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Encyclopedia > Psychology

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the analytic and scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity including issues related to daily life—e.g. family, education, and work—and the treatment of mental health problems. Psychology attempts to understand the role these functions play in social behavior and in social dynamics, while incorporating the underlying physiological and neurological processes into its conceptions of mental functioning. Psychology includes many sub-fields of study and application concerned with such areas as human development, sports, health, industry, media, law, and transpersonal psychology. For the science, see Psychology. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An interpersonal relationship is some relationship or connection between two people. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For the Björk song, see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of behaviors exhibited by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... Everyday life is the sum total of every aspect of common human life as it is routinely lived. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Look up work in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of psychology

The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ...

Philosophical and scientific roots

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China and India. Psychology began adopting a more clinical[1] and experimental[2] approach under medieval Muslim psychologists and physicians, who built psychiatric hospitals for such purposes.[3] For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...


Though the use of psychological experimentation dates back to Alhazen's Book of Optics in 1021,[2][4] psychology as an independent experimental field of study began in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research at Leipzig University in Germany, for which Wundt is known as the "father of psychology".[5] 1879 is thus sometimes regarded as the "birthdate" of psychology. The American philosopher William James published his seminal book, Principles of Psychology,[6] in 1890, while laying the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would focus on for years to come. Other important early contributors to the field include Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909), a pioneer in the experimental study of memory at the University of Berlin; and the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), who investigated the learning process now referred to as classical conditioning. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... This article is about the scientist. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920) was a German psychologist, physiologist, and professor who is, along with William James, regarded as the father of psychology. ... The University of Leipzig is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... Hermann Ebbinghaus (January 24, 1850–February 26, 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect as well as his research on the learning curve. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) This is... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ...


Psychoanalysis

Auguste Rodin's The Thinker, bronze cast by Alexis Rudier, Laeken Cemetery, Brussels, Belgium.
Auguste Rodin's The Thinker, bronze cast by Alexis Rudier, Laeken Cemetery, Brussels, Belgium.

During the 1890s, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed a method of psychotherapy known as psychoanalysis. Freud's understanding of the mind was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations, and was focused in particular on resolving unconscious conflict, mental distress and psychopathology. Freud's theories became very well-known, largely because they tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Freud also had a significant influence on Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Philosopher Karl Popper argued that Freud's psychoanalytic theories were presented in untestable form.[7] Due to their subjective nature, Freud's theories are often of primarily historical interest to many modern academic psychology departments. Followers of Freud who accept the basic ideas of psychoanalysis but alter it in some way are called neo-Freudians. Modification of Jung's theories has led to the archetypal and process-oriented schools of psychological thought. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (562x750, 82 KB) Auguste Rodin, The Thinker (1889). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (562x750, 82 KB) Auguste Rodin, The Thinker (1889). ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Laeken (French: Laeken, Dutch: Laken) is a residential suburb in north-east Brussels, Belgium. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Jung redirects here. ... Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) refers to the school of psychology originating from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, and then advanced by his students and other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... Depth psychology is a broad term that refers to any psychological approach examining the depth (the hidden or deeper parts) of human experience. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ... The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. ... Archetypal psychology was developed by James Hillman in the second half of the 20th century. ... Process Oriented Psychology refers to a body of theory and practice that encompasses a broad range of psychotherapeutic, personal growth, and group process applications. ...


Behaviorism

Partly in opposition to the subjective and introspective nature of Freudian psychodynamics, and its focus on the recollection of childhood experiences, during the early decades of the 20th century, behaviorism gained popularity as a guiding psychological theory. Founded by John B. Watson and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner, behaviorism was grounded in animal experimentation in the laboratory. Behaviorists shared the view that the subject matter of psychology should be operationalized with standardized procedures which led psychology to focus on behavior, not the mind or consciousness.[8] They doubted the validity of introspection for studying internal mental states such as feelings, sensations, beliefs, desires, and other unobservable entities.[8] In "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" (1913),[9] Watson argued that psychology "is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science," that "introspection forms no essential part of its methods," and that "the behaviorist recognizes no dividing line between man and brute." Skinner rejected hypothesis testing as a research method, considering it to be too conducive to speculative theories that would promote useless research and stifle good research.[10] Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of psychotherapy, usually meeting about once or twice a week. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. ... Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952) was an influential American psychologist and behaviorist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior. ... Edward Chace Tolman (1886 - 1959) was an American psychologist. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Feelings are most generally INFORMATION that biological beings are capable of sensing in the situations they are in, exposed to or depending on. ... In psychology, sensation is the first stage in the chain of biochemical and neurologic events that begins with the impinging of a stimulus upon a sensory organ, and leads to perception, the sort of mental state that is reflected in statements like I see a uniformly blue wall. ... For other uses, see Believe. ...


