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Encyclopedia > Psychokinesis
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The term psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, "psyche", meaning mind, soul, or breath; and κίνησις, "kinesis", meaning motion; literally "movement from the mind")[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek τῆλε + κίνησις, literally "distant-movement" referring to telekinesis) or TK, denotes the paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter, time, space, or energy without the use of any currently known type of physical means.[4] For instance, psychokinesis might be used to distort or move an object,[5] or to influence a random number generator.[6] [7] The position of most skeptics of the paranormal is that psychokinesis does not exist in the real world, but only appears to exist due to fraud or statistical manipulation of scientific data, while parapsychologists say that the ability is real or deserving of further study based on eyewitness reports involving hard-to-reproduce spontaneous phenomena. Psychokinesis is a popular ability in entertainment movies, written fiction, and computer games. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... // Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... A random number generator is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of elements (usually numbers), such that the sequence can be used as a random one. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Terminology

Early history

"Telekinesis" was coined in 1890[8] by Russian psychical researcher Alexander N. Aksakof.[9][10][11]


"Psychokinesis" was coined in 1914[12] by American author-publisher Henry Holt in his book On the Cosmic Relations[13] and adopted by his friend, American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine in 1934 in connection with experiments to determine if a person could influence the outcome of falling dice.[14][15] Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 - February 20, 1980) was a pioneer of parapsychology. ...


Both terms have been described by other names, such as "remote influencing," "distant influencing,"[16] "remote mental influence," "distant mental influence,"[17] "directed conscious intention," "anomalous perturbation,"[18] and "mind over matter."[19]


Originally telekinesis was coined to refer to the movement of objects thought to be caused by ghosts of deceased persons, mischievous spirits, demons, or other supernatural forces.[20] Later when speculation increased that humans might be the source of the witnessed phenomena (that which was not caused by fraudulent mediums)[21] and could possibly cause movement without any connection to a spiritualistic setting, such as in a darkened séance room, psychokinesis was added to the lexicon, this done to differentiate between the earlier use of the term telekinesis.[22] An artists interpretation of a ghostly woman on a flight of stairs, based on common descriptions A ghost is usually defined as the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and encountered in places he or she frequented, or in association with the person... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was the object of intense curiosity. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Eventually, psychokinesis was the preferred term by the parapsychological community (and still is) and it was suggested that telekinesis become obsolete.[23] Popular culture, however, such as movies, television, and literature, over the years preferred telekinesis to describe the paranormal movement of objects likely due to the word's resemblance to other terms, such as telepathy, teleportation, telephone, and television.[24]

Modern usage

As research entered the modern era, it became clear that many different, but related, abilities could be attributed to the wider description of psychokinesis and telekinesis is now regarded as one of the specialities of PK. In the 2004 U.S. Air Force-sponsored research report Teleportation Physics Study, the physicist-author described the classification of PK and TK this way:

Telekinesis is a form of PK, which describes the movement of stationary objects without the use of any known physical force.

Eric Davis, physicist, Ph.D,  Teleportation Physics Study, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, 2004 page 55

Psychokinesis, then, is the general term that can be used to describe a variety of complex mental force phenomena (including object movement) and telekinesis is used to refer only to the movement of objects, however tiny (a grain of salt or air molecules to create wind)[25][26] or large (an automobile, building, or bridge).[27] Hypothetically, a person could have very profound telekinetic ability, but not be able to produce any of the additional effects found in psychokinesis, such as softening the metal of a spoon to allow its bending with minimal physical force. Conversely, someone who has succeeded in psychokinetically softening metal once or a number of times may exhibit no telekinetic ability to move objects.


Measurement and observation

Currently parapsychology researchers describe two basic types of measurable and observable psychokinetic and telekinetic effects in experimental laboratory research and in case reports occurring outside of the laboratory.[28][29][30] Parapsychology is the study of evidence for paranormal psychological phenomena such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis (Parapsychology, n. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Micro-PK or micro-TK is a very small effect, such as the manipulation of molecules, atoms,[31] subatomic particles,[32] etc., which can only be observed with scientific equipment. The words are abbreviations for micro-psychokinesis, micropsychokinesis;[33] micro-telekinesis, microtelekinesis.


Macro-PK or macro-TK is a large-scale effect which can be seen with the unaided eye. The words are abbreviations for macro-psychokinesis, macropsychokinesis; macro-telekinesis, macrotelekinesis.


The adjective phrases "microscopic-scale," "macroscopic-scale," "small-scale," and "large-scale" may also be used; for example, "a small-scale PK effect."


Spontaneous effects

Spontaneous movements of objects and other unexplained effects have been reported, and many parapsychologists believe they are possibly forms of psychokinesis/telekinesis .[34][35] Parapsychologist William G. Roll coined the term "recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis" (RSPK) in 1958.[36][37] The sudden movement of objects without deliberate intention in the presence or vicinity of one or more witnesses is thought by some to be related to as-yet-unknown PK/TK processes of the subconscious mind.[38] Researchers use the term "PK agent," especially in spontaneous cases, to describe someone who is suspected of being the source of the PK action.[39][40] Outbreaks of spontaneous movements or other effects, such as in a private home, and especially those involving violent or physiological effects, such as objects hitting people or scratches or other marks on the body, are sometimes investigated as poltergeist cases. William G. Roll (born July 6, 1926) is a parapsychology professor currently teaching at Lund University in Sweden and author of four books: The Poltergeist (1972), Theory and Experiment in Psychical Research (1975), Psychic Connections (1995, co-author Lois Duncan), and Unleashed (2004, co-author Valerie Storey). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Types of abilities - classification

Psychokinesis is the umbrella term under which are various related specialized abilities. These specialities include: An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ...

Telekinetic abilities In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... Spoon bending is the common name for the deformation of objects allegedly by paranormal means, either without physical force, or by a force that would normally be insufficient for that effect. ... Teleportation is the movement of objects or elementary particles from one place to another, more or less instantaneously, without traveling through space. ... // Transmutation is the conversion of one object into another. ... Tsarevna Frog by Viktor Vasnetsov: a frog metamorphoses into a princess Shapeshifting is a common theme in mythology and folklore, as well as in science fiction and fantasy. ... In science fiction and fantasy literature, a force field is a physical barrier made up of energy to protect a person or object from attacks or intrusions. ...

  • Movement of matter (micro and macro; move, lift, agitate, vibrate, spin, bend, break, or impact).[77][78][79][80][81][82]

Included in the telekinesis speciality category is the subspecialty of being able to use mental power to speed up the naturally occurring vibrations of atoms in solids, liquids, or gases to generate heat, possibly to the point of ignition if combustible (a psi power also known as pyrokinesis); or, to slow down the atomic vibrations to cause cold or freezing. Additional movement of the heat/flame or cold/freezing effect through open space may also be accomplished through standard telekinetic ability. The book The Physics of Superheroes describes it this way: The atoms and ions, which are bonded with each other with considerable interatomic forces, are not motionless. ... Pyrokinesis from the Greek word for fire, pyr, and -kinesis, from κίνησις, movement, motion, a suffix that denotes movement. ... The Physics of Superheroes is a book by James Kakalios first published in 2005 that explores the scientific side of superhero comic books. ...

Knowing that all matter is composed of atoms, we now recognize that when an object is "hot," the kinetic energy of the constituent atoms is large, while when an object is "cold," the kinetic energy of the atoms is lower. The kinetic energy of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. ...

