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Encyclopedia > Psychologically
Psychology
Areas
Cognition
Development
Disorder
Emotion
Perception
Personality
Self
Social
Approaches
Behavioral
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Cognitive
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Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of behaviour, mind and thought. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behaviour and thought of animals is also studied; either as a subject in its own right (see animal cognition and ethology), or more controversially, as a way of gaining an insight into human psychology by means of comparison (see comparative psychology). Wiktionary has a definition of: Cognition The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Developmental psychology is the scientific study of age related changes in behavior across the life span. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology, personality is a collection of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person. ... The Self is a key construct in several schools of Psychology. ... Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Biological psychology may be looked at as a hybrid of neuroscience and psychology. ... In psychology cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... Evolutionary psychology or (EP) proposes that human and primate cognition and behavior could be better understood by examining them in light of human and primate evolutionary history. ... Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods which attempt to elucidate unconscious relations in a systematic way through an associative process. ... Behavior (U.S.) or behaviour (U.K.) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectively conscious, such as personality, thought, reason, memory, intelligence and emotion. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... Animal cognition is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of non-human animals. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids), and is a branch of zoology. ... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad, sense, refers in to the study of the behaviour and mental life of animals other than human beings. ...


Psychology is conducted both scientifically and non-scientifically. Mainstream psychology is based largely on positivism, using quantitative studies and the scientific method to test and disprove hypotheses, often in an experimental context. Psychology tends to be eclectic, drawing on scientific knowledge from other fields to help explain and understand behaviour. However, not all psychological research methods follow the classical scientific method. Qualitative research utilizes interpretive techniques and is descriptive in nature, enabling the gathering of rich clinical information unattainable by classical experimentation. Some psychologists, particularly adherents to humanistic psychology, may go as far as completely rejecting a scientific approach. However, mainstream psychology has a bias towards the scientific method, which is reflected in the dominance of cognitivism as the guiding theoretical framework used by most psychologists to understand thought and behaviour. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Quantitative psychological research is psychological research which performs statistical estimation or statistical inference. ... The scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... A hypothesis (= assumption in ancient Greek) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... The specific methods used in any type of research depend on the type of research being performed. ... The term qualitative research has at least three meanings. ... Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... The scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... In psychology cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... The word theory has a number distinct meanings depending on the context. ...


Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of mind. Increasingly though, an understanding of brain function is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Phenomenology is a current in philosophy that takes intuitive experience of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as its starting point and tries to extract the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Artificial intelligence (also known as machine intelligence and often abbreviated as AI) is intelligence exhibited by any manufactured (i. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience and biological psychology involving the study of the neural mechanisms of cognition, but sometimes is seen as part of a wider interdisciplinary study of cognition, cognitive science. ...


Psychology differs from sociology, anthropology, economics, and political science, in part, by studying the behaviour of individuals (alone or in groups) rather than the behaviour of the groups or aggregates themselves. Although psychological questions were asked in antiquity (see Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia or "On Memory and Recollection"), psychology emerged as a separate discipline only recently. The first person to call himself a "psychologist", Wilhelm Wundt, opened the first psychological laboratory in 1879. Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [oeko], house, and νέμω [nemo], distribute) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources through measurable variables. ... Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ... Wilhelm Max Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920), German physiologist and psychologist, is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of psychology The history of psychology consists of prescientific and scientific epochs. ...


The end of the 19th century marks the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise. The year 1879 is commonly seen as the start of psychology as an independent field of study, because in that year Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research (in Leipzig). Other important early psychologists include Hermann Ebbinghaus (a pioneer in studies on memory), Ivan Pavlov (who 'discovered' the learning process of classical conditioning, and who should be regarded as a physiologist), and Sigmund Freud. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Wilhelm Max Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920), German physiologist and psychologist, is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850 - 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered experimental study of memory, and discovered the forgetting curve. ... Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (September 14, 1849 - February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist who first described the phenomenon now known as conditioning in experiments with dogs. ... Classical conditioning, also called pavlovian conditioning and respondent conditioning, is a type of learning involving animals, caused by the association (or pairing) of two stimuli. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ...