Behaviorism was the dominant paradigm in American psychology throughout the first half of the 20th century. However, the modern field of psychology is largely dominated by cognitive psychology. Linguist Noam Chomsky helped spark the cognitive revolution in psychology through his review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, in which he challenged the behaviorist approach to the study of behavior and language dominant in the 1950s. Chomsky was highly critical of what he considered arbitrary notions of 'stimulus', 'response' and 'reinforcement' which Skinner borrowed from animal experiments in the laboratory. Chomsky argued that Skinner's notions could only be applied to complex human behavior, such as language acquisition, in a vague and superficial manner. Chomsky emphasized that research and analysis must not ignore the contribution of the child in the acquisition of language and proposed that humans are born with an natural ability to acquire language.[11] Work most associated with psychologist Albert Bandura, who initiated and studied social learning theory, showed that children could learn aggression from a role model through observational learning, without any change in overt behavior, and so must be accounted for by internal processes.[12] Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ... The cognitive revolution is a name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that combined new thinking in psychology, anthropology and linguistics with the nascent fields of computer science and neuroscience. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ... The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a postulated organ of the brain that is supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language (ie. ... Albert Bandura (born 4 20 1925 in Mundare, Canada), a Ball Licker, is best known for his work on nut sack and on self-efficacy. ... For the article on social learning theory in psychology and education see social cognitivism. ... Observational learning or social learning is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. ...


Existentialism and humanism

Humanistic psychology was developed in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis, arising largely from the existential philosophy of writers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Søren Kierkegaard. By using phenomenology, intersubjectivity and first-person categories, the humanistic approach seeks to glimpse the whole person--not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning.[13] Humanism focuses on uniquely human issues and fundamental issues of life, such as self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning. Some of the founding theorists behind this school of thought were Abraham Maslow who formulated a hierarchy of human needs, Carl Rogers who created and developed Client-centered therapy, and Fritz Perls who helped create and develop Gestalt therapy. It became so influential as to be called the "third force" within psychology (along with behaviorism and psychoanalysis).[14] Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (pronounced , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Use of the word phenomenology in modern science is described in the separate article phenomenology (science). ... The term Intersubjectivity is used in three ways. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation,[1] which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. ... For other persons named Carl Rogers, see Carl Rogers (disambiguation). ... Client-Centered Therapy or Person-Centered Therapy, now considered a founding work in the humanistic school of psychotherapies, began formally with Carl Ransom Rogers (born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, died February 4, 1987), broadly considered the most influenctial US psychotherapist in the short history of this field. ... Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8 1893, Berlin - March 14, 1970, Chicago), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Jewish descent. ... Gestalt Therapy is an existential and experiential psychotherapy that focuses on the individuals experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social contexts in which these things take place, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of the overall situation. ...


Cognitivism

As computer technology proliferated, so emerged the metaphor of mental function as information processing. This, combined with a scientific approach to studying the mind, as well as a belief in internal mental states, led to the rise of cognitivism as a popular model of the mind. Cognitive psychology differs from other psychological perspectives in two key ways. First, it accepts the use of the scientific method, and generally rejects introspection as a method of investigation, unlike symbol-driven approaches such as Freudian psychodynamics. Second, it explicitly acknowledges the existence of internal mental states (such as belief, desire and motivation), whereas behaviorism does not. In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ...


Links between brain and nervous system function also became understood, partly due to the experimental work of people such as Charles Sherrington and Donald Hebb, and partly due to studies of people with brain injury (see cognitive neuropsychology). With the development of technologies for measuring brain function, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience have become increasingly active areas of contemporary psychology. Cognitive psychology has been subsumed along with other disciplines, such as philosophy of mind, computer science, and neuroscience, under the umbrella discipline of cognitive science. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... Sherrington is considered one of the fathers of neuroscience. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... == ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! == Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Principles

Mind and brain

Psychology describes and attempts to explain consciousness, behavior, and social interaction. Empirical psychology is primarily devoted to describing human experience and behavior as it actually occurs. Since the 1980s, psychology has begun to examine the relationship between consciousness and the brain or nervous system. It is still not clear how these interact: does consciousness determine brain states or do brain states determine consciousness--or are both going on in various ways? Or, is consciousness some sort of complicated 'illusion' that bears no direct relationship to neural processes? Perhaps to understand this, it is necessary to define "consciousness" and "brain state". An understanding of brain function is increasingly being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... René Descartes illustration of mind/body dualism. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... AI redirects here. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ...


Schools of thought

Various schools of thought have argued for a particular model to be used as a guiding theory by which all, or the majority, of human behavior can be explained. The popularity of these has waxed and waned over time. Some psychologists may think of themselves as adherents to a particular school of thought and reject the others, although most consider each as an approach to understanding the mind, and not necessarily as mutually exclusive theories. On the basis of Tinbergen's four questions a framework of reference or "periodic table" of all fields of psychological research can be established (including anthropological research and humanities). The psychological schools are the great classical theories of psychology. ... A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... When asked questions of animal behavior such as why animals see, even grade school children can answer that vision helps animals find food and avoid danger. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ...


Subfields

Psychology encompasses a vast domain, and includes many different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior. Below are the major areas of inquiry that comprise psychology, divided into fields of research psychology and fields of applied psychology. A comprehensive list of the sub-fields and areas within psychology can be found at the list of psychological topics and list of psychology disciplines. This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... These are some of the sub-fields within the field of psychology: Abnormal psychology Activity theory Analytical psychology Applied psychology Asian Psychology Behavior analysis Behavioural medicine Behavioural psychology Biobehavioural health Biological psychology Biopsychology Cognitive neuropsychology Cognitive psychology Cognitive neuroscience Community psychology Comparative psychology Clinical psychology Counselling psychology Critical psychology Developmental...


