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Encyclopedia > Psychopharmacology

Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. Amanita muscaria (the common Fly Agaric) is often regarded as the first such drug, with modern theories positing the discovery of its psychoactive properties circa 10,000 BCE. Modern psychopharmacology studies a wide range of chemicals with many different types of effect. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectivel // holaMedia:Example. ... Comparative brain sizes In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the higher, supervisory center of the nervous system. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria (Linnaeus) Hook. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ... (Redirected from 10th millennium BCE) (Pleistocene, Paleolithic – 10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Mesolithic, or Epipaleolithic time period, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. ...

Contents


History

Psychoactive drug use predates recorded history. Hunter-gatherer societies tended to favor hallucinogenic drugs, and today their use can still be observed in many surviving tribal cultures. The exact drug used depends on what the particular ecosystem a given tribe lives in can support, and are typically found growing wild. Such drugs include various hallucinogenic mushrooms and cacti, along with many other plants. These societies generally attach spiritual significance to drug use, and often incorporate it into their religious practices. Certain drugs can affect the subjective qualities of perception, thought or emotion, resulting in altered interpretations of sensory input, alternate states of consciousness, or hallucinations. ... Tribal refers to a culture or society based on tribes or clans. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a naturally occurring assemblage of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms—also referred to as a biotic community or biocoenosis) living together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a loose unit. ... Psychedelic mushrooms are also known as magic mushrooms, shrooms, sacred mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... This article is about the desert plant. ...


With the dawn of the Neolithic and the proliferation of agriculture, new entheogens came into use as a natural by-product of farming. Among them were opium, cannabis, and alcohol derived from the fermentation of cereals and fruits. Most societies began developing herblores, lists of herbs which were good for treating various physical and mental ailments. For example, St. John's Wort was traditionally prescribed in Europe for depression (in addition to use as a general-purpose good-tasting tea), and Chinese medicine developed elaborate lists of herbs and preparations. The Neolithic, (Greek neos = new, lithos = stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... Entheogens are psychoactive substances that have traditionally been used in a religious context, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms and Peyote cactuses. ... Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... Species Cannabis indica Cannabis ruderalis Cannabis sativa Cannabis is a genus of flowering plant that includes one or more species. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Binomial name Hypericum perforatum Linnaeus, St Johns wort used alone refers to the species Hypericum perforatum, also known as Klamath weed or Goat weed, but is used with qualifiers to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... A cup of hot tea A tea bush. ... Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also known simply as Chinese medicine (Chinese: 中醫學 or 中药学, zhōngy o xŭe) or traditional Oriental medicine, is the name commonly given to a range of traditional medical practices originating in China thousands of years ago. ...


With the scientific revolution in Europe and America, the use of traditional herbal remedies fell out of favor with the mainstream medical establishment, although a few people continued to use and maintain knowledge of traditional European herblore. In the early 20th century, scientists began reassessing this rejection of traditional herbs in medicine. A number of important psychiatric drugs have been developed as a byproduct of the analysis of organic compounds present in traditional herbal remedies. The use of psychiatric drugs to restore mental health, or at least limit aberrant behaviour, has only been part of the European and American medical institution since the 1950s, when a number of new classes of drugs were discovered, notably tranquillizers and antidepressants, and LSD was popularized among many psychiatrists as a mental miracle drug capable of curing all manner of problems. In the history of science, the scientific revolution was the period that roughly began with the discoveries of Kepler, Galileo, and others at the dawn of the 17th century, and ended with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the the baby boom from returning GIs who... A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat or alleviate the symptoms of clinical depression. ... D-lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic psychedelic drug. ...


In the latter half of the 20th century, research into new psychopharmacologic drugs exploded, with many new drugs discovered, created, and tested. Many once-popular drugs are now out of favor, and there are fashions in psychiatric drugs, as with any other kind of drug.