Major nineteenth and twentieth century schools of thought

Various schools of thought have argued for a particular model to be used as a guiding theory by which all, or the majority, of human behaviour can be explained. The popularity of these has waxed and waned over time. Some psychologists may think of themselves as adherents to a particular school of thought and reject the others, although most consider each as an approach to understanding the mind, and not necessarily as mutually exclusive theories.

Structuralism is an approach that grew to become one of the most widely used methods of analyzing language, culture, philosophy of mathematics, and society in the second half of the 20th century. ... The article is about functionalism in sociology; for other uses, see functionalism. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Radical behaviorism is the philosophy that underlies the approach to psychology known as the experimental analysis of behavior, and is a model developed by B. F. Skinner. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods which attempt to elucidate unconscious relations in a systematic way through an associative process. ... Gestalt psychology (also: Gestalt theory of the Berlin School) is a psychological theory which provides a framework for a wide variety of psychological phenomena, processes, and applications. ... In psychology cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Phenomenology is a current in philosophy that takes intuitive experience of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as its starting point and tries to extract the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. ...

Modern psychology

The majority of mainstream psychology is based on a framework derived from cognitive psychology, although the popularity of this paradigm does not exclude others, which are often applied as necessary. Alternatively, a psychologist may specialise in an area in which cognitive psychology is rarely used. Cognitive psychology is the psychological science which studies cognition, the mental processes that are hypothesised to underlie behavior. ...


A psychologist will often attempt to measure or test different aspects of psychological function, using psychometric and statistical methods, including well known standardised tests as well as those created as the situation requires. Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of small samples of behavior in order to infer larger generalizations about a given individual. ... Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. ... Statistics is the science and practice of developing knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ...


Academic psychologists may focus purely on research, aiming to further psychological understanding in a particular area, while other psychologists may work in applied psychology to deploy such knowledge for immediate and practical benefit. However, these approaches are not mutually exclusive and most psychologists will be involved in both researching and applying psychology at some point during their work. The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition or clinical medicine. ...


Contemporary psychology is broad-based and consists of a diverse set of approaches, subject areas, and applications. A comprehensive list is given in the Topics and Divisions sections below. Where an area of interest is considered to need specific training and specialist knowledge (especially in applied areas), psychological societies will typically set up a governing body to manage training requirements. Similarly, requirements may be laid down for university degrees in psychology, so that students acquire an adequate knowledge in a number of areas. While the exact divisions may vary from country to country, the following areas are usually considered as core subjects or approaches by psychology societies and universities.


Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is a framework in which to understand the mind more than a subject area, although it has traditionally focused on certain aspects of psychology. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas. Cognitive psychology is based on a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Cognitive psychology is the psychological science which studies cognition, the mental processes that are hypothesised to underlie behavior. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Learned redirects here. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Memory is a property of the human mind: the ability to retain information. ... This article discusses the psychological concept of Attention. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... In psychology cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Experimental psychology describes an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ...


Clinical and counseling psychology

Clinical psychology is the application of psychology to the understanding, treatment, and assessment of psychopathology, behavioural or mental health issues. It has traditionally been associated with counselling and psychotherapy, although modern clinical psychology may take an eclectic approach, including a number of therapeutic approaches. Typically, although working with many of the same clients as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists do not prescribe psychiatric drugs. Clinical psychologists largely work within the scientist-practitioner model where clinical problems are formulated as hypotheses to be tested as information is gathered about the patient and his or her mental state. Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury. This is known as clinical neuropsychology and typically involves additional training in brain function. Clinical psychology is the application of psychology to mental illness or mental health problems. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Clinical neuropsychology is a discipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ...


