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Encyclopedia > Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Explanation

The term often attaches to conceptual uses of analysis in critical theory, literary, film, or other art criticism, broader intersubjective phenomena (for example, those broadly conceived as "cultural" or "social" in nature), religion, law, or other non-clinical contexts, sometimes signifying its use as a hermeneutic or interpretative framework. In some respects this can resemble phenomenology insofar as it attempts to account for consciousness and unconsciousness in a more or less eidetic fashion, although there are inherent conflicts between phenomenology as a study of consciousness and the frequent psychoanalytic emphasis on the unconscious or non-coincidence of consciousness with itself. (Unlike those who take up psychoanalysis for clinical practice, those with theoretical interests often see little value in spending time as an analysand.) In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films, individually and collectively. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ... Look up Phenomenology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ...


Practioners

Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, and Jacques Lacan are often treated as canonical thinkers within psychoanalytic theory, although there are considerable objections to their authority, particularly from feminism. Precisely in the interest of a theoretical approach to psychoanalysis, Lacan read Freud with G. W. F. Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Major thinkers within psychoanalytic theory include Nicholas Abraham, Serge Leclaire, Michel Foucault, Julia Kristeva, Slavoj Žižek, Jacques Derrida, René Major, Luce Irigaray, and Jacques-Alain Miller; their work is anything but unitary — Derrida, for example, has remarked that virtually the entirety of Freud's metapsychology, while possessing some strategic value previously necessary to the elaboration of psychoanalysis, ought to be discarded at this point, whereas Miller is sometimes taken as heir apparent to Lacan because of his editorship of Lacan's seminars, his interest in analysis is even more philosophical than clinical, whereas Major has questioned the complicity of clinical psychoanalysis with various forms of totalitarian government. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (IPA: []) (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein, (1882 - 1960), Austrian psychotherapist, built on the work of Sigmund Freud, particularly in the area of child psychology. ... Cover of Elisabeth Roudinescos biography of Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist. ... Feminism is a diverse, competing, and often opposing collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770–November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ... Philosopher Julia Kristeva Julia Kristeva (born 24 June 1941, Sliven, Bulgaria) is a Bulgarian philosopher, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Slavoj Žižek Slavoj Žižek (born March 21, 1949) is a Slovenian sociologist, philosopher and cultural critic. ... Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, most often referenced as the founder of deconstruction. ... Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. ... Jacques-Alain Miller - the son-in-law of French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (in 1967 he married Lacans daughter Judith Miller) - is a prominent Lacanian psychoanalyst. ...


Some of the theoretical orientation of psychoanalysis in both German and French and, later, American contexts results in part from its separation from psychiatry and institutionalisation closer to departments of philosophy and literature (or American cultural studies programs). Psychoanalytic theory heavily influenced the work of Frantz Fanon, Herbert Marcuse, Louis Althusser, and Cathy Caruth, among others (the implications for these is exemplary in their dispersion; Fanon's interests were in racial and colonial identity, whereas Marcuse and Althusser represent distinct Marxist positions that, among other things, attempt to use psychoanalysis in the study of ideology, whereas Caruth, coming from a background in de Manian deconstruction and working in comparative literature, has articulated notions of trauma through literary studies informed by philosophy, psychology, neurology, and Freudian and Lacanian theory). Theory can be so expansive a container as to include the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, who believed psychoanalysis ultimately radically reductionist and strongly opposed the psychiatric institutions of their time. Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that studies, diagnoses, and treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a field of study that includes diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics, in which people ask questions such as whether God exists, whether knowledge is possible, and what makes actions right or wrong. ... Frantz Fanon (1925–1961) was perhaps the preeminent thinker of the 20th century on the issue of decolonization and the psychopathology of colonization. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (October 16, 1918 - October 23, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Cathy Caruth is Winship Distinguished Research Professor of Comparative Literature and English and chair of the Department of Comparative Literature at Emory University. ... Paul de Man (December 6, 1919 – December 21, 1983) was a Belgian-born deconstructionist literary critic and theorist. ... The term deconstruction was coined by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in the 1960s and is used in contemporary humanities and social sciences to denote a philosophy of meaning that deals with the ways that meaning is constructed and understood by writers, texts, and readers. ... Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. ... Gilles Deleuze (January 18, 1925 - November 4, 1995 (pron. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...


Psychoanalytic theory sometimes heavily informs gender studies and queer theory. Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Queer theory is an anti-essentialist theory about sex and gender within the larger field of Queer studies. ...


External links

  • René Major article on Foucault and psychoanalysis (in French)
  • Home page of the États Generaux de la psychanalyse, which was organized in part by Jacques Derrida and René Major (in French)
  • Critical psychology glossary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Archival Description of Psychoanalytic Psychology (723 words)
Psychoanalytic psychology is a specialty of professional psychology distinguished by its body of knowledge and methods of treatment.
These include courses and seminars in which attention is paid to theory building in psychoanalysis and the specific contents of the psychoanalytic personality theories: traditional Freudian theory, the British school of object relations, contemporary theories of the construction of the self and its disorders, and ego psychology focusing on patterns of normal development.
Psychoanalytic training includes a focus on current controversies that exist in the specialty, along with completion of supervision and a personal training analysis that provides rich knowledge about the use of the psychoanalytic psychologist's self as tool in the work to be done.
Psychoanalytic theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (342 words)
Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases.
The term often attaches to conceptual uses of analysis in critical theory, literary, film, or other art criticism, broader intersubjective phenomena (for example, those broadly conceived as "cultural" or "social" in nature), religion, law, or other non-clinical contexts, sometimes signifying its use as a hermeneutic or interpretative framework.
Theory can be so expansive a container as to include the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, who believed psychoanalysis ultimately radically reductionist and strongly opposed the psychiatric institutions of their time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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