Fields of basic research

Research psychology encompasses the study of behavior for use in academic settings, and contains numerous areas: abnormal psychology, biological psychology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, health psychology, personality psychology, social psychology and others. Research psychology is contrasted with applied psychology. For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ... Quantitative psychological research is psychological research which performs statistical estimation or statistical inference. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... means basic pussy and the dick In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ...


Abnormal psychology

Main article: Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. Abnormal psychology studies the nature of psychopathology and its causes, and this knowledge is applied in clinical psychology to treat a patient with psychological disorders. Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Abnormality is a subjectively defined characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ...


In the study of abnormal behavior, it can be difficult to define the line between which behaviors are considered normal and which are not. In general, abnormal behaviors must be maladaptive and cause an individual subjective discomfort (signs of emotional distress). Generally, abnormal behaviors are classified as:

  • Abnormal as in "infrequent" in relation to the overall population.
  • Abnormal as in "maladaptive". The behavior fails to promote well being, growth, and fulfillment of a person.
  • Abnormal as in "deviant". The behavior is not socially acceptable.
  • Abnormal as in "unjustifiable". The behavior that cannot be rationalized.

Biological psychology

Image of the human brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.
Image of the human brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.

Biological psychology is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. Because all behavior is controlled by the central nervous system, it is sensible to study how the brain functions in order to understand behavior. This is the approach taken in behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology. Neuropsychology is the branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the 'brain' relate to specific behavioral and psychological processes. Often neuropsychologists are employed as scientists to advance scientific or medical knowledge. Neuropsychology is particularly concerned with the understanding of brain injury in an attempt to work out normal psychological function. means basic pussy and the dick In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... Image File history File links Hypothalamus. ... Image File history File links Hypothalamus. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Behavioral neuroscience approach. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ...


The approach of cognitive neuroscience to studying the link between brain and behavior is to use neuroimaging tools, such as to observe which areas of the brain are active during a particular task.


Cognitive psychology

Main article: Cognitive psychology

The nature of thought is another core interest in psychology. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ...


Cognitive science is a conjoined enterprise of cognitive psychologists, neurobiologists, workers in artificial intelligence, logicians, linguists, and social scientists, and places a slightly greater emphasis on computational theory and formalization. Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... AI redirects here. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


Both areas can use computational models to simulate phenomena of interest. Because mental events cannot directly be observed, computational models provide a tool for studying the functional organization of the mind. Such models give cognitive psychologists a way to study the "software" of mental processes independent of the "hardware" it runs on, be it the brain or a computer. This article is about computer modeling within a scientific medium. ...


Comparative psychology

Comparative psychology refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. It is related to disciplines outside of psychology that study animal behavior, such as ethology. Although the field of psychology is primarily concerned with humans, the behavior and mental processes of animals is also an important part of psychological research, either as a subject in its own right (e.g., animal cognition and ethology), or with strong emphasis about evolutionary links, and somewhat more controversially, as a way of gaining an insight into human psychology by means of comparison or via animal models of emotional and behavior systems as seen in neuroscience of psychology (e.g., affective neuroscience and social neuroscience). A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion. ... Social neuroscience is a field of research that spans social psychology, neuroscience, and physiology. ...


Developmental psychology

Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks. Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of small infants. In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change (such as adolescence and old age). Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory of development in context (The Ecology of Human Development - ISBN 0-674-22456-6) is influential in this field, as are those mentioned in "Educational psychology" immediately below, as well as many others. Developmental psychologists draw on the full range of theorists in scientific psychology to inform their research. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development were developed by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... Urie Bronfenbrenner (April 29, 1917-September 25, 2005) was a renowned psychologist and a co-founder of the U.S. national Head Start program. ...


Personality psychology

Personality psychology studies enduring psychological patterns of behavior, thought and emotion, commonly called an individual's personality. Theories of personality vary between different psychological schools. Trait theories attempts to break personality down into a number of traits, by use of factor analysis. The number of traits have varied between theories. One of the first, and smallest, models was that of Hans Eysenck, which had three dimensions: extroversionintroversion, neuroticismemotional stability, and psychoticism. Raymond Cattell proposed a theory of 16 personality factors. The theory that has most empirical evidence behind it today may be the "Big Five" theory, proposed by Lewis Goldberg, and others. Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Trait theory is an approach to personality theory in psychology. ... Factor analysis is a statistical method used to explain variability among observed random variables in terms of fewer unobserved random variables called factors. ... Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (spelled Extravert by Carl Jung), were originally employed by Sigmund Freud and given significant amplification later by Jung. ... For the band, see Neurotic (band). ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P-E-N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality. ... Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 - 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist who theorized the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences to explain human cognitive ability. ... 16 PF is the standard abbreviation for the 16 Personality Factors multivariately-derived by psychologist Raymond Cattell. ... In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


A different, but well known approach to personality is that of Sigmund Freud, whose structural theory of personality divided personality into the ego, superego, and id. He utilized the principles of thermodynamics metaphorically to explain these three distinctive and interacting tripartite divisions. In 1923 Freud published the ground-breaking book: "The Ego and the Id" in which he named and identified the functioning psychodynamics of human personality. This theory has been used in modern psychology paradigms such as Transactional Analysis. However, Freud's theory of personality has been criticized by many, including many mainstream psychologists. Personality may refer to: // Personality psychology, a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences Personality development, the study of human personality development over time Personality disorders, a class of mental disorders that is characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The ego, superego, and id are the tripartite divisions of the psyche in psychoanalytic theory compartmentalizing the sphere of mental activity into three energetic components: the ego being the organized conscious mediator between the internal person and the external identity. ...