In recent years and particularly in the United States, a major split has been developing between academic research psychologists in universities and some branches of clinical psychology. Many academic psychologists believe that these clinicians use therapies based on discredited theories and unsupported by empirical evidence of their effectiveness. From the other side, these clinicians believe that the academics are ignoring their experience in dealing with actual patients. The disagreement has resulted in the formation of the American Psychological Society by the research psychologists as a new body distinct from the American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Society (APS) is a non-profit membership organization founded in 1988 to advance scientific psychology and its representation as a science on the national level. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


Developmental and educational psychology

Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these perceptions change as we age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to engage them in experimental tasks. These tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful. In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study other times of rapid change (such as adolescence and old age). Educational psychology largely seeks to apply much of this knowledge and understand how learning can best take place in educational situations. Because of this, the work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of age related changes in behavior across the life span. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... Lev Vygotsky Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (November 17 (November 5 (O.S.)), 1896—June 11, 1934) was a Russian developmental psychologist, discovered by the Western world in the 1960s. ... Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 - September 16, 1980), a professor of psychology at the University of Geneva from 1929 to 1975, was a francophone Swiss developmental psychologist who is most well known for organizing cognitive development into a series of stages - that is levels of development corresponding to infancy, childhood... Jerome Bruner (1915- ) is a noted psychologist. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ...


Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is concerned with the psychology of crime, criminals, and law enforcement. A forensic psychologist may be involved in assessment of offenders or interventions to prevent offending behaviour, usually with people who have already come in contact with the legal or penal system. Often this involves working with offenders with mental health problems, or with people who act dangerously or in an antisocial manner (for example, psychopaths). Criminal profiling is another important role fulfilled by forensic psychologists and typically involves building psychological profiles of unknown or at-large offenders from the known evidence. Forensic psychology can be broken down into 2 areas: Applying psychological techniques to help in the prosecution of criminals. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A legal system is the mechanism for creating, interpreting and enforcing the laws in a given jurisdiction. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a personality disorder which is often characterised by antisocial and impulsive behaviour. ...


Health psychology

Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behaviour including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life or in research into the psychological impact of health and social care. Health psychology is the use of psychological principles to promote health and to prevent illness (Taylor, 1990). ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ...


Industrial and organizational psychology

Involved with the application of psychology to the world of business, commerce and the function of organizations, industrial and organisational psychology focuses to varying degrees on the psychology of the workforce, customer, and consumer, including issues such as the psychology of recruitment, selecting employees from an applicant pool, training, performance appraisal, job satisfaction, work behaviour, stress at work and management. Industrial and organizational psychology (or I/O psychology) is the study of the behavior of people in the workplace. ... Stress has different meanings in different fields: Stress in physics, see also pressure. ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ...


Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Often neuropsychologists are employed as scientists to advance scientific or medical knowledge. Cognitive neuropsychology is particularly concerned with the understanding of brain injury in an attempt to work out normal psychological function. Clinical neuropsychology is the application of neuropsychology for the clinical management of patients with neurocognitive deficits. Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Clinical neuropsychology is a discipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... Neurocognitive is a term used to describe cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain. ...


Social psychology

Social psychology aims to understand how we make sense of social situations. For example, this could involve the influence of others on an individual's behaviour (e.g., conformity or persuasion), the perception and understanding of social cues, or the formation of attitudes or stereotypes about other people. Social cognition is a common approach and involves a mostly cognitive and scientific approach to understanding social behaviour. Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior. ... In psychology, conformity is the degree to which members of a group will change their views and attitudes to fit the views of the group. ... See also: Persuasion the last novel written by Jane Austen. ... This article is about the psychological term attitude. ... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... Social cognition is the name for both a branch of psychology that studies the cognitive processes involved in social interaction, and an umbrella term for the processes themselves. ...


