), p. 62-65.
  10. ^ Alexander Jones, "The Adaptation of Babylonian Methods in Greek Numerical Astronomy," in The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, p. 99.
  11. ^ Bernard R. Goldstein, "Saving the Phenomena: The Background to Ptolemy's Planetary Theory", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 28 (1997): 1-12
  12. ^ S. C. McCluskey, Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr. 1998, pp. 20-21.
  13. ^ Charles Homer Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science, New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1967, reprint of the Cambridge, Mass., 1927 edition
  14. ^ Dennis Duke, Ptolemy's Cosmology
  15. ^ Bernard R. Goldstein, ed., The Arabic Version of Ptolemy's Planetary Hypotheses, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 57, 4 (1967), pp. 9-12.

John Horace Parry (born in Handsworth, England, on 26 April 1914 - died in Cambridge, Massachusetts on August 1982) was a distinguished maritime historian, who served as Gardiner Professor of Oceanic History and Affairs at Harvard University. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... Martin Bernal is a scholar of modern Chinese political history who claims classical civilization in Ancient Greece actually stems from Afroasiatic and Semitic cultures, not just from Europe. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... Look up Cf. ... Martin Bernal is a scholar of modern Chinese political history who claims classical civilization in Ancient Greece actually stems from Afroasiatic and Semitic cultures, not just from Europe. ...

See also

Atlas Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ptolemys world map, reconstituted from Ptolemys Geographia (circa 150), indicating Sinae (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of Taprobane (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the Aurea Chersonesus (Southeast Asian peninsula). ... In mathematics, Ptolemys theorem is a relation in Euclidean geometry between the four sides and two diagonals or chords of a quadrilateral inscribed in circle. ... The Ptolemy Cluster (also known as Messier Object 7 or NGC 6475) is an open cluster in the constellation Scorpius. ... The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by ancient astronomers as a convenient means to date astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses. ...

References

Texts and translations

  • Berggren, J. Lennart and Jones, Alexander. 2000. Ptolemy's Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01042-0.
  • Nobbe, C. F. A., ed. 1843. Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia. 3 vols. Leipzig: Carolus Tauchnitus. (The most recent edition of the complete Greek text)
  • Stevenson, Edward Luther. Trans. and ed. 1932. Claudius Ptolemy: The Geography. New York Public Library. Reprint: Dover, 1991. (This is the only complete English translation of Ptolemy's most famous work. Unfortunately, it is marred by numerous mistakes and the placenames are given in Latinised forms, rather than in the original Greek).
  • Stückelberger, Alfred and Graßhoff, Gerd, eds. 2006. Ptolemaios, Handbuch der Geographie, Griechisch-Deutsch. 2 vols. Basel. Schwabe Verlag. ISBN-13 978-3-7965-2148-5. (Massive 1018 pp. scholarly edition by a team of a dozen scholars that takes account of all known manuscripts, with facing Greek and German text, footnotes on manuscript variations, color maps, and a CD with the geographical data)

Other references

  • Bagrow, L. 1945. "The Origin of Ptolemy's Geographia". Geografiska Annaler 27:318-387.
  • Campbell, T. 1987. The Earliest Printed Maps. British Museum Press.
  • Neugebauer, Otto 1975 A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. 3 vols, Berlin and New York: Sprnger Verlag.
  • Taub, Liba Chia 1993 Ptolemy's Universe: The Natural Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Ptolemy's Astronomy. Chicago: Open Court Press. ISBN 0-8126-9229-2

External links

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Primary sources

Secondary material

Persondata
NAME Πτολεμαῖος, Κλαύδιος
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ptolemaeus, Claudius; Ptolemy
SHORT DESCRIPTION geographer, astronomer and astrologer
DATE OF BIRTH circa 90
PLACE OF BIRTH probably Egypt
DATE OF DEATH circa 168
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Claudius Ptolemy (740 words)
Ptolemy used geometric models to predict the positions of the sun, moon, and planets, using combinations of circular motion known as epicycles.
This must be Ptolemy's greatest achievement in terms of an original contribution, since there does not appear to have been any satisfactory theoretical model to explain the rather complicated motions of the five planets before the Almagest.
Ptolemy combined the epicycle and eccentric methods to give his model for the motions of the planets.
World Almanac for Kids (593 words)
Ptolemy was probably born in Greece, but his actual name, Claudius Ptolemaeus, reflects all that is really known of him: “Ptolemaeus”; indicates that he was a resident of Egypt, and “Claudius”; signifies Roman citizenship.
Ptolemy also had to introduce, however, another mathematical device known as the equant: an imaginary point halfway between the center of the deferent and the eccentric point representing the earth’s position.
Ptolemy also contributed substantially to mathematics by advancing the study of trigonometry, and he applied his theories to the construction of astrolabes and sundials.
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