Reduction of anxiety

Barbiturates were used as hypnotics and as anxiolytics, but the development of the safer benzodiazepines (Lowell Randall and Leo Sternbach, 1957) in the 1960s and 1970s led to billions of doses being consumed annually under tradenames like Mogadon, Valium (diazepam, 1963) or Librium (chlordiazepoxide). However, as these drugs became more widely prescribed, the problems of chronic use and dependence led to the development of other drugs, such as the azapirones. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Hypnotic can be used to describe the state of hypnosis. ... An anxiolytic is any drug or therapy used in the treatment of anxiety. ... The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... Diazepam, brand names: Valium, Seduxen, in Europe Apozepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative, which possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. ... Azapirones are a class of drugs with anxiolytic effects used in the treatment of anxiety. ...


Antipsychotic drugs

Outside of the more popular drugs, there was success in the treatment of some of the symptoms of psychosis and depression. The first antipsychotic compound, for the treatment of the symptoms of schizophrenia, was chlorpromazine (known by tradenames like Largactil or Thorazine) in 1953. Their effects went beyond simple sedation, with patients showing improvements in thinking and emotional behaviour, and over 100 million patients were treated. From chlopromazine, a number of other similar antidopaminergic compounds were developed, such as the phenothiazines. Such drugs had a revolutionary role in transforming mental institutions from an almost purely custodial role. This article is about the mental state. ... Clinical depression is a health condition of depression with mental and physical components reaching criteria generally accepted by clinicians. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Sedation is a medical procedure involving administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure, such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or minor surgery with local anaesthesia. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ...


Enthusiasm for the first generation of anti-psychotic medications peaked in the late 1960s, but the image of the drugs plummeted in the mid-1970s, as studies emerged showing that chronic users of anti-psychotic medication developed high rates of tardive dyskinesia, a typically permanent neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease involving involuntary movements. The first generation of antipsychotic drugs are now commonly referred to as typical antipsychotics. Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term use of traditional or typical antipsychotic drugs. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ...


In the 1990s, several atypical antipsychotic drugs were first marketed. Atypical antipsychotics are believed to have a lower incidence of tardive dyskinesia and extrapyramidal side-effects than the first generation typical antipsychotics. The atypical antipsychotics are believed to be better at treating the "negative symptoms" of schizophrenia. They are currently marketed under the names Abilify (aripiprazole) and Risperdal (risperidone), among others. This article is about the year. ... The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Categories: Stub | Atypical antipsychotics ... Risperidone (Belivon®, Rispen®, Risperdal®) is an atypical antipsychotic medication. ...


However, the limited available knowledge of brain chemistry means that even the more modern compounds cause a range of extrapyramidal side-effects. While effective at controlling acute symptoms, antipsychotic drugs are of less value in treating chronic symptoms. In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ...


LSD

LSD, a powerful hallucinogen, was developed at the Sandoz Laboratories (now Novartis) in Switzerland from research on chemicals found in the ergot fungus, which had several traditional uses in European herblore. In the 1950s, LSD was manufactured under the trade name Delysid by Sandoz, and widely promoted as a psychiatric cure-all, useful for treating schizophrenia, criminal behavior, sexual deviancy, alcoholism, and a wide variety of other mental ailments. Sandoz suggested in its literature that psychiatrists should take LSD themselves, to gain a better subjective understanding of the schizophrenic experience. Early results seemed very positive, indicating that if LSD was taken under the guidance of a caring professional, dramatic improvement in mental state and behaviour could be induced after just a single "trip", or drug use session. People who had come into contact with LSD in a professional capacity began using the drug recreationally and sharing it with friends and accquaintences. D-lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic psychedelic drug. ... Sandoz Laboratories was a Swiss pharmaceutical company, best known for inventing LSD in 1938 and later marketing it as a psychiatric miracle drug under the trade name Delysid. ... Novartis International AG is a multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps. ... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the the baby boom from returning GIs who... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Alcoholism is a dependency on alcohol characterized by craving (a strong need to drink), loss of control (being unable to stop drinking despite a desire to do so), physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms, and tolerance (increasing difficulty of becoming drunk). ...