Quantitative psychology

Quantitative psychology involves the application of mathematical and statistical modeling in psychological research, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing and explaining behavioral data. The term Quantitative psychology is relatively new and little used (only recently have Ph.D. programs in quantitative psychology been formed), and it loosely covers the longer standing subfields psychometrics and mathematical psychology. Quantitative psychology is the application of statistical and mathematical methods to the study of psychology. ... Quantitative psychology is the application of statistical and mathematical methods to the study of psychology. ... Note: The term model is also given a formal meaning in model theory, a part of axiomatic set theory. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ...


Psychometrics is the field of psychology concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. Measurement of these unobservable phenomena is difficult, and much of the research and accumulated knowledge in this discipline has been developed in an attempt to properly define and quantify such phenomena. Psychometric research typically involves two major research tasks, namely: (i) the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and (ii) the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement. For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Ability is one of the many ilities. ... See: Aircraft attitude Attitude (magazine) Attitude (album) Attitude (psychology) Propositional attitude This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory. ...


Whereas psychometrics is mainly concerned with individual differences and population structure, mathematical psychology is concerned with modeling of mental and motor processes of the average individual. Psychometrics is more associated with educational, personality, and clinical psychology. Mathematical psychology is more closely related to psychonomics/experimental and cognitive, and physiological psychology and (cognitive) neuroscience. For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Individual differences psychology studies the ways in which people differ in their behavior. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Look up mental in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...


Social psychology

A crowd of people in Shibuya, Tokyo.
A crowd of people in Shibuya, Tokyo.

Social psychology is the scientific study of the nature and causes of human social behavior and mental processes, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. Social Psychology aims to understand how we make sense of social situations. For example, this could involve the influence of others on an individual's behavior (e.g., conformity or persuasion), the perception and understanding of social cues, or the formation of attitudes or stereotypes about other people. Social cognition is a common approach and involves a mostly cognitive and scientific approach to understanding social behavior. Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 470 KB) Shibuya Crossing in Tokyo, Japan Photo taken summer 2003 by user en:user:Willswe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 470 KB) Shibuya Crossing in Tokyo, Japan Photo taken summer 2003 by user en:user:Willswe. ... Shibuya ) is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... This article is about the psychological concept of conformity. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ... Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals like or dislike for an item. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Social cognition is the name for both a branch of psychology that studies the cognitive processes involved in social interaction, and an umbrella term for the processes themselves. ...


Fields of applied research

Main article: Applied psychology

Applied psychology encompasses both psychological research that is designed to help individuals overcome practical problems and the application of this research in applied settings. Much of applied psychology research is utilized in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. Applied psychology includes the areas of clinical psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, human factors, psychology and law, health psychology, school psychology, community psychology and others. The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with designing according to the human needs, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... Community Psychology makes use of the perspectives of Psychology to address issues of communities, the relationships within them, and peoples attitudes about them. ...


Clinical psychology

Main article: Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology includes the study and application of psychology for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[15] Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury—this area is known as clinical neuropsychology. In many countries clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ...


The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be done inside various therapy models, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client—usually an individual, couple, family, or small group—that employs a set of procedures intended to form a therapeutic alliance, explore the nature of psychological problems, and encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. The four major perspectives are Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, Existential-Humanistic, and Systems or Family therapy. There has been a growing movement to integrate these various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual-orientation. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is growing evidence that most of the major therapies are about of equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance.[16][17] Because of this, more training programs and psychologists are now adopting an eclectic therapeutic orientation. It has been suggested that Psychodynamic psychology be merged into this article or section. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Integrative Psychotherapy involves the fusion of different schools of psychotherapy. ...


Clinical psychologists do not usually prescribe medication, although there is a growing movement for psychologists to have limited prescribing privileges.[18] In general, however, when medication is warranted many psychologists will work in cooperation with psychiatrists so that clients get all their therapeutic needs met.[15] Clinical psychologists may also work as part of a team with other professionals, such as social workers and nutritionists. A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Social Workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...


Counseling psychology

Main article: Counseling psychology

Counseling psychology seeks to facilitate personal and interpersonal functioning across the lifespan with a focus on emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. Counselors are primarily clinicians, using psychotherapy and other interventions in order to treat clients. Traditionally, counseling psychology has focused more on normal developmental issues and everyday stress rather than psychopathology, but this distinction has softened over time. Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings, including universities, hospitals, schools, governmental organizations, businesses, private practice, and community mental health centers. Counseling psychology is an application of the basic professional skills in psychology to a population that has been more located in schools rather than hospitals and clinics. ... Counseling psychology is an application of the basic professional skills in psychology to a population that has been more located in schools rather than hospitals and clinics. ... In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ...


