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Encyclopedia > Psychonaut

A psychonaut (from the Greek ψυχοναύτης, meaning literally a sailor of the mind/soul) is a person who uses altered states of consciousness, intentionally induced, to investigate his or her mind, and possibly address spiritual questions, through direct experience. Psychonauts tend to be pluralistic, willing to explore mystical traditions from established world religions, meditation, lucid dreaming, technologies such as brainwave entrainment and sensory deprivation, and often psychedelic drugs (entheogens). Because techniques that alter consciousness can be dangerous, and can induce a state of extreme susceptibility, psychonauts generally prefer to undertake these explorations either alone, or in the company of people they trust. Therefore, they are averse to using altered consciousness in a social or "party" context. Psychonauts generally regard the latter sort of use as irresponsible and dangerous. Meanings of Psychonaut: Psychonauts is a video game. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ... This article is about religious pluralism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Lucid dreams occur during REM sleep after the person becomes conscious and aware of dreaming within the dream. ... Sensory deprivation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. ... For psychedelics, see psychedelic drug. ... Entheogens are psychoactive substances that have traditionally been used in a religious context, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms and Peyote cactuses. ...


Goals of psychonautic practices may be to answer questions about how the mind works, improve one's psychological state, answer existential or spiritual questions, or improve cognitive performance in everyday life.

Contents

Term

While some psychonauts abstain from psychoactive drugs and discourage their use, others encourage it, and the term "psychonaut" is often misinterpreted as implying frequent drug use. Most psychonauts maintain that their use of altered consciousness is different from social or recreational use, and their use may or may not have a religious or spiritual significance to them. Tigers playing in the water Recreation is the employment of time in a non-profitable way, in many ways also a refreshment of ones body or mind. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


According to Jonathan Ott, the word psychonaut was originally coined by the German author Ernst Jünger. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ernst Jünger Ernst Jünger, (March 29, 1895 – February 17, 1998) was a German author of novels and accounts of his war experiences. ...


Use of the term

Psychonaut is a modern term used to describe one who uses trance technologies and, more specifically mind-altering substances, more for their ability to act as entheogens than for their inebriating (or social) effect. In effect, they are used as a means to achieve states of mind in which different perceptions, unhindered by everyday mental filters and processes, can arise. Psychonauts believe that when a mind-altering substance is used with this intent, its effects can be life altering and are not mere hallucinations. An alternate description is that while some aspects of the experience may be hallucinatory, the realizations caused by those hallucinations and the mental, emotional and long term impact of the experience are real, usually positive, and enduring. Entheogens are psychoactive substances that have traditionally been used in a religious context, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms and Peyote cactuses. ...


The term is often associated with neoshamanic practices; however, many distinguish between the mental exploration of the psychonaut and authentic, healing-oriented shamanic practice. Neoshamanism is a term applied to certain emergent shamanistic philosophies, whether they are a revival of older shamanistic beliefs and tradition or an amalgation of new-age and spiritual beliefs. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


Associated concepts, technologies, and practices

Concepts

Brain function

Psychonautics may be considered an attempt to generate a user's manual for the human brain. Unlike psychology, which is concerned with understanding other people, psychonauts are more concerned with understanding themselves, and the process of self exploration; accordingly, they engage in direct exploration of themselves and their own thought processes. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ...


As such, psychonauts seek to experientially understand mental process and functioning and employ such knowledge in their activities. Key to this is auto-modification of brain wave frequencies, which can lead to quite distinct perceptual states; a detailed examination and understanding of one's own thought processes, habits, and beliefs is also sought. Hallucinatory states, drug-induced or otherwise, are seen as a form of subliminal symbolism or as a real but distinct reality; as with other processes of the mind, psychonauts seek to understand these. These states often simultaneously dissociate the mind from the ego and offer a subjective view of one's mental processes. Psychological theories and concepts are also often taken into account, particularly those of Carl G. Jung and Abraham Maslow. Biofeedback mechanism. ... EEG redirects here. ... Jung redirects here. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ...


This is also ideally practically applied in bettering one's self through the knowledge of one's own thought processes; with this understanding and heightened perception of one's own internal dialogue, it is thought that one is more able to control his own ego, and detach oneself from what is seen as a herd mentality common to modern culture. In spirituality, and especially nondual, mystical and eastern meditative traditions, the human being is often conceived as being in the illusion of individual existence, and separateness from other aspects of creation. ... It has been suggested that Herding instinct be merged into this article or section. ...