Many users of LSD report profoundly positive life-transforming experiences, often incorporating mysticism and religious elements, while others have experienced intensely negative "bad trips", and a few have devolved into states of LSD psychosis. ... The origins of the word religion have been debated for centuries. ...


Scientific research into the effects and potential uses of LSD was common in the 1950s, but it gradually declined as LSD became increasingly associated with spiritual experiences, recreational use, and the hippie counterculture during the 1960s. Several researchers, most prominently erstwhile Harvard psychology professor Dr. Timothy Leary, dissociated themselves from the mainstream mental health research establishment as its support for LSD research declined, and transitioned to roles as spiritual gurus. Leary believed that the state of mind LSD induces is that which is described in Buddhism as bodhi, or "enlightenment". He advocated the use of LSD for personal spiritual growth, and as a tool for socially overthrowing "the establishment". LSD was prohibited in the United States in 1967, listed by the DEA as a Schedule I drug with no medical uses and no possibility for safe use in research under medical supervision. Many researchers blame Leary and his anti-establishment proselytizing among the hippies for the prohibition. Systematic research since that time has been uncommon. Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Flower Power Bus Hippie (also hippy) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms are at odds with those of the social mainstream, a cultural equivalent of a political opposition. ... Harvard, see Harvard (disambiguation) Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of mind and behavior. ... Dr. Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, campaigner for psychedelic drug research and use, 60s counterculture icon and computer software designer. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE, gradually spread from India throughout Asia to... Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


LSD was central to experiments conducted as part of the CIA's MKULTRA program, which was focused on finding reproducible methods to program and control human minds. Subjects included military personnel and private citizens, the vast majority of whom had no knowledge of the nature of the experimentation throughout their participation. Most MKULTRA experiments constituted significant breaches of human rights, and have since been openly denounced by the United States government. LSD itself proved ineffective as a means of controlling subjects, but reports indicate that many of the people involved suffered significant psychological trauma as a result. See MKULTRA. D-lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic psychedelic drug. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... D-lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic psychedelic drug. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


MDMA

MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy, was popularized as an adjucant to talk therapy in the 1960s and 1970s by Dr. Alexander Shulgin. One primary effect of Ecstasy is diminution of inhibitions, rendering users extremely comfortable talking about themselves and others. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the secretion of large amounts of serotonin as well as dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain, causing a general sense of openness, empathy... Alexander Sasha Shulgin (born June 17, 1925) is a pharmacologist, chemist and drug developer. ...


This drug works upon serotonergic synapses by acting upon the SERT-1 transporter (the same target as many SSRIs such as Prozac-- hence MDMA and SSRIs inhibit one another's function). Serotonergic neurons store serotonin (also known as 5HT) near the synapse and it is the role of the SERT-1 transporter to re-uptake 5HT from the synapse. MDMA when bound with SERT-1 causes this transporter to reverse its function and pump 5HT into the synapse. Numerous studies now show that pure MDMA acts only on the serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... Background Fluoxetine hydrochloride (brand names include Prozac®, Symbyax® (compounded with olanzapine), Sarafem®, Fontex® (Sweden), Fluctine (Austria, Germany), Prodep (India), Fludac (India)) is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and many other disorders. ...


Potential theraputic uses of MDMA have been overshadowed by its popularity as a recreational drug and negative public perceptions fostered by anti-drug groups. Limited research continues, with University of Manchester researchers determining that MDMA dramatically reduces tremors in patients receiving L-DOPA treatment for Parkinson's Disease. Other researchers have implicated long-term MDMA use as a potential cause of Parkinson's Disease. (Some of this research has been roundly debunked.) The authors of a report showing MDMA to cause Parkinson's Disease retracted their work after it became apparent that they were using MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine), not MDMA, in their work. MPTP is well documented as being highly toxic to dopaminergic neurons, and is in fact used in animal models to induce a Parkinson's Disease. The University of Manchester in Manchester, England is a university that was formed from the merger of the Victoria University of Manchester (commonly known as the University of Manchester before the merger) and UMIST (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology) on 1 October 2004. ... // Therapeutic use L-DOPA is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinsons disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrierwhere its precursor can. ... MPTP (1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a chemical that is related to the opioid analgesic drugs. ... MPTP (1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a chemical that is related to the opioid analgesic drugs. ...