James Kakalios, physics professor, Ph.D,  The Physics of Superheroes, page 133

A cubical magnet levitating over a superconducting material (this is known as the Meissner effect) Levitation (from Latin levare, to raise) is the process by which an object is suspended against gravity, in a stable position, by a force without physical contact. ...

Notable claimants of psychokinetic or telekinetic ability

  • Nina Kulagina (1926 – 1990), alleged Soviet psychic of the late 1960s and early 1970s.[86]
  • Felicia Parise, an American medical laboratory technician who allegedly was able to repeatedly demonstrate telekinetic movement of small objects in the early 1970s, in the first reported instance spontaneously, and then with practice by intense conscious intention,[87][88] described as follows:
  • Swami Rama (1925 – 1996), a yogi skilled in controlling his heart functions who was studied at the Menninger Foundation in the spring and fall of 1970, and was alleged by some observers at the foundation to have telekinetically moved a knitting needle twice from a distance of five feet.[89] Although Swami Rama wore a facemask and gown to prevent allegations that he moved the needle with his breath or body movements, and air vents in the room had been covered, at least one physician observer who was present at the time was not convinced and expressed the opinion that air movement was somehow the cause.[90] The test device was an uncovered, balanced knitting needle (one of two glued on top of each other at right angles) positioned under a floodlight in a room where incense had been burned prior to the test.[91]

See also these Wikipedia Category lists: Swami Rama (1925 – 1996) was born Brij Kishore Dhasmana, to a Northern Indian Brahmin family and became lineage holder of the Sankya Yoga tradition of the Himalayan Masters. ... It has been suggested that yogin be merged into this article or section. ... The Menninger Clinic was founded in 1925 in Topeka, Kansas, by Drs. ...

  • People claiming to have psychokinetic abilities
  • Supernatural healing

Belief in telekinesis

Belief in psychokinesis varies greatly among individuals and cultures. For example, in September 2006, one survey conducted by phone and mail-in questionnaire polled Americans on their belief in telekinesis. Of these participants 28 percent of male participants selected "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement It is possible to influence the world through the mind alone, as did 31 percent of female participants. There were 1,721 participants, and the poll had a margin of error of plus or minus four percent.[92] The survey as a whole was about belief in various religious and paranormal topics. Look up poll in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Skepticism and controversy

The topic of psychokinesis is controversial in mainstream science, with supporters and detractors. In the book Parapsychology: The Controversial Science (1991), British parapsychologist Richard S. Broughton, Ph.D, wrote of the differences of opinion by Nobel laureates encountered by Robert G. Jahn, director of the (now-closed) PEAR laboratory about the psychokinesis research the lab was engaged in at the time: Professor Robert G. Jahn is Dean Emeritus of the School of Engineering and Applied Science of Princeton University. ...

Speaking about the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Program, he [Jahn] said, 'We have had commentary on our program from no less than six Nobel laureates, two of whom categorically rejected the topic, two of whom encouraged us to push on, and two of whom were evasively equivocal. So much for unanimity of high scientific opinion." The Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) program was established at Princeton University in 1979 by Robert G. Jahn, then Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science, to pursue rigorous scientific study of the interaction of human consciousness with physical devices, systems, and processes common to contemporary engineering practice. ...

Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, 1991, page 75

Broughton writes further:

Are psi phenomena really "impossible" according to contemporary science? As Robert Jahn's experience with the Nobel laureates revealed, the answer will depend upon whom you ask. ... Fortunately the march of scientific progress is usually only temporary slowed down by people saying "impossible." For a long time meteorites were declared "impossible." The idea that continents could drift around the surface of the earth was ridiculed for decades. The history of science is full of other "impossibilities" that have become ordinary parts of everyday life. A number of leading physicists, acknowledged giants of the field, such as Henry Margenau, David Bohm, and O. Costa de Beauregard have repeatedly claimed that there is nothing in quantum physics that forbids psi phenomena. ... Nobel laureate Brian Josephson, a strong supporter of parapsychology, has stated that some of the most convincing evidence he has seen for the existence of psi phenomena comes not from the diligent work of the parapsychologists but from experiments in quantum physics[93]. So science does not speak with one voice on the matter of parapsychology. Such is life on the frontiers of knowledge. All we can say now is that the jury is still out. Henry Margenau (1901 - February 8, 1997) was a German-U.S. physicist, historian and philosopher of science, and Christian writer. ... David Bohm. ... Fig. ... Brian David Josephson (born Cardiff, UK, January 4, 1940) is a British physicist whose discovery of the Josephson effect while a 22_year_old graduate student won him a share (with Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever) of the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics. ...

Richard S. Broughton, Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, 1991, page 78-79

Anecdotal evidence

On the problem of eyewitness testimony of alleged psychokinetic events, parapsychologist Richard Broughton writes:

It is at this point that we touch the Achilles' heel of this sort of PK research. All of these investigations, no matter how thorough, ultimately boil down to anecdotes—stories about what happened once upon a time. We end up having to choose between the testimony of witnesses who were present and counterexplanations of persons who were not. On the one hand the witnesses may have been mistaken about what they observed, but on the other the counterexplanations may be based on conditions that were not actually present at the time. Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ...

Richard S. Broughton,  Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, 1991, page 162

Illusion of Control

In psychology there is a well-established phenomenon called the illusion of control, in which people think they have a degree of control of something when it makes no difference what they do. Such an illusory correlation between a person's intention and a physical effect could give a false impression of psychokinesis. The illusion of control is the tendency for human beings to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes which they clearly cannot. ... Illusory correlations are beliefs that inaccurately suppose a relationship between a certain type of action and an effect. ...


What skeptics say

The more vocal members of the skeptical community assert that because some PK effects can be reproduced or simulated by trickery or special effects, that is a more reasonable explanation than to accept that the laws of physics should be rewritten.[94] To support their side of the argument, skeptics may invoke the principles of parsimony, Occam's razor, and the saying "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof" to support their position. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A physical law or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations. ... Look up parsimony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William of Ockham Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Marcello Truzzi (September 6, 1935-February 2, 2003) was a professor of sociology at Eastern Michigan University and director for the Center for Scientific Anomalies Research. ...

Michael Shermer

Michael Shermer, the executive director of the Skeptics Society and founding publisher/editor-in-chief of Skeptic magazine, who also writes a monthly column for Scientific American magazine, stated in 1997 and again in 2002 in his book Why People Believe Weird Things his position that people who claim to have witnessed psychic phenomena, which includes psychokinesis, "have committed an error in thinking" and are "misinformed" about what they claim they personally experienced or observed. Shermer has a Ph.D in the history of science and masters and B.A. degrees in psychology. He is one of the world's leading skeptics of the paranormal. Michael Shermer Michael Shermer (born September 8, 1954 in Glendale, California) is a science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and editor of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating and debunking pseudoscientific and supernatural claims. ... The Skeptics Society is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting scientific skepticism and resisting the spread of pseudoscience, superstition, and irrational beliefs. ... The Skeptics Society is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting scientific skepticism and resisting the spread of pseudoscience, superstition, and irrational beliefs. ... Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time is a book by Michael Shermer published in 1997 by Henry Holt and Company ISBN 0805070893. ...

So we are left with the legacy of two types of thinking errors: Type 1 Error: believing a falsehood and Type 2 Error: rejecting a truth. ... Believers in UFOs, alien abductions, ESP, and psychic phenomena have committed a Type 1 Error in thinking: they are believing a falsehood. ... It's not that these folks are ignorant or uninformed; they are intelligent but misinformed. Their thinking has gone wrong.