Mythical archetypes and concepts

Psychonauts, as described in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, place emphasis on various mythical archetypes and concepts, believing that these are useful to coming to understand one's own thought patterns and the nature of existence, reflecting realities and meanings that should be understood, rather than being irrelevant fantasy. As in shamanic practice, the Axis mundi is often employed, often overlaid with chakras and other relevant concepts of bodily function; the Kabbalist Tree of Life and its chakra-like sephirot is one notable example of this in mythology. The nature of karma is often explored in trying to understand one's own situation, actions, and relation to the outside world. The Bardo Thodol, sometimes called the Tibetan Book of the Dead, is a funerary text that describes the experiences of the soul after death during the interval known as bardo between death and rebirth. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Category:Sephiroth      Main article: Sephirot (Kabbalah) Tree of life is a mystical concept within the Kabbalah of Judaism which is used to understand the nature of God and the manner in which He created the world ex nihilo (out of nothing). ... The tree of life. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Metaphysics

Psychonauts are often interested in metaphysics, the branch of philosophy dealing with the ultimate nature of reality or existence; it is thought that in coming to some understanding of how the universe functions and the nature of existence, one would be better able to govern themselves accordingly and integrate their life experiences. Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ...


Technologies and practices

Hallucinogens/entheogens

The technology and practice most often associated with psychonauts is the use of psychedelic drugs for mental exploration. The method of use varies widely; such usage is often (but not always) entheogenic and informed by traditional shamanic uses of psychedelic drugs and rituals surrounding such usage. This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ...


Some psychedelics and dissociatives commonly used by psychonauts include: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ...

Less common: Psychedelic mushrooms redirects here. ... Binomial name (Earle) Singer Approximate Range of Psilocybe cubensis Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principle active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. ... Binomial name Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... Binomial name (Britton and Rose) Friedrich and Rowley Synonyms Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose The San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi, syn. ... Not to be confused with mesclun. ... Binomial name Epling & Játiva[1] Salvia divinorum, also known as Diviners Sage,[2] Magic Mint,[2] María Pastora,[3] Sage of the Seers, or simply Salvia (although the genus name is shared among many plants), is a powerful psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and... Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum (diviners sage, Mexican mint). ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... DMT is a three-letter abbreviation (TLA) which may stand for Dimethyltryptamine, an endogenous and hallucinogenic tryptamine Dimethyl terephthalate Digital Monetary Trust Discrete multitone modulation used in for example are ADSL and VDSL modems; OFDM modulation with adaption of the transmission scheme and bit rate to the channel conditions individually... Binomial name (Burm. ... This article is about the plant. ... LSA, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ...

Though avoided by most modern psychonauts, certain species of the Nightshade family have been used for psychoactive purposes throughout human history. The most common of these is Datura stramonium, which is classified as a deliriant, not as a psychedelic or entheogen. Datura is rarely used by psychonauts because control and lucidity are lost in a delirious state, and the experience is often not remembered. Similarly, psychonauts often prefer to consume salvia via the "quid" method, rather than inducing an intense, short-lived trip associated with smoking extracts. With deliriants like datura, self-inflicted injury and even death are quite common. Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... 2C-I is a psychedelic drug and phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-B, or 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxybenzeneethanamine) is a class of phenethylamine, a lesser-known psychedelic drug of the 2C family, an entactogen. ... 5-MeO-DiPT tablets from Salem, Oregon 5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine, also known as 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine, 5-MeO-DiPT, foxy methoxy, or just foxy, is a tryptamine that is used recreationally as a psychedelic. ... Binomial name Korth. ... This article is about the drug. ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Species See text Solanum is a genus of annuals, perennials, sub-shrubs, shrubs and climbers. ... Binomial name L. Datura stramonium, known by the common names Jimson Weed, Gypsum Weed, Stink Weed, Loco Weed,Korean Morning Glory, Jamestown Weed, Thorn Apple, Angels Trumpet, Devils Trumpet, Devils Snare, Devils Seed, Mad Hatter, Crazy Tea, Malpitte, The Devils Balls and, along with datura... == LOL == // The deliriants (or anticholinergics) are a special class of acetylcholine-inhibitor dissociatives. ... For psychedelics, see psychedelic drug. ... This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ...