Much remains unknown about the potential uses and effects of MDMA. The United States DEA's scheduling of MDMA as a Schedule I drug with no legitimate medical uses has severely hampered research, while some experts have recommended it be listed instead on Schedule III, a less severe classification which would allow for the possibility of medical applications. Approval has now (February 2005) been given for Harvard to use MDMA in therapy for people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful experiences which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury, or a threat to physical and/or psychological integrity, and which the person experienced as highly traumatic. ...


Antidepressant drugs

Two major classes of drugs combatting depression were developed in the late 1950s, one group based on iproniazid, an MAOI developed at Hoffmann-La Roche in 1956, the other on imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant developed by R. Kuhn at Geigy Laboratories in 1958. Improvements were made but the results were less marked than with anti-psychotic drugs. This category also includes tetracyclic antidepressants or SSRIs such as Prozac, discovered by D. T. Wong at Eli Lilly and Company in 1974 and approved by the FDA in 1987. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. ... The structure of the tetracyclic antidepressant mirtazapine A tetracyclic antidepressant is an antidepressant drug from the tetracyclic drug group. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants. ... Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and panic disorder. ... One of the worlds largest corporations, Eli Lilly and Company NYSE: LLY is a global pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. A Fortune 500 corporation, Eli Lilly had revenues of $13. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


Mood stabilizers

In 1949, the Australian John Cade discovered that lithium salts could control mania, reducing the frequency and severity of manic episodes. It did not take long for others to discover that these drugs also reduced the frequency and severity of depressive episodes. Other mood stabilizers include valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and topiramate. 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Dr John Frederick Joseph Cade AO (1912-1980) was an Australian psychiatrist credited with discovering (in 1948) the effects of lithium carbonate as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder (then known as Maniac Depression). ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used as mood stabilizing drugs (Eskalith® Lithobid® Camcolit®), primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depression, and mania; but also in treating schizophrenia. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used in the treatment mood disorders characterised by rapid and unstable mood shifts. ... Valproic acid or 2-Propylpentanoic acid is CH3CH2CH2CH(CH2CH2CH3)COOH . ... Carbamazepine (Biston®; Calepsin®; Carbatrol®; Epitol®; Finlepsin®; Sirtal®; Stazepine®; Tegretol®; Telesmin®; Timonil®) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder; but also used to treat schizophrenia and trigeminal neuralgia. ...


Treatment of addiction

Research with the drug ibogaine to treat heroin addiction has shown much promise in eliminating physical withdrawal symptoms. The drug is obtained from an African plant and was used as early as the 1960s by Claudio Naranjo. Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Psychopharmacology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1636 words)
Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry.
Amanita muscaria (the common Fly Agaric) is often regarded as the first such drug, with modern theories positing the discovery of its psychoactive properties circa 10,000 BCE.
Modern psychopharmacology studies a wide range of chemicals with many different types of effect.
Psychiatric Times (2080 words)
Psychopharmacology in couples work can be useful in all stages of therapy: 1) to control initial symptoms; 2) to improve communication; 3) to modulate biological temperaments related to personality issues; and 4) to reduce excessive stress during life transition (Resnikoff, 2001).
The use of psychopharmacology in this case was to modify lifelong temperaments.
For John and Carol, psychopharmacology also reinforced the initial stage-1 behavioral changes and the stage-2 corrections of their polarized power balance and intimacy styles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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