Educational psychology

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (Russian: Лев Семёнович Выготский) (November 17 (November 5 Old Style), 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet developmental psychologist and the founder of cultural-historical psychology. ... Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... Jerome S. Bruner (b. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ...


Forensic psychology

Main article: Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology covers a broad range of practices primarily involving courtroom testimony on given issues. Forensic psychologists are appointed by the court to conduct competency to stand trial evaluations, competency to be executed evaluations, sanity evaluations, involuntary commitment evaluations, provide sentencing recommendations, and sex offender evaluation and treatment evaluations and provide recommendations to the court through written reports and testimony. Most of the questions the court asks the forensic psychologist are not questions of psychology but rather legal questions. For example, there is no definition of sanity in psychology. Rather, sanity is a legal definition that varies from state to state in the United States and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Therefore, a prime qualification of a forensic psychologist is an intimate understanding of the law, especially criminal law. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Psychology and Law

Main article: Legal psychology

Legal psychology is a research-oriented field populated with researchers from several different areas within psychology (although social and cognitive psychologists are typical). Legal psychologists explore such topics as jury decision-making, eyewitness memory, scientific evidence, and legal policy. The term "legal psychology" has only recently come into use, and typically refers to any non-clinical law-related research. Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ...


Health psychology

Main article: Health psychology

Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care. Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life and in research into the psychological impact of health and social care. Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. ... Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. ... Health psychology concerns itself with understanding how biology, behavior, and social context influence health and illness. ... Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people. ...


Human factors psychology

Main article: Human factors

Human factors psychology (sometimes called Engineering Psychology) is the study of how cognitive and psychological processes affect our interaction with tools and objects in the environment. The goal of research in human factors psychology is to better design objects by taking into account the limitations and biases of human mental processes and behavior. Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ...


Industrial and organizational psychology

Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O) is among the newest fields in psychology. Industrial Psychology focuses on improving, evaluating, and predicting job performance while Organizational Psychology focuses on how organizations impact and interact with individuals. In 1910, through the works and experiments of Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott, Industrial Psychology became recognized as a legitimate part of the social science.[19] Organizational Psychology was not officially added until the 1970s and since then, the field has flourished. The Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology has approximately 3400 professional members and 1900 student members. These two numbers combine to make up only about four percent of the members in the American Psychological Association but the number has been rising since 1939 when there were only one hundred professional I/O psychologists.[19] Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ... Industrial psychology is the psychology that deals with the workplace, focusing on both the workers and the organizations that employ them. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (or I/O psychology) is also known as occupational psychology (in the United Kingdom) and work psychology (from the German, Arbeitpsychologie). ... Hugo Münsterberg (1863 - 1916) was a U.S. (German-born, in Danzig) psychologist. ... Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955) was one of the first applied psychologists. ... Industrial psychology is the psychology that deals with the workplace, focusing on both the workers and the organizations that employ them. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


I/O psychologists are employed by academic institutions, consulting firms, internal human resources in industries, and governmental institutions. Various universities across the United States are beginning to strengthen their I/O Psychology programs due to the increase of interest and job demand in the field.[19]


Industrial organizational psychologists look at questions regarding things such as who to hire, how to define and measure successful job performance, how to prepare people to be more successful in their jobs, how to create and change jobs so that they are safer and make people happier, and how to structure the organization to allow people to achieve their potential.[19]


School psychology

Main article: School psychology

School psychology is dedicated to helping students understand the mind socially and emotionally. School psychologists collaborate with educators and professionals to a create safe and supportive learning environment for all students that can strengthen connections between home and school. They are trained to be experts in educational and behavioral assessment, intervention, prevention, and consultation, and many have extensive training in research.[20] Currently, school psychology is the only field in which a professional can be called a "psychologist" without a doctoral degree, with the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) recognizing the Specialist degree as the entry level. This is a matter of controversy as the APA does not recognize anything below a doctorate as the entry level for a psychologist. Specialist-level school psychologists, who typically receive three years of graduate training, function almost exclusively within school systems, while those at the doctoral-level are found in a number of other settings as well, including universities, hospitals, clinics, and private practice. Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... The National Association of School Psychologists represents and supports school psychologists. ... The Specialist degree in the English-speaking world The Specialist degree is found in some programs of education or psychology and is awarded for study beyond the Masters degree but below the doctorate. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...

Research methods

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (seated) was a German psychologist, generally acknowledged as a founder of experimental psychology.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (seated) was a German psychologist, generally acknowledged as a founder of experimental psychology.

Research in experimental psychology is conducted in broad accord with the standards of the scientific method, encompassing both qualitative ethological and quantitative statistical modalities to generate and evaluate explanatory hypotheses with regard to psychological phenomena. Where research ethics and the state of development in a given research domain permits, investigation may be pursued by experimental protocols. Psychology tends to be eclectic, drawing on knowledge from other fields to help explain and understand psychological phenomena. Qualitative psychological research utilizes a broad spectrum of observational methods, including action research, ethography, exploratory statistics, structured interviews, and participant observation, to enable the gathering of rich information unattainable by classical experimentation. Research in humanistic psychology is more typically pursued by ethnographic, historical, and historiographic methods. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... -1... Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Quantitative psychological research is psychological research which performs statistical estimation or statistical inference. ... A model of scientific inquiry has two functions, first, to provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out in practice, second, to provide an explanatory account of why scientific inquiry succeeds as well as it appears to do in arriving at genuine knowledge of its objects. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior considered as a branch of zoology. ... Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. ... A structured interview (also known as a standardised interview or a researcher-administered survey) is a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research. ... For other uses, see Interview (disambiguation). ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...