Cannabis

Cannabis is often used individually, or in combination with many hallucinogens to amplify and extend the experience. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Dreams

As dreams are considered by psychonauts to be a window into thought processes, many keep dream journals in order to better remember dreams and further their understanding of their own symbolic internal dialogue. Many attempt to not only remember their dreams, but engage in lucid dreaming, in which one is consciously aware of their state while dreaming. A dream journal is a journal in which one writes down his or her dream experiences. ... Lucid dreams occur during REM sleep after the person becomes conscious and aware of dreaming within the dream. ...


Meditation

Certain types of meditation, such as those practiced in eastern religions. This can range from Zen-type meditation where the user focuses on their breath or a koan, or repeating/focusing on a mantra in one's head, as done in some forms of Raja Yoga. Transcendental Meditation is also practiced by some psychonauts. Religions, sects and denominations Note that the classification hereunder is only one of several possible. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... // Transcendental Meditation, or TM, is the trademarked name of a meditation technique introduced in 1958 by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1917?-2008). ...


Ritual

Ritual is often employed for purposes of grounding and centering one's self, to set one's focus and intentions, and to instill a conception of the significance and depth of psychonautical practice. Repeated use of ritual may also train the brain to associate certain activities and states of consciousness with specific situations, creating deeper experiences and allowing one to more easily enter altered states of consciousness. For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ...


Other

Other technologies and practices employed include:

Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ... // An isolation tank is a lightless, soundproof tank in which subjects float in salty water at skin temperature. ... Sensory deprivation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. ... Sensory overload (sometimes abbreviated to SO) is when one or more of the five senses are strained and it becomes difficult to focus on the task at hand. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Brainwave synchronization, commonly referred to as brainwave entrainment, is the practice of entraining ones brainwaves to a desired frequency, by means of a periodic stimulus with corresponding frequency. ... Tongues redirects here. ... Lucid dreams occur during REM sleep after the person becomes conscious and aware of dreaming within the dream. ... For other uses, see Hypnotized (song). ... homemade version semi-off The Dreamachine (or Dream Machine) was invented by Beat generation members Brion Gysin and Ian Sommerville in 1959. ... This article is about the paranormal concept. ...

Controversy

Psychonautic practice, especially when it involves the use of psychedelic drugs, is regarded by some as risky, undesirable, and dangerous. People who are at risk for schizophrenia, mania, and other psychotic disorders may want to avoid psychedelics, as they can trigger symptoms of these disorders. Long-term use of psychedelic drugs may induce hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, and certain meditation practices can cause a similar condition known as kundalini syndrome. However, as altered-consciousness therapies have proven effective for improving peoples' overall health, the controlled and informed pursuit of at least psychonautic practices is generally considered safe. This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder or HPPD is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of visual disturbances that are reminiscent of those generated by the ingestion of hallucinogenic substances. ... The Kundalini Syndrome is a set of sensory, motor, mental and affective symptoms reported - predominantly - among people who have had a near-death experience [1] [2], and practitioners of meditation or yoga [3][4]. It is more closely described in the article on Kundalini. ...


Psychonauts tend to be libertarian in social ideology, with a firm commitment to individual responsibility. Therefore, they tend to be risk-averse in comparison to other categories of recreational drug users, placing a high value on the concept of set and setting. In general, they eschew the most dangerous and addictive drugs (e.g. alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin), finding them to be crude, toxic, and devoid of educational value. The goal of meditative and psychedelic practice is to liberate and expand one's consciousness; the abuse of drugs is clearly contrary to that goal. Additionally, psychonauts are often more likely to use drugs with established shamanic traditions, since they have more evidence of safety. See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... For the Bardo Pond album, see Set and Setting (Album). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Heroin (INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy. ...