Michael Shermer, Why People Believe Weird Things, 1997, 2002, Introduction
James Randi

James Randi, author, magician, and long-time lecturer of paranormal skepticism, now also currently the director and spokesperson for his own foundation, the James Randi Educational Foundation, has stated that psychic feats, such as the alleged softening of metal described in "spoon bending," in his view, have contributed only to society's understanding of fraud. Randi's formal education consists of completion of elementary school in Canada, several years of high school (did not graduate) and at age 67, an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from the University of Indianapolis.[95] He described himself as a "child prodigy" in a 2001 Skeptic magazine interview conducted by Michael Shermer.[96] James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a Fort Lauderdale, Florida non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. ... A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanae doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. ...

More importantly, I think, we should ask why not one of the "discoveries" of parapsychology — the reality of mental spoon-bending, survival-after-death, ESP, etc., has made one iota of change in our lives, in science, in philosophy, or in any disciplines — except for the field of fraud and swindle, of course.

James Randi , Swift JREF newsletter, November 21, 2003
Carl Sagan

The late Carl Sagan, who had a Ph.D in astronomy and astrophysics and Masters and B.A. degrees in physics, offered this advice to scientists and the public at large about psychokinesis research in his 1995 book The Demon-Haunted World: Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark is a 1997 book by Carl Sagan. ...

Typical offerings of pseudoscience and superstition—this is merely a representative, not a comprehensive, list— are... extrasensory perception (ESP), such as telepathy, precognition, telekinesis, and "remote viewing" of distant places;... It is barely possible that a few of these paranormal claims might one day be verified by solid scientific data.  But it would be foolish to accept them without adequate evidence.  In the spirit of garage dragons, it is much better, for those claims not already disproved or adequately explained, to contain our impatience, to nurture a tolerance for ambiguity, and to await—or, much better, to seek— supporting or disconfirming evidence.

Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World, 1995, pages 221, 224

Magic and special effects

Magicians, sleight-of-hand-artists, etc., have successfully simulated some of the specialized abilities of PK (object movement, spoon bending, levitation, teleportation), but not all of the feats of claimed spontaneous and intentional psychokinesis have been reproduced under the same observed conditions as the original.[97] [98] The Skeptic's Dictionary offers the following on producing PK effects by means of magic: Spoon bending is the common name for the deformation of objects allegedly by paranormal means, either without physical force, or by a force that would normally be insufficient for that effect. ... The Skeptics Dictionary is a web site with a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, PhD. It primarily exposes claims that its editors consider pseudoscientific. ...

The variety of magic tricks used to demonstrate psychokinetic powers is impressive. Scientists have been investigating PK since the mid-19th century but with little success at demonstrating that anyone can move even a feather without trickery involving something as simple and obvious as blowing on objects to move them.

Robert Todd Carroll, SkepDic.com: psychokinesis (PK)

Notable witnesses to PK events

Psychokinetic events have been witnessed by  psychologists in the United States at the Ph.D, Masters, and B.A. degree levels,[99][100][101] and in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world by  professionals with medical degrees,[102] [103]  physicists,[104][105]  electrical engineers,[106][107]  military personnel,[108][109][110] police officers,[111][112]  and other professionals and ordinary citizens.

Michael Crichton

Best-selling author Michael Crichton (The Andromeda Strain, Jurrasic Park, etc.), who graduated summa cum laude from Harvard College and received his medical degree from Harvard Medical School[113], and is a past recipient of the Association of American Medical Writers Award,[114] described his successful experience with psychokinesis at a "spoon bending party" in his 1988 book Travels:[115] Michael Crichton (born October 23, 1942, pronounced [1]) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... The Andromeda Strain (1969) is a techno-thriller novel by Michael Crichton. ... Original film poster for Jurassic Park Jurassic Park is a book written by Michael Crichton and published in 1990, which was later turned into a movie directed by Steven Spielberg. ...

I looked down. My spoon had begun to bend. I hadn't even realized. The metal was completely pliable, like soft plastic. It wasn't particularly hot, either, just slightly warm. I easily bend the bowl of the spoon in half, using only my fingertips. This didn't require any pressure at all, just guiding with my fingertips. I put the bent spoon aside and tried a fork. After a few moments of rubbing, the fork twisted like a pretzel. It was easy. I bent several more spoons and forks. ... Of course, spoon bending has been the focus of long-standing controversy. Uri Gellar, an Israeli magician, who claims psychic powers, often bends spoons, but other magicians, such as James Randi, claim that spoon bending isn't a psychic phenomenon at all, just a trick. But I had bent a spoon, and I knew it wasn't a trick. I looked around the room and saw little children, eight or nine years old, bending large metal bars. They weren't trying to trick anybody.

Michael Crichton, Travels, 1988, pages 319-320
Dean Radin

Parapsychologist and author Dean Radin has reported that he, too, was able to bend the bowl of a spoon over with unexplained ease of force with witnesses present at an informal PK experiment gathering. Radin has a Ph.D in psychology from the University of Illinois, a Masters degree in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois, and a B.A. degree in electrical engineering, magna cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts.[116] He described his experience in his 2006 book Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality and online (with photos):[117] Dean Radin is a researcher in parapsychology. ...

I was much more skeptical about such claims until one day I personally folded the bowl of a large, heavy soup spoon in half with a gentle touch, and with half a dozen witnesses present. I later tested to see if I could do this again with a similar spoon using ordinary force. I couldn't budge the bowl without the assistance of two pairs of pliars and some serious leverage. So I have good reason to doubt the usual skeptical assertion that all cases of metal-bending are conjuring tricks or due to unconscious use of force.

Dean Radin,  Entangled Minds, page 331

Prize money for proof of PK

Internationally, there are individual skeptics of the paranormal and skeptics' organizations who offer cash prize money to anyone—or anyone who meets a criteria of eligibility, such as a certain level of fame—who can successfully demonstrate the existence of an extraordinary psychic power, such as psychokinesis, that is currently regarded by mainstream science as being paranormal in origin, according to an agreed-upon experiment. A list of prizes for evidence of the paranormal is available. Isaac Asimov was an American science fiction author. ... // Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... There are many individuals and groups past and present that offer money for proof of the paranormal in an observable setting. ...