Topics in psychology

Although in principle, psychology aims to explain all aspects of thought and behaviour, some topics have generated particular interest, either due to their perceived importance, their ease of study or popularity. Many of the concepts studied by professional psychology stem from the day-to-day psychology used by most people and learnt through experience. This is known as folk psychology to distinguish it from psychological knowledge developed through formal study and investigation. The extent to which folk psychology should be used as a basis for understanding human experience is controversial, although theories that are based on everyday notions of the mind have been among some of the most successful. Folk psychology (sometimes called naïve psychology) is the psychological theory implicit in our everyday ascriptions of others actions, and includes concepts such as belief (he thinks that Peter is wise), desire (she wants that piece of cake), fear (Alex is afraid of spiders) and hope (she hopes that he... This page is about the general concept; for the concept in roleplaying games, see experience point. ...


For a comprehensive list of psychological topics on wikipedia, please see the list of psychological topics. This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ...

Addictive redirects here. ... Anti-social behaviour is that lacking in judgement and consideration for others, ranging from careless negligence to deliberately damaging activity. ... This article discusses the psychological concept of Attention. ... This article is about the psychological term attitude. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Cognition The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... In psychology, conformity is the degree to which members of a group will change their views and attitudes to fit the views of the group. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For heuristics in computer science, see heuristic (computer science) Heuristic is the art and science of discovery and invention. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Ergonomics (from Greek ergon work and nomoi natural laws) is the study of designing objects to be better adapted to the shape of the human body and/or to correct the users posture. ... The executive system is a theorised cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. ... The experimental analysis of behavior is the name given to the approach to psychology founded by B. F. Skinner. ... Face perception is the process by which the brain and mind understand and interpret the face, particularly the human face. ... The term group dynamics implies that individual behaviours may differ depending on individuals current or prospective connections to a sociological group. ... Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. ... The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike. ... Learned redirects here. ... Memory is a property of the human mind: the ability to retain information. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... In psychology, motivation is the driving force (desire) behind all actions of an organism. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology, personality is a collection of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Program evaluation is essentially a set of philosophies and techniques to determine if a program works. It is a practice field that has emerged, particularly in the USA, as a disciplined way of assessing the merit, value, and worth of projects and programs. ... Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of small samples of behavior in order to infer larger generalizations about a given individual. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Reasoning is the act of using reason to derive a conclusion from certain premises. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Rehabilitation is the restoration of lost capabilities, or the treatment aimed at producing it. ... In operant conditioning, reinforcement is the presentation of a stimulus contingent on a response which results in an increase in response strength (as evidenced by an increase in the frequency of response). ... A very wide range of research methods are used in psychology. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... Social cognition is the name for both a branch of psychology that studies the cognitive processes involved in social interaction, and an umbrella term for the processes themselves. ... Social influence is when the actions or thoughts of individual(s) are changed by other individual(s). ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ...

Divisions and approaches in psychology

Different disciplines in psychology typically signify both a set of practices and an area of interest. The divisions are largely arbitrary and overlapping (although they may have been formalised into areas of interest by psychological societies or regulatory bodies) and most psychologists will use methods from each area as appropriate, even if they mostly focus on one area of interest in their work.

