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Encyclopedia > Psychrophile

Psychrophiles are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in cold temperatures. They can be contrasted with thermophiles, which thrive at unusually hot temperatures. The environments they inhabit are ubiquitous on Earth, as a large fraction of our planetary surface experiences temperatures lower than 15°C. They are present in alpine and arctic soils, high-latitude and deep ocean waters, arctic ice, glaciers, and snowfields. Psychrophiles get their nutrients, which flow in tiny streams between cracks and layers of ice, from the inside of frozen glaciers and seawater, as well as from the soil. Most psychrophiles are bacteria or archaea. An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Thermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A thermophile is an organism – a type of extremophile – which thrives at relatively high temperatures, above 45 °C. Many thermophiles are archaea. ... Alpine may refer to: Alpine, a breed of goat. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the u area around the Earths North Pole. ... SOiL is a five-piece nu metal band from Chicago, formed in 1997. ... Latitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... The deep ocean is the lowest layer in an ocean, existing below the thermocline. ... ICE can refer to: InterCity Express, a German high-speed train Internal combustion engine, a fuel engine In-circuit emulator, a computer hardware device In case of emergency, emergency number in mobile phones Institution of Civil Engineers, British civil engineer guild Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. government agency Iron... Aletsch glacier, Switzerland A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... The snow in Utah is world famous. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea (also called Archaebacteria) are a major division of living organisms. ...



There are generally considered to be two groups of psychrophiles: "classic" psychrophiles, and a second group that are sometimes referred to as psychrotrophs by food microbiologists. Classic psychrophiles are those organisms having a growth temperature optimum of 15°C or lower - and do not grow in a climate beyond a maximum temperature of 20°C. They are largely found in icy places (such as in Antarctica) or at the freezing bottom of the ocean floor. This separation is becoming fuzzy as more organisms with a fairly large growth temperature range are discovered. The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean (from Okeanos, Greek for river, the ancient Greeks noticed that a strong current flowed off Gibraltar, and assumed it was a great river); covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the...


Psychrotrophs can grow at 0°C up through approximately 40°C, and exist in much larger numbers than classic psychrophiles. They are of particular significance to food microbiologists as they can grow in refrigerated environments and thereby cause food spoilage. Psychrophiles are identified by an enzyme that only they produce. It is released and froms a crystallized structure in liquids, such as milk, when psychrophiles reproduce. Psychrophiles reproduce asexually through mitosis.


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Psychrophile Summary (798 words)
Psychrophilic bacteria are abundant in the near-freezing waters of the Arctic and the Antarctic.
Psychrophiles utilize a wide variety of metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, chemoautotrophy (also sometimes known as lithotrophy), and heterotrophy, and form robust, diverse communities.
Obligate psychrophiles are those organisms having a growth temperature optimum of 15°C or lower and cannot grow in a climate beyond a maximum temperature of 20°C. They are largely found in icy places (such as in Antarctica) or at the freezing bottom of the ocean floor.
Psychrophile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (285 words)
Psychrophiles are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in cold temperatures.
Psychrophiles get their nutrients, which flow in tiny streams between cracks and layers of ice, from the inside of frozen glaciers and seawater, as well as from the soil.
Classic psychrophiles are those organisms having a growth temperature optimum of 15°C or lower - and do not grow in a climate beyond a maximum temperature of 20°C. They are largely found in icy places (such as in Antarctica) or at the freezing bottom of the ocean floor.
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