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Encyclopedia > Psychosexual development
Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

Constructs
Psychosexual development
Psychosocial development
ConsciousPreconsciousUnconscious
Id, ego, and super-ego
LibidoDrive
TransferenceSublimationResistance Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1944 KB) Its hard to imagine. ... // Psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson describes eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Preconscious is a structure of the mind, postulated by Sigmund Freud, containing all memories that can be easily accessed by the conscious mind. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of ego and id, see EGO and ID. The ego is not sharply separated from the id; its lower portion merges into it. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... In psychology, sublimation is a coping mechanism. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Important Figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
Alfred AdlerOtto Rank
Anna FreudMargaret Mahler
Karen HorneyJacques Lacan
Ronald FairbairnMelanie Klein
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erik EriksonNancy Chodorow
Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Ernest JonesHeinz Kohut
Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Jung redirects here. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Anna Freud and Sadie Burkard (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Julia. ... Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897 – October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York – January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was a U.S. psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Susan Sutherland Isaacs (née Fairhurst) (1885–1948) was an educational psychologist and psychoanalyst from the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
Civilization and Its Discontents A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. ...


Schools of Thought
Self psychologyLacanian
Analytical psychologyObject relations
InterpersonalRelational
AttachmentEgo psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French IPA: ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Mother and child Attachment theory is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for discussion of interpersonal relationships between human beings. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

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The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. It consists of five separate phases: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. In the development of his theories, Freud's main concern was with sexual desire, defined in terms of formative drives, instincts and appetites that result in the formation of an adult personality. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The word lust means sexual desire (this meaning is sometimes metaphorically extended to other forms of desire, e. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ...


Terminology associated with Freud's stages of psychosexual development has found wide, popular usage in a variety of registers and fields of activity (see, Freud and Popular Culture). In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...

Contents

Introduction

Freud theorized that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object, through the process of transference. He argued that humans are born "polymorphous perverse"[1], meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. However, to this day, there is no scientific justification of this theory and generally not an accepted model among practicing psychologists. Following a biological logic, Freud established a rigid model for that "normal" sexual development of the human being, or the "libido development". Each child passes through five psychosexual stages. During each stage, the id focuses on a distinct erogenous zone on the body. The term "psychosexual infantilism," refers to those who become fixated in this way and fail to mature through the psychosexual stages into heterosexuality. Freud related the resolutions of the stages with adult personalities and personality disorders. For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... In his theory of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud sought to explain how the unconscious mind operates by proposing that it has a particular structure. ... In Freudian psychology, an individual progresses through psychosexual stages as they develop. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and behaviour. ...


Despite their popularity among psychoanalytical psychologists, Freud's psychosexual theories are commonly criticized as being sexist. For example, Freud stated that young females develop "penis envy" toward the males during their psychosexual development. In response, Karen Horney, a German Freudian psychoanalyst, argued that young females develop "power envy" instead of "penis envy" toward the male. Sexism is discrimination between people based on their Sex rather than their individual merits. ... For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ...


Today, adherence to Freud's theories is not strict. "It's a model," said Dr. Joseph Merlino, Senior Editor of the book Freud at 150: 21st Century Essays on a Man of Genius. "What we try to do as therapists is come up with a hypothesis that works for the individual that he can use to help him or herself, as opposed to having my theory inflicted upon you. If you can use a psychosexual development kind of model in helping to understand what the situation is, it can be a language that the two of us can speak. Most therapists are focusing less on even using that as language. It's more of a concept to structure something."[2] This article is about Joseph Merlino the psychiatrist. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Freud's model of psychosexual development

Stage Age Range Erogenous zone(s) Consequences of Fixation
Oral 0-18 months Mouth Orally aggressive:

Involves chewing gum or ends of pens. The oral stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the childs development during the first 18 to 24 months of life, in which an infants pleasure centers are in the mouth. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ...