Psychokinesis in popular culture

Psychokinesis has a well-established existence as a psychic power in movies, television, computer games, literature, and other forms of popular culture. In the 1976 film Carrie, based on the Stephen King novel of the same name, Sissy Spacek portrayed a troubled high school student with telekinetic powers.[118] She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her portrayal, the first psychokinetic character in a film ever to be so recognized (Ellen Burstyn was the second, in 1980's Resurrection). In the Star Wars movie series and related novels and computer games, numerous characters have the ability to control the movement of objects using the "the Force." Various specialized psychokinetic abilities are often found in fictional characters in comic books, such as Jean Grey of the X-Men and also in television series such as Charmed, with Prue Halliwell and Paige Matthews (see also orbing} and Bewitched with Samantha Stephens (all are witches with the ability of moving objects). In the videogame Psi-Ops: The Mindgate Conspiracy , PK is the subject of testing on military soldiers, thus creating a "super soldier". There are also written accounts of psychokinetic events in ancient religious writings, most notably the Bible, in which, for example, Jesus is described as miraculously walking on water, transmuting water into wine, healing the sick, and reversing physical disability or even death by mere touch or thought. Carrie is a 1976 American horror film directed by Brian De Palma based on the novel by Stephen King, with a screenplay written by Lawrence D. Cohen. ... Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of over 200 stories including over 50 bestselling horror novels. ... Mary Elizabeth Sissy Spacek (born December 25, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning American actress and singer. ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Ellen Burstyn (born December 7, 1932 as Edna Rae Gillooly in Detroit, Michigan) is an Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... The Force is a binding, ubiquitous power that is the object of the Jedi and Sith monastic orders in the Star Wars universe. ... Jean Grey-Summers (born Jean Grey) is a fictional superheroine who lives in the Marvel Comics Universe. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... Charmed is an American television series that ran for eight seasons on The WB. It was produced by Aaron Spelling and is about three sisters who are the worlds most powerful good witches, known throughout the supernatural community as The Charmed Ones but known to everyone else as the... Prudence Prue Halliwell, is a fictional character who appeared in the first three seasons of the WB television series Charmed, and was played by actress Shannen Doherty. ... Paige Matthews is a fictional character, and one of three female leads, on the WB television series Charmed. ... Orbing is the magical form of teleportation used by Whitelighters and Elders who are portrayed on the television series Charmed. ... This article is about an American television sitcom. ... This article is about an American television sitcom. ... Psi-Ops: The Mindgate Conspiracy is a game developed by Midway Games. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by a God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


See also

  • Fictional characters with telekinesis

(the following related entries are listed alphabetically) This is a list of fictional characters with the capability for telekinesis. ...

Anomalous operation, also known as anomalous perturbation, is a term describing a broad category of purported paranormal effects that can best be described as subject A stating an intent or goal to influence system B, and system B then changing appropriately through unknown or unverifiable means. ... Loyd Auerbach is an educator on parapsychology and a prominent field investigator and expert on psychic phenomena. ... Banachek is the stage name for a mentalist named Steven Shaw. ... Stephen E. Braude is an American philosopher and parapsychologist. ... Lyn Buchanan was a Sergeant brought into the Fort Meade remote viewing unit run by General Stubblebine. ... Count of St Germain by unknown artist According to many occult scholars, Count Saint Germain was the most mysterious and influential person of 18th century Europe. ... Ectenic force is a supposed phenomenon of energy that is emitted by the person of the medium, and directed by his will, producing the means by which objects move without contact in apparent defiance of natural laws. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Energy psychology. ... Faith healing, also called divine healing or spiritual healing, is the use of spiritual means in treating disease, sometimes accompanied with the refusal of modern medical techniques. ... The Global Consciousness Project, (GCP) also called the EGG Project, is a long-running science experiment maintained by an international collaboration of about 100 research scientists and engineers. ... Jon Ronson Jon Ronson (born 10 May 1967) is a Cardiff born Jewish journalist, author, documentary filmmaker and radio presenter. ... Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain, usually conducted externally, using extremely sensitive devices such as SQUIDs. ... Manifestation refers to a concept of either recurring or transitive phenomena, as instances which become manifest or realised. ... A materialization is the creation or appearance of matter from nowhere and out of nothing. ... Matthew Manning (born 1955) is a best selling author and healer, and is well known for his purported psychic abilities. ... Wolf Messing (1899-1974) is claimed by some to be one of the most talented mind readers of the world. ... A purported example of thoughtography, performed by early 20th century Japanese psychic Sadako Takahashi. ... The concept of neural oscillations is close to the concept of brain waves. ... Parapsychology is the study of evidence for paranormal psychological phenomena such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis (Parapsychology, n. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In parapsychology, precognition (from the Latin præ-, “prior to,” + cognitio, “a getting to know”) is a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person perceives information about future places or events before they happen (as distinct from merely predicting them based on deductive reasoning and current knowledge). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psionics is a term used mostly in fiction and games to denote a variety of paranormal psychic abilities. ... Psychic surgery is a form of medical fraud, in which the fraudster purports to be performing a paranormal surgical procedure. ... Pyrokinesis from the Greek word for fire, pyr, and -kinesis, from κίνησις, movement, motion, a suffix that denotes movement. ... Dean Radin is a researcher in parapsychology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quantum brain dynamics. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... Reality shift is a term used by proponents of anomalous phenomena to describe what they feel are enigmatic changes in physical, spatial, or temporal reality. ... Tina Resch (born October 23, 1969) achieved some fame during what the media called the Columbus Poltergeist case. ... William G. Roll (born July 6, 1926) is a parapsychology professor currently teaching at Lund University in Sweden and author of four books: The Poltergeist (1972), Theory and Experiment in Psychical Research (1975), Psychic Connections (1995, co-author Lois Duncan), and Unleashed (2004, co-author Valerie Storey). ... Jack Sarfatti (born September 14, 1939) is an American theoretical physicist and the author of a number of popular works on quantum physics and consciousness. ... The Silva Method, originally called Silva Mind Control, comprises a self-empowerment system to shape beliefs and augment personal success. ... Silver the Hedgehog ) is a video game character in the Sonic the Hedgehog video game series. ... Spoon bending is the common name for the deformation of objects allegedly by paranormal means, either without physical force, or by a force that would normally be insufficient for that effect. ... Teleportation is the movement of objects or elementary particles from one place to another, more or less instantaneously, without traveling through space. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ... Therapeutic touch (TT) is a mostly secular variant of faith healing, started by Dolores Krieger in the early 1970s. ...