Abnormal psychology studies the nature of psychopathology, its causes, and its treatments. ... Activity theory (AT) is a Soviet psychological theory invented by Alexei Nikolaevich Leontyev, which became one of the major psychological theories in that country, being used widely in areas such as the education of disabled children and the design of equipment control panels. ... Analytical psychology is a school of Depth Psychology based upon the movement started by Carl Jung and his followers as distinct from the (at the time) Freudian-dominated psychoanalysis. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition or clinical medicine. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Biological psychology may be looked at as a hybrid of neuroscience and psychology. ... This article or section should be merged with biological psychology Psychobiology, also called biopsychology, is the scientific study of mental functioning and behavior in relation to other biological processes, or put another way, of the effects of cognition, emotions, and experience on animal physiology. ... Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of neuropsychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Cognitive psychology is the psychological science which studies cognition, the mental processes that are hypothesised to underlie behavior. ... Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience and biological psychology involving the study of the neural mechanisms of cognition, but sometimes is seen as part of a wider interdisciplinary study of cognition, cognitive science. ... Community Psychology lies at the intersection of Social Psychology, Political Science, and Community Development. ... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad, sense, refers in to the study of the behaviour and mental life of animals other than human beings. ... Clinical psychology is the application of psychology to mental illness or mental health problems. ... Unlike clinical psychology, counseling psychology is generally a joint-venture of both psychology departments and departments of education. ... Critical psychology is both a critique of mainstream psychology and an attempt to apply psychology in more progressive ways (based, for example, on Marxist or feminist analyses) and contexts than have thus far been the case. ... Developmental psychology is the scientific study of age related changes in behavior across the life span. ... Discursive psychology is a school of psychology developed in the 1990s by Jonathan Potter and Derek Edwards at Loughborough University. ... Distributed cognition is a school of psychology developed in the 1990s by Edwin Hutchins. ... A new approach in cognitive science proposed by Tim van Gelder which proposes that differential equations are a better way of modelling cognition than more traditional computer models. ... Ecological psychology (EP) is term claimed by two schools of psychology, one based on the writings of J. J. Gibson, the other on the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... Embodied philosophy (also known as the embodied mind thesis, embodied cognition or the embodied cognition thesis) usually refers to a set of beliefs promoted by George Lakoff and his various co-authors (including Mark Johnson, Mark Turner, and Rafael E. Núñez), which suggest that the mind can only be... Emotional clearing (EMC) is a form of psychotherapy, developed in the 1980s. ... Evolutionary psychology or (EP) proposes that human and primate cognition and behavior could be better understood by examining them in light of human and primate evolutionary history. ... Experimental psychology describes an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Forensic psychology can be broken down into 2 areas: Applying psychological techniques to help in the prosecution of criminals. ... Health psychology is the use of psychological principles to promote health and to prevent illness (Taylor, 1990). ... Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Individual differences psychology studies the ways in which people differ in their behavior. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (or I/O psychology) is the study of the behavior of people in the workplace. ... Medical psychology (also known as Clinical Health Psychology, Psychosomatic Medicine, Health Care Psychology, Behavioral Medicine, or Health Psychology) revolves around the idea that both the body and mind are one, indivisible structure. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. ... Performance psychology is the branch of psychology that studies the factors that allow individuals, communities and societies to flourish. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual difference processes - that which makes us into a person. ... Philippine Psychology is the Philippine branch of a more wider perspective of the Asian Psychology. ... Physiological psychology is sometimes related to psychiatry, and in fact may end up becoming the parent branch which contains psychiatry. ... Popular psychology refers to concepts and theories about human mental life and behaviour that come from outside the technical study of psychology, but purport to go beyond everyday knowledge. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to the study of the psychology behind political behavior. ... A term coined by psychologist Martin E.P. Seligman, and a movement in psychology which emphasizes what is right with people rather than what is wrong with them. ... Pre- and perinatal psychology is the study of the psychological implications of the earliest experiences of the individual, before (prenatal) and during (perinatal) childbirth. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods which attempt to elucidate unconscious relations in a systematic way through an associative process. ... For the fictional use of the term psychohistory, see psychohistory (fictional) Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events. ... Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Psychophysics is the branch of psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Psychophysiology is the science of understanding the link beteen psychology and physiology. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... In psychology, sensation is the first stage in the chain of biochemical and neurologic events that begins with the impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a sensory organ, which then leads to perception, the mental state that is reflected in statements like I see a uniformly blue... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Situated cognition is a new movement in cognitive psychology which derives from pragmatism, Gibsonian ecological psychology, ethnomethodology, the theories of Vygotsky and the writings of Heidegger. ... Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Theoretical psychology is concerned with theoretical and philosophical aspects of the discipline of psychology. ... Traffic psychology is a young expanding field in psychology. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology, considered by proponents to be the 4th force in the field (after the first three: Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and Humanistic). ...