Orally Passive:


Involves smoking/eating/kissing/fellatio/cunnilingus[3]

Anal 18-36 months Bowel and bladder elimination Anal-retentive:

Obsession with organization or excessive neatness
Anal-expulsive:
Reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized, Coprophiliac The Anal Stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the development during the second year of life, in which an childs pleasure and conflict centers are in the anal area. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... The term anal-retentive (or anally retentive, anal retentive) derives from Freudian Psychology, although in common usage the original meaning has been altered. ... The term anal expulsive refers to a personality trait present in people fixated in the anal stage of psychosexual development. ...

Phallic 3-6 years Genitals Oedipus complex (in boys only according to Freud)

Electra complex (in girls only, later developed by Carl Jung) The phallic stage is the third of Freuds psychosexual stages, when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... The Electra complex is an ambiguous psychiatric concept which attempts to explain the maturation of the human female. ...

Latency 6 years-puberty Dormant sexual feelings (People do not tend to fixate at this stage, but if they do, they tend to be extremely sexually unfulfilled.)
Genital Puberty and beyond Sexual interests mature Frigidity, impotence, unsatisfactory relationships

Child sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in children. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... The genital stage is a stage of child development in one of the theories postulated by Sigmund Freud and elaborated by his followers. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ...

Oral phase

The oral stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the child's development during the first eighteen months of life, in which an infant's pleasure centers are in the mouth. This is the first of Freud's psychosexual stages. The oral stage in psychology is the term used by Sigmund Freud to describe the childs development during the first 18 to 24 months of life, in which an infants pleasure centers are in the mouth. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


This is the infant's first relationship with its mother; it is a nutritive one. The length of this stage depends on the society. In some societies it is common for a child to be nursed by its mother for several years, whereas in others the stage is much shorter. Sucking and eating, however, compose the earliest memories for infants in every society. This stage holds special importance because some, especially those in tribal societies commonly found in the Southwest Pacific and Africa, consider the stomach to be the seat of emotions. This can cause overeating, smoking, thumb sucking, and other conflicts as an adult. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


Anal phase

The next stage of psychosexual development is centered around the rectum, but can also include bladder functions. This phase usually occurs from eighteen months to thirty-six months of age. In this stage children learn to control the expulsion of feces causing their libidinal energy to become focused in this area. The added awareness of this erogenous zone arises in children from concentrating on controlling their defecation. They come to see it as just another way to experience pleasure, and begin to take pride in either defecating in a fashion that may be considered socially unacceptable, or, in the case of very strict parents, they may begin to resist the urge to defecate to the extent where it becomes pathological. Two types of characters can develop out of this: the expulsive and the retentive. The expulsive character would have been prone to malicious excretion either just before they were placed on the toilet or just after they were removed from the toilet. The retentive character takes pleasure in holding in the feces in spite of his or her parents' training. The child comes to view the feces as a possession which he does not want to relinquish. Freud postulated that such children develop into adults who are usually neat, organized, careful, meticulous, and obstinate. Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


Phallic phase

At thirty-six months to about seventy-two months of age the libidinal energy shifts from the anal region to the genital region. At this point, according to Freud's model, the Oedipus or Electra complex can develop. The Oedipus complex is central to the psychodynamic fixations in this time period for men; the Electra complex for women. A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... The Electra complex is an ambiguous psychiatric concept which attempts to explain the maturation of the human female. ...


Around this time in males, according to Freud, the young boy falls in love with his mother and wishes that his father was not in the way of his love. At this point he notices that women have no penis and fears that the punishment of his father for being in love with his wife is castration. This fear is enhanced if he is castigated for masturbation at this stage. Once the fear of retaliation has subsided the boy will learn to earn his mother's love by becoming as much like his father as possible. Thus, the superego is born. He will adopt his father's beliefs and ideals as his own and move on to the latency stage. The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... In his theory of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud sought to explain how the unconscious mind operates by proposing that it has a particular structure. ...