References

  1. ^ (2001) Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Boston, Massachussetts USA: Random House Reference. ISBN 0-375-42599-3.  Page 1560: "psycho-, a combining form representing psyche in compound words. ... (Gk, comb. form of psyche breath, spirit, soul, mind; akin to psycheim to blow)."
  2. ^ (2005) The New Oxford American Dictionary. New York City: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517077-6.  Page 1367: "psycho. comb. form relating to the mind or psychology: ...from Greek psukhe breath, soul, mind."
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica online: psychokinesis. Retrieved on July 16, 2006.
  4. ^ http://parapsych.org/glossary_l_r.html#p Parapsychological Association, glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology, Retrieved December 20 2006
  5. ^ On-Line Medical Dictionary: psychokinesis. Retrieved on July 16, 2006.
  6. ^ http://parapsych.org/glossary_l_r.html#r Parapsychological Association, glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology, Retrieved December 20 2006
  7. ^ Jeffers, Stanley (May/June 2007, Vol. 31, Issue 3). "PEAR Lab Closes, Ending Decades of Psychic Research," Skeptical Inquirer. Amherst, New York, USA: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.  Page 16: "Much of the work of the PEAR group has employed 'random event generators' (REGs), which are essentally electronic randon number generators whose 'operators' are invited by dint [force, power] of their own intenionality, to bias in such a way, that the mean of the random number distribution would be either higher or lower than it would be in the absence of their intentional efforts. The claim is that some 'operators' can achieve a bias consistent with their intentions at a level that, although minute, is statistically very unlikely to have arisen by chance."
  8. ^ (2005) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5.  Page 1284: "Telekinesis (1890)..."
  9. ^ Myers, Frederic William Henry (December 1890). Proceedings. London, England: the journal of the Society for Psychical Research.  Frederic William Henry Myers writing: "For the alleged movements without contact... M. A. Aksakof's new word 'telekinetic' seems to me the best attainable." Note: this quote as a cited reference can also be found in the multivolume "The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition," 1989, Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, ISBN 0-19-861229-X."
  10. ^ Parapsychology Foundation "Basic terms in Parapsychology". Retrieved on January 20, 2007. "Telekinesis. Older term for “psychokinesis,” coined by Alexander Aksakof (1895/1890), and still preferred in the former USSR; Soviet Union and Eastern Europe."
  11. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on January 20, 2007. "Telekinesis. 1890, said to have been coined by Alexander N. Aksakof (1832-1903) Imperial Councilor to the Czar... Translates Ger. 'Fernwirkung.'
  12. ^ (2005) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5.  Page 1004: "Psychokinesis (1914)...."
  13. ^ Parapsychology Foundation "Basic terms in Parapsychology" (Holt's books are available today as facimile reprints at online booksellers. On the Cosmic Relations can be read in pdf format on books.google.com.). Retrieved on December 22, 2006.
  14. ^ Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2.  Page 752: "The term 'psychokinesis' or 'PK' was adopted by psychologist J.B. Rhine and his associates at the Psychology Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina from 1934 onwards in relation to experiments with influencing the fall of dice by mental concentration."
  15. ^ Parapsychological Association - Glossary: PK/Psychokinesis. Retrieved on July 19, 2006.
  16. ^ May, Edwin C., Ph.D and Vilenskaya, Larissa. Overview of Current Parapsychology Research in the Former Soviet Union. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.Subtle Energies Volume 3, Number 3, 1992, Page 1, Introduction: "AMP research programs in the Soviet Union have primarily focused on experimental studies in 'distant influence' on animate an inanimate systems; i.e., psychokinesis (PK) and bio-PK."
  17. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.  Page 329: "The expression [parapsychologist William] Braud prefers to describe this work is 'distant mental influence,' but it could also be called PK with human targets." Note: see Further Reading in this article for a later book by Braud with the same title.
  18. ^ May, Edwin C., Ph.D and Vilenskaya, Larissa. Overview of Current Parapsychology Research in the Former Soviet Union. Retrieved on July 3, 2007.Subtle Energies Volume 3, Number 3, 1992, Page 1, Abstract: "The authors primarily discuss experiments in anomalous perturbation (often referred to as psychokinesis—PK and bio- which have been the main focus of AMP research programs in the Soviet Union."
  19. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.  Page 341: "Psychokinesis (PK). The response of objects such as dice or the environment to a person's wishes is commonly labelled 'mind over matter.'"
  20. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.  Page 430: "Telekinesis. A term used by Frederick W. H. Myers to describe those physical phenomena of Spiritualism involving the movement of physical objects without the intermediation of any known physical energy."
  21. ^ (1970, 1985, 1995) Man, Myth & Magic: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mythology, Religion, and the Unknown. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 1-85435-731-X.  Page 2442: "Spiritualism aroused violent antagonism and criticism concentrating particularly on the physical phenomena occurring at seances, which opponents claimed were faked."
  22. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.  Page 341: "PK... This term is used in preference to 'telekinesis' in order to avoid the implication that an effect on an object or the environment is produced by a deceased entity." Page 430: "Telekinesis. ... The Spiritualistic interpretation of telekinetic phenomena—that they are evidence of survival after death and of the existence of spirits—is usually not accepted in parapsychology or psychical research. The term 'telekinesis' is therefore usually not used because of its Spiritualistic connotations."
  23. ^ Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2.  Page 753: "Psychokinesis. ... The term has now largely displaced 'Telekinesis' formerly used by psychical researchers and Spiritualists." Page 912: "Telekinesis. ... The term is now supplanted by Psychokinesis or PK."
  24. ^ Google.com search results for telekinesis and psychokinesis. Retrieved on January 24, 2007. http://www.google.com/search?q=psychokinesis Telekinesis: 929,000 Psychokinesis: 775,000 (unfiltered results)
  25. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 478: "...rituals to control the weather may also involve PK."
  26. ^ X-Men: The Last Stand at the Internet Movie Database The X-Men character Storm has the power to create wind and other weather effects.
  27. ^ X-Men: The Last Stand at the Internet Movie Database These three feats: levitating automobiles, a building, and a bridge were featured in the movie as being performed by the characters Jean Grey and Magneto.
  28. ^ Library.ThinkQuest.org - Glossary: Macro PK and Micro PK. Retrieved on October 14, 2006.
  29. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. 
  30. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. 
  31. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.  Page 330: "...atomic-level PK effects..."
  32. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.  Page 35: Most contemporary research into PK involves examining the direct influence of consciousness of the mind on finely balanced electronic devices—PK on atomic particles—and this has become known as micro PK."
  33. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 478: "micropsychokinesis" [spelling example].
  34. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.  Page 326: "...cases involving noises or movement of objects have been reported and recorded over the centuries. ... Laboratory investigations under controlled conditions of such occurrences have not been possible since generally they start unexpectedly and take place spontaneously in private homes or offices."
  35. ^ Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2.  Page 879: "Spontaneous phenomena. Unexplained experiences of ESP or PK and other paranormal phenomena in everyday life, as distinct from laboratory tests that can be adequately controlled and repeated."
  36. ^ Roll, William G.; Pratt, J. G. (1958). The Seaford Disturbances. Journal of Parapsychology, Vol. 2, pp 79-124. 
  37. ^ Parapsychological Association - Glossary: "RSPK". Retrieved on January 5, 2007.
  38. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 454: "Poltergeist. In other cases, the phenomena seem to be caused by subconscious psychokinesis (PK) on the part of one individual."
  39. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 456: (entry for Poltergeist) "...typically an agent, an individual who seems to act as a focus or magnet for the activity. The agent is a factor in most cases, both those that seem paranormal or that may be caused by human PK."
  40. ^ Pratt, J. G.; Stevenson, Ian. "An Instance of Possible Metal-Bending Indirectly Related to Uri Geller," The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Vol. 70, January 1976: "As far as I can say, no one in the apartment that night would take credit for being the responsible PK agent."
  41. ^ (2004) The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-42899-2.  Page 769: "Psychokinesis. The production or control of motion, especially in inanimate and remote objects, purportedly by the exercise of psychic powers."
  42. ^ (2001) Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Boston, Massachussetts USA: Random House Reference. ISBN 0-375-42599-3.  Page 1561: "Psychokinesis. The purported ability to move... inanimate objects... through mental processes."
  43. ^ Hathaway, Michael R. (2003). The Everything Psychic Book. Avon, Massachusetts, USA: Adams Media / F+W Publications Company. ISBN 1-58062-969-5.  Page 129: "...psychokinesis... moving a solid object with your mind."
  44. ^ (2003) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 0-582-50668-9.  Page 1542: "Psychokinesis. The moving of solid objects using only the power of the mind, which some people believe is possible."
  45. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.  Page 35: "...PK object movement or object deformations such as bending metal."
  46. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 478: ""Psychokinesis (PK). A form of psi that is the apparent influence of mind over matter through invisible means, such as the movement of objects, bending of metal, and the outcome of events."
  47. ^ (2001) Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. New York: Random House Reference. ISBN 0-375-42599-3.  "Psychokinesis.... deform inanimate objects, as metal spoons..."