List of psychonauts

Scientists, philosophers and writers:

From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... This article is about the Swiss chemist. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Ann Shulgin (March 22, 1931) is an author and wife of famous chemist Alexander Shulgin. ... Bruce Eisner Bruce Jay Ehrlich (better known by his writing name Bruce Eisner) (born Brooklyn, New York, February 26, 1948) is an American writer, psychologist, and counterculture spokesman best known for his book Ecstasy: The MDMA Story. ... Carlos Castaneda (December 25, 1925/31? – April 27, 1998) was a Peruvian- or Brazilian-born American author. ... Christian Rätsch is Germanys premier expert on ethnopharmacology and psychoactive plants and animals. ... Claude Rifat (died July 31, 2002) was a french biologist, psychonaut, political activist, writer, and researcher. ... Daniel Pinchbeck. ... Dennis McKenna, born December 17, 1950, is an American ethnopharmacologist and author. ... D.M. Turner (5 October 1962 - 31 December 1996) was a psychedelic explorer, self-monikered psychonaut and author who wrote two books on psychoactives. ... Ernst Jünger Ernst Jünger, (March 29, 1895 – February 17, 1998) was a German author of novels and accounts of his war experiences. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (18 July 1937 – 20 February 2005) was an American journalist and author, famous for his novel Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. ... Jack Herer is the author of The Emperor Wears No Clothes (ISBN 0-9524560-0-1) (several editions since c. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist from Lowell, Massachusetts. ... James Arthur was a Dominican friar and theologian. ... Jeremy Narby Jeremy Narby, Phd. ... John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, psychoanalyst and writer. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mark Brian Wise (born 9 November 1953) is a Canadian-American theoretical physicist. ... María Sabina García (1888 - November 23, 1985) was a Mazatec medicine woman who lived her whole life in a modest dwelling in the Sierra Mazateca of southern Mexico. ... Michael Hoffman is a movie director. ... Peter J. Carroll (born 8th January 1953, 1:30am; 50 degrees 50 minutes N, 0 degrees 25 minutes W) is a modern occultist, author and co-founder of the Illuminates of Thanateros. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, best known for his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a counter-cultural figure who, some consider, was a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ... Dr. Ralph Metzner Ph. ... Richard Alpert redirects here. ... Rick Doblin. ... Rick Strassman (born 1952 in Los Angeles, California, United States [1]) began the first new human research with psychedelic, or hallucinogenic, drugs in the United States in over 20 years. ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... Rupert Sheldrake Rupert Sheldrake, Ph. ... Stanislav Grof (born 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of altered states of consciousness for purposes of healing, growth, and insight. ... For the Canadian writer, actor, producer & director, see Terence McKenna (film producer). ... Thaddeus Golas is known for having written The Lazy Mans Guide to Enlightenment (ISBN 0-87905-698-3), which has become known as a classic book on human consciousness and spirituality. ... For the American baseball player, see Tim Leary (baseball player). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Artists

Alex Grey (born November 29, 1953 in Columbus, Ohio) is an artist specializing in spiritual and psychedelic art (or visionary art) that is sometimes associated with the New Age movement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... For other persons named James or Jim Morrison, see James Morrison. ... Lemmy (born Ian Fraser Kilmister on December 24, 1945, also known as Ian Willis, Lemmy Kilmister, and Lemmy von Motörhead), is an English singer and bass guitarist, most famous for being the founding member of the heavy metal band Motörhead. ...

See also

This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... The Psychedelic era refers to a musical and artistic style in the years between 1965 and 1975. ... Psychedelic literature encompasses a few different areas: The science of psychedelic drugs DMT: The Spirit Molecule by Rick Strassman LSD Psychotherapy by Stanislav Grof Subjective effects of psychedelic drugs The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell by Aldous Huxley Direct inspiration of the psychedelic experience The Psychedelic Experience: A... Psychedelia in music (or also psychedelic music, less formally) is a term that refers to a broad set of popular music styles, genres and scenes, that may include psychedelic rock, psychedelic folk, psychedelic pop, psychedelic soul, psychedelic ambient, psychedelic trance, psychedelic techno, and others. ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... A bad trip is a frightening experience associated with use of a hallucinogenic drug such as LSD, salvinorin A, mescaline, or psilocybin. ... The monomyth (often referred to as the heros journey) is a description of a basic pattern found in many narratives from around the world. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... Core Shamanism is a system of shamanic beliefs and practices from all over the world. ... This article for the video game; for other uses, see Psychonaut (disambiguation). ... Snow Crash is Neal Stephensons third science fiction novel, published in 1992. ... Ego death is an experience sometimes undergone by psychonauts. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ...

References

External links


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