Freud's theory regarding the psychosexual dynamic present in female children in this point of their psychosexual development is termed, though not by Freud himself, the Electra complex. According to Freud, young girls, after they come to the realization that they have no penis, begin to blame the mother for having taken it, and look to the father as a substitute for the loss that they perceive. This is termed "penis envy." Freud's theory of feminine sexuality, particularly penis envy, has been sharply criticized in both gender and feminist theory. For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ...


Latency phase

The latency period begins sometime around the age of six and ends when puberty starts to begin. Freud believed that in this phase the Oedipus complex was dissolved and set free, resulting in a relatively conflict-free period of development. In this phase, the child begins to make connections to siblings, other children, and adults. This phase is typified by a solidifying of the habits that the child developed in the earlier stages. Freud describes in his model of psychosexual development five stages. ...


Genital phase

The genital stage starts at puberty, allowing the child to develop opposite sex relationships with the libidinal energy again focused on the genital area. According to Freud, if any of the stages are fixated on, there is not enough libidinal energy for this stage to develop untroubled. To have a fully functional adulthood, the previous stages need to be fully resolved and there needs to be a balance between love and work.


Criticism of Freud's theory of psychosexual development

Wikinews has related news:
Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Feminist critique

Freud's theories were decidedly androcentric, which is why he has received a great deal of criticism from feminists, as well as from gender theory practitioners. Freud had difficulty incorporating female desire into his theories. Freud attempted to provide a theoretical explanation for feminine psychosexual development only rather late in his career. Freud personally confessed a lack of understanding of female sexuality and did not hold out hope that psychology would ever explain the phenomenon.


Freud argued that young girls followed more or less the same psychosexual development as boys. Whereas the boy would develop a castration conflict, the girl would go on to develop penis envy, "the envy the female feels toward the male because the male possesses a penis." The envy is rooted in the fact that without a penis, the female cannot sexually posess the mother as driven to by the Id. As a result of this realization, she is driven to desire sexual union with the father. After this stage, the woman has an extra stage in her development when the clitoris should wholly or in part hand over its sensitivity and its importance to the vagina. The young girl must also at some point give up her first object-choice, the mother, in order to take the father as her new proper object-choice. Her eventual move into heterosexual femininity, which culminates in giving birth, grows out of her earlier infantile desires, with her own child taking place of the penis in accordance with an ancient symbolic equivalence. Freud wrote: "girls feel deeply their lack of a sexual organ that is equal in value to the male one; they regard themselves on that account as inferior and this envy for the penis is the origin of a whole number of characteristic feminine reactions." Castration anxiety is an idea put forth by Sigmund Freud in his writings on the Oedipus complex; it posits a deep-seated fear or anxiety in boys and men said to originate during the genital stage of sexual development. ... For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present in biologically female mammals. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ...


See also

This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Sexual fetishism, first described as such by Sigmund Freud though the concept and certainly the activity is quite ancient, is a form of paraphilia where the object of affection is a specific inanimate object or part of a persons body. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ Myre, Sim (1974). "Guide to Psychiatry, 3rd edition" Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh and London, ISBN 0 443 01161 3. page 396
  2. ^ Interview with Dr. Joseph Merlino, David Shankbone, Wikinews, October 5, 2007.
  3. ^ Myre, Sim (1974). "Guide to Psychiatry, 3rd edition" Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh and London, ISBN 0 443 01161 3. page 35, page 407

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Psychosexual development (1358 words)
The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology.
In the development of his theories, Freud's main concern was with sexual desire, defined in terms of formative drives, instincts and appetites that result in the formation of an adult personality.
This phase is typified by a solidifying of the habits that the child developed in the earlier stages.
Making the Modern World - Glossary (904 words)
His extensive theory of personality development (psychoanalytical theory) is the cornerstone for modern psychological thought, and consists of (1) the psychosexual stages of development, (2) the structural model of personality (id, ego, superego), and (3) levels of consciousness (conscious, subconscious, and unconscious).
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers.
Developed by Sigmund Freud, this type of therapy is known for long term treatment, typically several times per week, where the unresolved issues from the individual's childhood are analysed and resolved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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