  48. ^ Hathaway, Michael R. (2003). The Everything Psychic Book. Avon, Massachusetts, USA: Adams Media / F+W Publications Company. ISBN 1-58062-969-5.  Page 129: "...psychokinesis, a fancy word for feats like spoon bending or moving a solid object with your mind."
  49. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.  Page 35: "...the apparent ability of a human being to affect objects, events, or even people around him or her without the usual intervention by the muscular system."
  50. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 7: "Psychokinesis—or PK, as it is commonly known—refers to the alleged ability of the human mind to influence objects and events without the benefit of physical contact with them."
  51. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 478: "Psychokinesis... influence of mind over matter... such as... the outcome of events."
  52. ^ Hathaway, Michael R. (2003). The Everything Psychic Book. Avon, Massachusetts, USA: Adams Media / F+W Publications Company. ISBN 1-58062-969-5.  Page 271: Glossary: "Psychokinesis. The ability to levitate, move objects, heal, and manipulate psychic energy." Also, Page 139: "Psychokinesis is the ability to... create healing."
  53. ^ Spence, Lewis (1920). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Kessinger Publishing (reprint publisher). ISBN 0-7661-2817-2.  Page 752: "Psychokinesis.. influence on living targets, such as plants, healing, influencing of animals."
  54. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 8: "...mental mastery of the human body... block out pain, levitate... healing."
  55. ^ (2004) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5.  Page 1284: "Teleportation. The act or process of moving an object or person by psychokinesis."
  56. ^ Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1991). Encyclopedia of the Strange, Mystical & Unexplained. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-16278-4.  Page 609: "Teleportation. The movement of bodies or objects over great distances; a form of psychokinesis (PK). ...the passage of solid objects through matter by dematerialization and materialization."
  57. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 7: "...macro-PK... the movement of objects into and out of enclosed spaces without visible aid. ...teleportation effects."
  58. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 8: "...disregard for physical barriers." Page 85: "...move items... from inside to outside a container....microparticles behave in somewhat similar fashion, tunneling through barriers and showing up in places that classical physics decrees they should not be."
  59. ^ Kakalios, James (2005). The Physics of Superheores. New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc.. ISBN 1-592-40146-5.  Page 250 (illustration, panel from X-Men comic book #130, 1980, showing pre-X-Men Kitty Pryde and dialogue): "I thought real hard -- an' I walked right through that wall, like it wasn't even there! It gets easier each time I do it, too!" (Followed by a real-world possible physics explanation by the author, a university physics professor.) Page 254: "With our improved understanding of physics, we can now more accurately describe Kitty Pryde's mutant power as being able to alter her macroscopic quantum wavefunction, increasing her tunneling probability to near 100 percent at will. Quite useful when one has locked the keys inside the car."
  60. ^ (2006) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to Characters of the Marvel Universe. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-2358-8.  Page 233: "Kitty Pryde. Powers: ...ability to pass ("phase") through solid matter..."
  61. ^ Colman, Andrew M. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866211-4.  Page 599: "Psychokinesis. The movement or change of physical objects by mental processes..."
  62. ^ (2003) The New Enclyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, Volume 9. Chicago, Illinois: Enclycolpaedia Britannica, Inc.. ISBN 0-85229-961-3.  Page 762: "Psychokinesis. In parapsychology, the action of mind on matter, in which objects are caused to move or change as a result of mental concentration upon them.
  63. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 7: "...materializations have also been interpretated as macro-PK..." Page 82: "...tangible objects might change their form or location..."
  64. ^ (1995) Man, Myth & Magic: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mythology, Religion, and the Unknown. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 1-85435-731-X.  Page 2354: "Shape-shifting. The idea that it is possible, in certain circumstances, for men to change their natural bodily form... Sorcerers also, and some great heroes, were believed to have the same power, by virtue of magical knowledge or some inate quality; and so, though more rarely, were a few otherwise oridinary people who acquired the gift through possession of a charm or the performance of a ritual act."
  65. ^ (2003) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Marvel Universe Roleplaying Guide. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-7851-1028-3.  Page 29: "Mystique can... shift the atoms and molecules of her body and clothing to mimic the appearance of any human or humanoid of either sex."
  66. ^ Okuda, Michael; Okuda, Denise (1994, 1997, 1999). The Star Trek Encyclopedia. New York: Pocket Books/Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-53609-5.  Page 169: "Garth of Izar. ... Garth's escape attempt was aided by the Antos cellular-metamorphosis process, which allowed him to change his shape to become any person he wished." Page 334: "Odo. Odo was a shape-shifter, one of the founders of the Gamma Quandrant's Dominion. ... He'd turn himself into any object requested." Page 392: "Q. ... Q sought refuge in human form..."
  67. ^ (2006) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to Characters of the Marvel Universe. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-2358-8.  Page 144: "Invisible Woman: the Fantastic Four's female presence. ... Sue's powers evolved over time, giving her the ability to project impenetrable force fields and to turn objects invisible through mental control."
  68. ^ (2005) Fantastic Four: The Ultimate Guide. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7566-1173-3.  Page 14: "Invisible Woman. Susan Storm Richards. ... She discovered... that she possessed the ability to manipulate cosmic energy with her mind. Among other things, this power enabled her to create invisible fields that could withstand considerable amounts of force."
  69. ^ (2006) The Essential Handbook of the Marvel Universe Vol. 1. New York: Marvel Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 0-7851-1933-7.  [Entry for Invisible Girl, later renamed Invisible Woman] "Through concentration, she is able to project a field of psionic force which she can manipulate..."
  70. ^ The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved on February 27, 2007. Article: "Mass Media Funk" "Those who practice TT [Therapeutic Touch] believe they are able to move 'energy,' some sort of psychic force field or chi which they believe permeates the body and surrounding aura."
  71. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 7-8: "The ability to influence air temperature and magnetic fields... is also considered... micropsychokinesis." Page 27: "Another American studied in the lab, Ingo Swann, was reportedly able to influence ambient air temperature and alter magnetic fields."
  72. ^ Kakalios, James (2005). The Physics of Superheores. New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc.. ISBN 1-592-40146-5.  Page 191: "Magneto... the ability to generate and control magnetic fields."
  73. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9.  Page 7: "...macro-PK... optical effects, such as luminous 'spirit lights'..."
  74. ^ Bersani, F.; Martelli, A. (1983). Psychoenergetics: The Journal of Psychophysical Systems. United Kingdom: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.  Page 99 (article pp 99-128): "The effects observed range from the typical bending of metal objects, such as spoons, keys, bars, etc., to strange effects like light flashes and teleportation."
  75. ^ Houran, James; Lange, Rense, editors (2001). Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Jefferson, North Carolina USA: McFarland Press. ISBN 0786409843.  Chapter: "Investigations of Poltergeists and Haunts: A Review and Interpretation" by William Roll and Michael A. Persinger. William Roll: "In a case in Clayton, North Carolina (Roll, 1972 book The Poltergeist. NY, Doubleday), I observed bursts of white light that were indistinguishable from electronic flashes except that their source seemed to be a 19-year-old woman."
  76. ^ (2003) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Marvel Universe Roleplaying Guide. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-7851-1028-3.  Page 25: "Invisible Woman. Susan Storm... she realized she had the power to become invisible at will... to bend light without distortion—thus rendering herself (and other people and objects) invisible."
  77. ^ (2005) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. ISBN 0-87779-809-5.  Page 1284: "Telekinesis (1890). The production of motion in objects... without contact or other physical means."
  78. ^ (2002) Webster's New World Dictionary and Thesaurus, Second Edition. Cleveland, Ohio USA: Wiley Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN 0-7645-6545-1.  Page 649: "Telekinesis. Parapsychology. The causing of an object to move psychic, rather than physical, force."
  79. ^ (1980) Oxford American Dictionary. New York: Avon Books/HarperCollins Publishers/Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-380-60772-7.  Page 946: "Telekinesis. The process of moving things without touching them and without ordinary physical means."
  80. ^ (2006) Concise Oxford American Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-19-530484-5.  934: "Telekinesis. The supposed ability to move objects at a distance by mental power or other nonphysical means."
  81. ^ (1995) The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861320-2.  1432: "Telekinesis. Psychology. Movement of objects at a distance supposedly by paranormal means."
  82. ^ Colman, Andrew M. (2001). Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866211-4.  Page 733: "Telekinesis. Movement of a body without the application of a physical force, a conjectural paranormal phenomenon."
  83. ^ Kakalios, James (2005). The Physics of Superheores. New York: Gotham Books/Penguin Group, Inc.. ISBN 1-592-40146-5.  Page 196: "Water molecules are diamagnetic, and since we are primarily composed of water, so are we. It is through our diamagnetism that Magneto is able to levitate himself and other people."