The testing of different aspects of psychological function is a significant area of contemporary psychology. Psychometric and statistical methods predominate, including various well-known standardized tests as well as those created ad hoc as the situation or experiment requires. Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...


Academic psychologists may focus purely on research and psychological theory, aiming to further psychological understanding in a particular area, while other psychologists may work in applied psychology to deploy such knowledge for immediate and practical benefit. However, these approaches are not mutually exclusive and most psychologists will be involved in both researching and applying psychology at some point during their career. Clinical psychology, among many of the various disciplines of psychology, aims at developing in practicing psychologists knowledge of and experience with research and experimental methods which they will continue to build up as well as employ as they treat individuals with psychological issues or use psychology to help others. The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ...


When an area of interest requires specific training and specialist knowledge, especially in applied areas, psychological associations normally establish a governing body to manage training requirements. Similarly, requirements may be laid down for university degrees in psychology, so that students acquire an adequate knowledge in a number of areas. Additionally, areas of practical psychology, where psychologists offer treatment to others, may require that psychologists be licensed by government regulatory bodies as well.


Controlled experiments

Main article: Experiment

Experimental psychological research is conducted in a laboratory under controlled conditions. This method of research relies on the application of the scientific method to understand behavior. Experiments use several types of measurements, including rate of response, reaction time, and various psychometric measurements. Experiments are designed to test specific hypotheses (deductive approach) or evaluate functional relationships (inductive approach). They are important for psychological research because they allow researchers to establish causal relationships between different aspects of behavior and the environment. Importantly, in an experiment, one or more variables of interest are controlled by the experimenter (independent variable) and another variable is measured in response to different conditions (dependent variable). (See also hypothesis testing.) Experiments are one of the primary research methodologies in many areas of psychology, particularly cognitive/psychonomics, mathematical psychology, psychophysiology and biological psychology/cognitive neuroscience. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... -1... Reaction time (RT) is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One may be faced with the problem of making a definite decision with respect to an uncertain hypothesis which is known only through its observable consequences. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... means basic pussy and the dick In psychology, biological psychology or psychobiology[1] is the application of the principles of biology to the study of mental processes and behavior. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ...


As an example, suppose an experimenter wanted to answer the following question: does talking on a phone affect one's ability to stop quickly while driving? To answer this, the experimenter would want to show that a subject's stopping time is different when they are talking on a phone versus when they are not. If the experiment is properly conducted in a controlled environment and a difference between the two conditions is found, the experimenter would be able to show a causal relationship between phone use and stopping time. In addition to potential practical benefits, this type of experiment may have important theoretical results, such as helping to explain the processes that underlie attention in humans. This article is about psychological concept of attention. ...


Experiments on humans have been put under some controls; namely informed and voluntary consent. After WWII, the Nuremberg Code was established, because of Nazi abuses of experimental subjects. Later, most countries (and scientific journals) adopted the Declaration of Helsinki. In the US, the NIH established the IRB in 1966. And in 1974, adopted the National Research Act (HR 7724). All of which cover informed consent of human participants in experimental studies. There were a number of influential studies which lead to the establishment of these rules, including the MIT & Fernald School radioisotope studies, the Thalidomide Tragedy, Willowbrook hepatitis study, Milgram's obedience to authority studies. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Declaration of Helsinki, developed by the World Medical Association, is a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... IRB is a TLA for International Rugby Board Irish Republican Brotherhood Institutional Review Board This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pub. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... This article is about the drug. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ...


Animal studies

One of Pavlov’s dogs with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation, Pavlov Museum, 2005
One of Pavlov’s dogs with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation, Pavlov Museum, 2005

Animal learning experiments are important in many aspects of psychology such as investigating the biological basis of learning, memory and behavior. In the 1890s, physiologist Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to describe classical conditioning, the original and most famous example of a classical conditioning study. Non-human primates, cats, dogs, rats and other rodents are often used in psychological experiments. Controlled experiments involve introducing only one variable at a time, which is why animals used for experiments are housed in laboratory settings. In contrast, human environments and genetic backgrounds vary widely, which makes it difficult to control important variables for human subjects. [2] Image File history File linksMetadata One_of_Pavlov's_dogs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata One_of_Pavlov's_dogs. ... A cannula (pl. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation). ... Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... A white Wistar lab rat. ... In computer science and mathematics, a variable (pronounced ) (sometimes called an object or identifier in computer science) is a symbolic representation used to denote a quantity or expression. ...

Qualitative and descriptive research

Main article: Qualitative research

Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. ...