Some related disciplines

Artificial consciousness (AC), also known as machine consciousness (MC) or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to Artificial intelligence whose aim is to produce a rigourous and objective definition of consciousness, in a mathematical sense, and build a theory toward implementating it in a model or a cognitive architecture. ... Synthetic consciousness refers to attempts by computer scientists and others to implement machines which, as a minimum, give the impression to observers that they possess aspects of consciousness. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... A complex system is a system whose properties are not fully explained by an understanding of its component parts. ... Computer science (academically, CS, CSC or compsci) encompasses a variety of topics that relates to computation, like abstract analysis of algorithms, formal grammars, and subjects such as programming languages, program design, software and computer hardware. ... Captology is the study of computers as persuasive technologies. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Discourse analysis is a general term for a number of approaches to analysing language use beyond the sentence or clause level. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [oeko], house, and νέμω [nemo], distribute) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources through measurable variables. ... Traditionally, Marketing has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers (or potential producers) of a product or service with customers, both existing and potential. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids), and is a branch of zoology. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that uses models to study interactions with formalised incentive structures (games). It has applications in a variety of fields, including economics, international relations, evolutionary biology, political science, and military strategy. ... History is a term for information about the past. ... Hypnotherapy is the application of hypnosis as a form of medical therapy, usually for relieving pain or conditions related to ones state of mind. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Psycholinguistics or Linguistics of psychology is the study of the psychological and neurological factors that enable humans to acquire, use and understand language. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory is a general term for new theoretical developments (roughly since the 1960s) in a variety of fields, informed by structuralism, post-structuralism, deconstruction, Marxist theory, and several other areas of thought. ... Neuroeconomics combines neuroscience, economics, and psychology to study how we make choices. ... Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a field of human endeavor concerned with empirically studying and modeling human performance and excellence, with the goal of creating transferable skill sets. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Psycholinguistics or Linguistics of psychology is the study of the psychological and neurological factors that enable humans to acquire, use and understand language. ... Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. ... Psychophysics is the branch of psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Socionics is a branch of psychology that is based on Carl Jungs work on Psychological types, Freuds theory of the conscious and subconscious, and Antoni Kepinskis theory of information metabolism. ... Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ...

Famous psychologists

See List of psychologists for a full list of famous and influential psychologists. This list includes famous psychologists and contributors to psychology; some of them may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because their important contributions to the discipline. ...


Publications, References

See List of publications in psychology for important publications in psychology. This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ...


External links

Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject:
  • Psychology of the Private Individual (http://www.gegenstandpunkt.com/english/psych/0-contents.html) Critique of Bourgeois Consciousness
  • The Mass Psychology of Misery (http://zerzan.dzabalesku.net/sadrzaj/textz/html/Z_mass-psychology-of-misery.html) by John Zerzan; a criticism of the practice or implication of psychology

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Psychology Resources

Psychology Societies


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Psychological harassment is not a new phenomenon but it is one that is on the rise.
Psychological harassment is viewed as direct or indirect tactics used to get rid of someone or to break them down psychologically and should not be confused with stress related to work performance.
For the purposes of this Act, “psychological harassment” means any vexatious behaviour in the form of repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affects an employee’s dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that results in a harmful work environment for the employee.
Psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2755 words)
Increasingly, though, an understanding of brain function is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.
Academic psychologists may focus purely on research and psychological theory, aiming to further psychological understanding in a particular area, while other psychologists may work in applied psychology to deploy such knowledge for immediate and practical benefit.
The divisions are largely arbitrary and overlapping (although they may have been formalised into areas of interest by psychological societies or regulatory bodies) and most psychologists will use methods from each area as appropriate, even if they mostly focus on one area of interest in their work.
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