  84. ^ (2003) The Marvel Encyclopedia: The Marvel Universe Roleplaying Guide. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-7851-1028-3.  Page 23: "Jean Grey. ... Her telekinetic abilities allow her to levitate herself, other living beings, and inanimate objects."
  85. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. 
  86. ^ Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychological and Psychical Research. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-043-9. 
  87. ^ http://books.google.com/books?q=%22Felicia+Parise%22&btnG=Search+Books. Retrieved on July 26, 2007.Multiple searchable references via scanned-text excerpts from books mentioning Parise and her telekinetic feats.
  88. ^ (1988) Mind Over Matter (volume of Mysteries of the Unknown encyclopedia series). New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-6336-9. Page 27: "Notable among them were two women, Felicia Parise of the United States and Alla Vinogradova of the Soviet Union; both repeatedly developed a gift for PK after viewing films of Kulagina in action and were said to test successfully under laboratory controls."
  89. ^ Green, Elmer; Alyce Green (1977). Beyond Biofeedback. Knoll Publishing Co, 197-218. ISBN 0440005833. 
  90. ^ http://www.swamij.com/pdf/swami-rama-beyond-biofeedback.pdf (PDF) 12-16. Retrieved on July 24, 2007.Elmer Green's description of Swami Rama's alleged psychokinetic demonstration (with illustrations).
  91. ^ http://www.geocities.com/swamiramabio/ResearchSwamiRama.htm. Retrieved on July 24, 2007. Photo of the uncovered balanced knitting needle device (a typical psi wheel) that Swami Rama alegedly influenced by telekinesis.
  92. ^ http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/33304.pdf Study conducted by the Gallup Organization between October 8, 2005 and December 12, 2005 on behalf of the Baylor Institute for Studies of Religion, Baylor University, of Waco, Texas, in the United States.
  93. ^ Nobel laureate Brian Josephson (May 5, 1987). The Unexplained. London: BBC World Service radio program.  broadcast interview
  94. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1. Page: 76: "Parapsychological hypotheses at the very least claim that humans can acquire information or affect external physical systems in ways that science, in its present state, cannot explain. If the claims are correct, then the existing world view that science gives us will have to be modified—the so called laws of physics will have to be rewritten."
  95. ^ http://randi.org/jr/bio.html. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.From Randi's bio: "1995: A degree honoris causa, Doctor of Humane Letters, was awarded Mr. Randi from the University of Indianapolis."
  96. ^ http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-10428115_ITM. Retrieved on June 9, 2007."Skeptic: But you didn't finish high school, did you? Randi: Correct, I didn't. You had to finish all five years and, frankly, I was not in school most of the time because I was one of those child prodigies. I'm not boasting about it. It's a simple fact that I had those particular conditions of mind that allowed me to learn very quickly."
  97. ^ Broughton, Richard S. (1991). Parapsychology: The Controversial Science. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.  Page 161: "Remember that at least two such accomplished conjurors testified that what they had witnessed could not have been done by any conjuring techniques that they knew of."
  98. ^ What Magicians Say About Uri Geller. Retrieved on May 19, 2007.
  99. ^ Roll, William G.; Storey, Valerie (2004). Unleashed — Of Poltergeists and Murder: The Curious Story of Tina Resch. New York: Paraview Pocket Books/Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-8294-8.  William G. Roll, Ph.D in psychology from Lund University in Sweden; Jeannie Lagle, Masters degree in psychology. Both witnessed PK involving Tina Resch. Roll additionally witnessed PK in numerous other cases he investigated and wrote about. See his Wiki article for other case references or elswhere in this article's reference list under "Types of abilities - control of photons".
  100. ^ Official website of Dean Radin. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.Ph.D in psychology from the University of Illinois, USA. Bent the bowl of a spoon.
  101. ^ Official website of Pamela Heath. Retrieved on June 9, 2007. Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in psychology with a minor in chemistry. PK experiencer, as described on her website. She is also a degreed parapsychologist.
  102. ^ Official website of Michael Crichton. Retrieved on June 9, 2007. Medical degree from Harvard Medical School, USA. Bent the bowl of a spoon and other utensils. See description at http://www.crichton-official.com/features/spoonbending.html.
  103. ^ Official website of Pamela Heath. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.Medical degree from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA. PK experiencer.
  104. ^ Hasted, John B. (1981). The Metal Benders. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-0597-0. John B. Hasted (1921-2002), M.A., Ph.D. Chairman and Professor, Department of Physics, Birkbeck College, University of London. In his book The Metal-Benders, he describes his research of PK claimants and PK events he personally witnessed.
  105. ^ What Scientists Say About Uri Geller. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.Quotes from many physicists who witnessed Uri Geller performing PK inside and outside of a laboratory setting.
  106. ^ Official website of Dean Radin. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.Masters degree in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana) and a B.A. degree in electrical engineering, magna cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts (Amherst), USA. Spoon bowl-bending experiencer.
  107. ^ What Scientists Say About Uri Geller. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.Witnessed PK by Uri Geller individually and on different occasions: Professor Helmut Hoffmann (Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Vienna, Austria) and Professor Arthur Ellison (Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering, City University London, England). Quote by Ellison: "The Yale key at no time left our sight from the moment it was removed from the key ring and placed on the typewriter frame to the time when the splined end had bent upwards. Our attention was not distracted and the key was not altered in position, accidentally or otherwise. We were all looking carefully for magician's tricks and there were none. Everything occurred exactly as I have described. As a result of this personally witnessed experiment in clear unequivocal conditions I am able to state with confidence my view that Mr Geller has genuine psychic capability."
  108. ^ What Scientists Say About Uri Geller. Retrieved on June 11, 2007.Col. John B. Alexander, Former Staff Officer, National Security Agency and Part of the Army's Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM): "I was with Uri when he held a session in the US Capitol. With few exceptions, only Congressional members and their staff were there. ... The group asked him to bend something. ...he did agree and ask for a spoon. One was finally found in a guard's coffee cup. Uri bent the spoon with minimal contact. He then laid it down on a chair about three feet in front of me and went back to talking. As he talked, the spoon continued to bend and fell on the floor. I still have the spoon."
  109. ^ Johnson, Ron (2004). The Men Who Stare at Goats. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-7060-6. Nonfiction investigative book written by a British journalist. Back cover: "In 1979, a secret unit was established by the most gifted minds within the U.S. Army. Defying all known accepted military practice—and indeed, the laws of physics—they believed that a solidier could adopt a cloak of invisibility, pass cleanly through walls, and, perhaps most chillingly, kill goats just by staring at them." Page 63: "Lenny from Special Forces disappeared into the room where the goat was. He came back and answered, with surprise and solemnity, "The goat is down.'"
  110. ^ Steinberg, Jeffey (August 26, 2005). Cheney's 'Spoon-Benders' Pushing Nuclear Armageddon. Executive Intelligence Review. "In reality, Fort Bragg, by 1978, was already a hotbed of mind-war experimentation. Among the programs carried out at remote corners of the sprawling special operations base: the Goat Lab, where a team of New Age-trained Special Forces soldiers attempted to burst the hearts of goats, in an adjacent holding pen, through the power of psychic concentration." Article available online at http://www.uri-geller.com/articles/2005/august/eir.htm.
  111. ^ 1970 Poltergeist in St. Catherines, Ontario. Retrieved on June 9, 2007. Handwritten official police reports of a 1970 spontaneous PK case witnessed by officers of the Niagara Regional Police in St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada.
  112. ^ Roll, William G.; Storey, Valerie (2004). Unleashed — Of Poltergeists and Murder: The Curious Story of Tina Resch. New York: Paraview Pocket Books/Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-8294-8.  Two police officers witnessed alleged PK activity in the Resch home in the 1984 Columbus poltergeist case.
  113. ^ Official website of author Michael Crichton. Retrieved on June 9, 2007. From Crichton's bio: "Crichton graduated summa cum laude from Harvard College, received his MD from Harvard Medical School, and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, researching public policy with Jacob Bronowski. He has taught courses in anthropology at Cambridge University and writing at MIT."
  114. ^ http://www.crichton-official.com/aboutmc/biography.html. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.From Crichton's bio: "Association of American Medical Writers Award, 1970 ("Five Patients");"
  115. ^ Official website of Michael Crichton. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.An online excerpt from Crichton's book Travels in which he describes his experience at a PK party. See also http://www.michaelcrichton.net/travels/travels_books.shtml for a follow-up comment by Crichton.
  116. ^ http://www.deanradin.com/NewWeb/bio.html. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.From radin's bio: "Along the way I graduated with a degree in electrical engineering, magna cum laude and with senior honors, from the University of Massachusetts (Amherst), a masters in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana), and a PhD in psychology, also from the University of Illinois.
  117. ^ http://www.deanradin.com/spoon.htm. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.Photos and a description of his spoon-bowl bending experience, similar to author Michael Crichton's.
  118. ^ Official website of author Stephen King.. Retrieved on July 11, 2007.Synopsis: "The story of misfit high-school girl, Carrie White, who gradually discovers that she has telekinetic powers."