Observation in natural settings

In the same way Jane Goodall studied the role of chimpanzee social and family life, psychologists conduct similar observational studies in human social, professional and family lives. Sometimes the participants are aware they are being observed and other times it is covert; the participants do not know they are being observed. Ethical guidelines need to be taken into consideration when covert observation is being carried out. Naturalistic observation is a method of observation, commonly used by psychologists and social/behavioral scientists, that involves observing subjects in their natural habitats. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ...


Survey questionnaires

Main article: Statistical survey

Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, or checking the validity of experimental manipulations. Most commonly, psychologists use paper-and-pencil surveys. However, surveys are also conducted over the phone or through e-mail. Increasingly, web-based surveys are being used in research.[21]. Accessed 2007-11-02.</ref> Similar methodology is also used in applied setting, such as clinical assessment and personnel assessment. Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Longitudinal studies

A longitudinal study is a research method which observes a particular population over time. For example, one might wish to study specific language impairment (SLI) by observing a group of individuals with the condition over a period of time. This method has the advantage of seeing how a condition can affect individuals over long time scales. However, such studies can suffer from attrition due to drop-out or death of subjects. In addition, since individual differences between members of the group are not controlled, it may be difficult to draw conclusions about the populations. Longitudinal study is a developmental research strategy that involves testing an age group repeatedly over many years. Longitudinal studies answer vital questions about how people develop. This developmental research follows people over years and the outcome has been an incredible array of findings, especially relating to psychological problems. Longitudinal studies form a class of research methods that involve observations of the same items over a longer time. ... Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder that can affect both expressive and receptive language. ...


Neuropsychological methods

Neuropsychology involves the study of both healthy individuals and patients, typically who have suffered either brain injury or mental illness. Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ...


Cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry study neurological or mental impairment in an attempt to infer theories of normal mind and brain function. This typically involves looking for differences in patterns of remaining ability (known as 'functional disassociation's') which can give clues as to whether abilities are comprised of smaller functions, or are controlled by a single cognitive mechanism. == ISABEL IS COOL AND SHE LOVES COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY!!!!!!!!! == Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a sub-discipline of psychology and psychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function. ...


In addition, experimental techniques are often used which also apply to studying the neuropsychology of healthy individuals. These include behavioral experiments, brain-scanning or functional neuroimaging - used to examine the activity of the brain during task performance, and techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can safely alter the function of small brain areas to investigate their importance in mental operations. Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions. ... Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is the use of powerful rapidly changing magnetic fields to induce electric fields in the brain by electromagnetic induction without the need for surgery or external electrodes. ...


Computational modeling

Artificial neural network with two layers, an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
Artificial neural network with two layers, an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.

Computational modeling is a tool often used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate a particular behavior using a computer. This method has several advantages. Since modern computers process extremely quickly, many simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for a great deal of statistical power. Modeling also allows psychologists to visualize hypotheses about the functional organization of mental events that couldn't be directly observed in a human. Image File history File links MultiLayerNeuralNetwork_english. ... Image File history File links MultiLayerNeuralNetwork_english. ... An artificial neural network (ANN), often just called a neural network (NN), is a mathematical model or computational model based on biological neural networks. ... This article is about computer modeling within a scientific medium. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ...


Several different types of modeling are used to study behavior. Connectionism uses neural networks to simulate the brain. Another method is symbolic modeling, which represents many different mental objects using variables and rules. Other types of modeling include dynamic systems and stochastic modeling. Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... // Traditionally, the term neural network had been used to refer to a network or circuitry of biological neurons. ... In engineering and mathematics, a dynamical system is a deterministic process in which a functions value changes over time according to a rule that is defined in terms of the functions current value. ... In the mathematics of probability, a stochastic process is a random function. ...


Criticism and controversies

Controversy as a science

A common criticism of psychology concerns its fuzziness as a science. Philosopher Thomas Kuhn's 1962 critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics. Because some areas of psychology rely on research methods such as surveys and questionnaires, critics have claimed that psychology is not as scientific as many assume. Methods such as introspection and psychoanalysis, used by some psychologists, are inherently subjective. Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The validity of probability testing as a research tool has been called into question. There is concern that this statistical method may promote trivial findings as meaningful, especially when large samples are used.[22] Some psychologists have responded with an increased use of effect size statistics, rather than sole reliance on the traditional p<.05 decision rule in statistical hypothesis testing. In statistics, effect size is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables. ...


In recent years, and particularly in the U.S., there has been increasing debate about the nature of therapeutic effectiveness and about the relevance of empirically examining psychotherapeutic strategies.[23] One argument states that some therapies are based on discredited theories and are unsupported by empirical evidence. The other side points to recent research suggesting that all mainstream therapies are of about equal effectiveness, while also arguing that controlled studies often do not take into consideration real-world conditions (e.g. the high co-morbidity rate or the experience of clinicians); that research is heavily biased towards the methods of the cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT); and that it typically under-represents minority groups.


Concern about fringe clinical practices

There is also concern from researchers about a perceived gap between scientific theory and its application, in particular with the application of fringe practices. Exponents of evidence-based approaches to clinical psychology practice say that the gap is increasing, and researchers such as Beyerstein (2001) say there has been a large increase in the number of mental health training programs that do not emphasize science training.[24] According to Lilienfeld (2002) “a wide variety of unvalidated and sometimes harmful psychotherapeutic methods, including facilitated communication for infantile autism, suggestive techniques for memory recovery (e.g., hypnotic age-regression, guided imagery, body work), energy therapies (e.g., Thought Field Therapy, Emotional Freedom Technique), and New Age therapies of seemingly endless stripes (e.g., rebirthing, reparenting, past-life regression, Primal Scream therapy, neurolinguistic programming ) have either emerged or maintained their popularity in recent decades."[3] Allen Neuringer made a similar point in the field of the experimental analysis of behavior in 1984.[25] There are some differences of opinion over the actual extent of the research practitioner gap, but the consensus is on the concern about fringe or quack practices, and the legal view favours the use of empirical validation for any psychological intervention (Faigman and Monahan­ 2005). The emphasis on improvement of evidence based practice has been made in order to increase the general public's confidence in the health professions, and to avoid instances whereby clients forgo evidence based treatments in favour of unvalidated fringe therapies. Facilitated communication (FC) is an augmentative communication strategy, that is, a communication strategy used by people without functional speech. ... Bodywork is a term used in alternative medicine to describe any therapeutic or healing work which involves some form of touching or physical manipulation of physical body. ... Thought Field Therapy, or TFT, is a fringe psychological treatment, developed by Dr. Roger Callahan. ... Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is a controversial psychotherapeutic tool that is claimed to be able to relieve many psychological conditions, including depression, anxiety, PTSD, stress, addictions and phobias. ... Rebirthing is a branch of alternative medicine which postulates that human birth is a traumatic event (see birth trauma) and that a discipline of breathwork and focused awareness, often including a re-enactment of the birth process, can have therapeutic benefits. ... Reparenting is a therapy concerned with healing the inner child. It involves treating problems caused by neglect, criticism, or sexual abuse from parents, and uses a range of methods involving self affirmations, anger workouts, self forgiveness, and letting go of shame and guilt. ... // Past Life Therapy (PLT) utilizing clinical hypnotherapy/ de-hypnosis claims to allow unconscious experiences from past life traumas or emotionally charged events to become fully conscious. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a field of human endeavor concerned with empirically studying and modeling human performance and excellence, with the goal of creating transferable skill sets. ...


See also

An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... For a more comprehensive list, see the List of psychology topics. ... This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. ... A psychologist is a researcher and/or a practitioner of psychology. ... This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. ... List of organizations and societies in psychology. ...

References

  1. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2), p. 2-9.
  2. ^ a b Omar Khaleefa (Summer 1999). "Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?", American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16 (2).
  3. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2), p. 2-9 [7-8]. Early practices of ancient psychology included procedures such as lobotomy, which involved removal of specific tissues of the brain believed to cause certain mental problems. Lobotomies were used (though uncommonly) in the medical practices of Egypt, China, and Persia, along with many other ancient civilizations.
  4. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006). Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Chapter 5. Morgan Reynolds Publishing. ISBN 1599350246.
  5. ^ Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt
  6. ^ The Principles of Psychology (1890), with introduction by George A. Miller, Harvard University Press, 1983 paperback, ISBN 0-674-70625-0 (combined edition, 1328 pages)
  7. ^ Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations, London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1963, pp. 33-39; from Theodore Schick, ed., Readings in the Philosophy of Science, Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 2000, pp. 9-13. [1]
  8. ^ a b Keil, FC. Wilson, RA. (eds) 2001. "The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences" MIT Press ISBN 0262731444 p.xx
  9. ^ Watson, John B. "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/views.htm
  10. ^ Skinner, B.F.: Are Theories of Learning Necessary? http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Skinner/Theories/
  11. ^ Chomsky, N. A. (1959), A Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior
  12. ^ Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  13. ^ Rowan, John. (2001). Ordinary Ecstasy: The Dialectics of Humanistic Psychology. London, UK: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN 0415236339
  14. ^ Bugental, J. (1964). The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 4(1), 19-25.
  15. ^ a b Brain, Christine. (2002). Advanced psychology: applications, issues and perspectives. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. ISBN 0174900589>
  16. ^ Leichsenring, Falk & Leibing, Eric. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta-analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(7), 1223-1233.
  17. ^ Reisner, Andrew. (2005). The common factors, empirically validated treatments, and recovery models of therapeutic change. The Psychological Record, 55(3), 377-400.
  18. ^ Klusman, Lawrence. (2001). Prescribing Psychologists and Patients' Medical Needs; Lessons From Clinical Psychiatry. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(5), 496.
  19. ^ a b c d Industrial and Organization Psychology, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
  20. ^ National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.
  21. ^ Paths to Happiness Survey - happiness study. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.
  22. ^ Cohen, J. (1994). The Earth is round, p < .05. American Psychologist, 49.
  23. ^ Elliot, Robert. (1998). Editor's Introduction: A Guide to the Empirically Supported Treatments Controversy. Psychotherapy Research, 8(2), 115.
  24. ^ Beyerstein, B. L. (2001). Fringe psychotherapies: The public at risk. The Scientific Re-view of Alternative Medicine, 5, 70–79
  25. ^ Neuringer, A.:"Melioration and Self-Experimentation" Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1348111

The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) is the largest Muslim medical organization in North America. ... The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) is the largest Muslim medical organization in North America. ... Look up Lobotomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

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