Frederick William Henry Myers (February 6, 1843 - January 17, 1901), was an English poet and essayist. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was the object of intense curiosity. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Late on Friday evening a strong dust storm and thunderstorms hit the northern Pakistan city of Lahore, injuring seven people. ... A materialization is the creation or appearance of matter from nowhere and out of nothing. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ... William G. Roll (born July 3, 1926) is a parapsychology professor currently teaching at Lund University in Sweden and author of four books: The Poltergeist (1972), Theory and Experiment in Psychical Research (1975), Psychic Connections (1995, co-author Lois Duncan), and Unleashed (2004, co-author Valerie Storey). ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (140th in leap years). ... William G. Roll (born July 6, 1926) is a parapsychology professor currently teaching at Lund University in Sweden and author of four books: The Poltergeist (1972), Theory and Experiment in Psychical Research (1975), Psychic Connections (1995, co-author Lois Duncan), and Unleashed (2004, co-author Valerie Storey). ...

Further reading

  • The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena, Dean Radin, HarperEdge, 1997.
  • Distant Mental Influence, William Braud, Hampton Roads Publishing, Inc., 2003. ISBN 1-57174-354-5. (largely a collection of published scientific research papers on formal experiments in psychokinesis conducted by the author with others between 1983 to 2000).
  • Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality, Dean Radin, Pocket Books, 2006.
  • Flim Flam!, James Randi, Prometheus Books, 1982. ISBN 0-87975-198-3.
  • Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, James Houran and Rense Lange, editors; McFarland Press, 2001. A collection of science articles by leading researchers on documented ghost and spontaneous PK cases, with technical discussion also of possible methods of action for PK. ISBN 0786409843.
  • Mind Over Matter, Loyd Auerbach, Kensington Books, 1996. ISBN 1-57566-047-4.
  • Parapsychology: The Controversial Science, Richard S. Broughton, Ph.D; Ballantine Books, 1991. ISBN 0-345-35638-1.

Dean Radin is a researcher in parapsychology. ... Dean Radin is a researcher in parapsychology. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... Loyd Auerbach is an educator on parapsychology and a prominent field investigator and expert on psychic phenomena. ...

Published Scientific Papers on PK / TK

Military Papers on PK / TK
  • Psychokinesis and Its Possible Implication to Warfare Strategy A 1985 88-page study on potential military applications of psychokinesis by the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas USA. Listed at the U.S. Defense Technical Information Center's website and available to the public through the U.S. National Technical Information Service.
  • Teleportation Physics Study (.pdf file) An 88-page study published in 2004 that reviews the current state research of real and hypothetical methods of teleportation. Includes a section titled PK phenomenon. Conducted by Eric Davis of Warp Drive Metrics, Nevada and sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards AFB, California. Available publicly on the Federation of American Scientists website.

Online Resources for Published Academic Articles and Scientific Papers on PK / TK

(do searches for "psychokinesis," "telekinesis," "conscious intention," etc.)

  • http://scholar.google.com Google's search engine for scholarly literature.
  • http://books.google.com Google's search engine for full texts of public domain books or excerpts of other books, including PK and TK related material.
  • http://www.pubmed.gov In the United States, a service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.
  • http://academic.live.com Windows Live Academic by the Microsoft Corporation. Search academic journals.

External links

General information
Major organizations and research centers in the PK / TK field
English language translations of foreign Wikipedia PK / TK articles

  Results from FactBites:
 
Telekinesis - Psychokinesis - Crystalinks (1453 words)
Psychokinesis (literally "mind-movement") or PK is the more commonly used term today for what in the past was known as telekinesis (literally "distant-movement").
Some of the more extravagant accounts of macro PK in recent times were the so-called physical phenomena claimed to be observed during seances with mediums of the spiritualist era in the late 19th and early 20th century and studied by members of the Society for Psychical Research.
Some Christian religious scholars believe that Psychokinesis is a spiritual gift and is apparent in various Bible stories, such as the release of Paul and Silas's bands during their escape from prison in Acts 16, and others.
Move Objects with your Mind using Psychokinesis (599 words)
Psychokinesis is the psychic ability to move objects through an exercise of the human mind, either consciously or unconsciously.
Rhine in the area Psychokinesis, believe that the poltergeist phenomena and its concomitant Psychokinesis, classically associated with rock-throwing spirits, is caused typically by presence of troubled adolescents, attributing the poltergeist phenomena to a human element, a young person with a disruptive emotional or mental state that can trigger events that actually cause Psychokinesis.
The Psychokinesis of Nina Sergeyevna Kulagina was studied by parapsychologists who reported the movement of sitting objects, the changing of trajectories for objects in motion as well as experiments related to the slowing down and speeding up of a dead and separated frog heart.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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