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Encyclopedia > Psychoactive drug
An assortment of psychoactive drugs

A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness, as entheogens for ritual or spiritual purposes, or as medication. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Entheogens are psychoactive substances that have traditionally been used in a religious context, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms and Peyote cactuses. ... It has been suggested that Blockbuster drug be merged into this article or section. ...


Because psychoactive substances affect the brain and bring about subjective changes in mood, behavior and perception that the user may find favorable, many psychoactive substances are abused, that is, used outside of the guidance of a medical professional and for reasons other than what they were originally intended for. With sustained use, physical dependence may develop, making the cycle of abuse even more difficult to interrupt. Drug rehabilitation can involve a combination of psychotherapy, support groups and even other psychoactive substances to break the cycle of dependency. Substance abuse refers to the overindulgence in and dependence on a psychoactive leading to effects that are detrimental to the individuals physical health or mental health, or the welfare of others. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...


In part because of this potential for abuse and dependency, the ethics of drug use are the subject of a continuing philosophical debate. Many governments worldwide have placed restrictions on drug production and sales in an attempt to control drug abuse.

Contents

History

Drug use is a practice that dates to prehistoric times. There is archaeological evidence of the use of psychoactive substances dating back at least 10,000 years, and historical evidence of cultural use over the past 5,000 years.[1] While medicinal use seems to have played a very large role, it has been suggested that the urge to alter one's consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desire.[2] Others suggest that marketing, availability or the pressures of modern life are why humans use so many psychoactives in their daily lives. However, the long history of drug use and even children's desire for spinning, swinging, or sliding indicates that the drive to alter one's state of mind is universal.[3] Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ...


This relationship is not limited to humans. A number of animals consume different psychoactive plants, animals, berries and even fermented fruit, becoming intoxicated, such as cats after consuming catnip. Traditional legends of sacred plants often contain references to animals that introduced humankind to their use.[4] Biology suggests an evolutionary connection between psychoactive plants and animals, as to why these chemicals and their receptors exist within the nervous system.[5] Species See text. ...


The 20th century has seen governments initially responding to many drugs by banning them and making their use, supply or trade a criminal offense. A notable example of this is the Prohibition era in the United States, where alcohol was made illegal for 13 years. However, many governments have concluded that illicit drug use cannot be sufficiently stopped through criminalization. In some countries, there has been a move toward harm reduction by health services, where the use of illicit drugs is neither condoned nor promoted, but services and support are provided to ensure users have the negative effects of their illicit drug use minimized. This can go hand-in-hand with supply reduction strategies by law-enforcement agencies. The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...


Uses of psychoactive substances

Psychoactive substances are used by humans for a number of different purposes, both legal and illicit.


Anesthesia

Main article: Anesthesia

General anesthetics are a class of psychoactive drug used on patients to block pain and other sensations. Most anesthetics induce unconsciousness, which allows patients to undergo medical procedures like surgery without physical pain or emotional trauma.[6] To induce unconsciousness, anesthetics affect the GABA and NMDA systems. For example, halothane is a GABA agonist,[7] and ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist.[8] Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) is an amino acid derivative acting as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor, and therefore mimics the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. ... Halothane vapour is an inhalational general anaesthetic. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine. ...


Painkillers

Main article: Analgesics

Psychoactive drugs are often prescribed to manage pain. As the subjective experience of pain is regulated by endorphins, neurochemicals that are endogenous opioids, pain can be managed using psychoactives that operate on this neurotransmitter system. This class of drugs includes narcotics, like morphine and codeine,[9] and also NSAID's such as aspirin and paracetamol. For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Pain management (also called pain medicine) is the discipline concerned with the relief of pain. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... The word endogenous means arising from within. Compare exogenous. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: ), (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ...


Psychiatric medications

Psychiatric medications are prescribed for the management of mental and emotional disorders. There are 6 major classes of psychiatric medications: Psychiatric medications are also known as psychotropic medications. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ...

An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Dysthymia (or dysthymic disorder) is a form of the mood disorder of depression characterized by a lack of enjoyment/pleasure in life that continues for at least two years. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Emotional dysregulation (or affect dysregulation) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is not well modulated. ... Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a mental illness primarily characterized by emotional dysregulation, extreme black and white thinking, or splitting, and chaotic relationships. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). ... This article needs cleanup. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood, energy, and thought patterns. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... See also sedative. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... A sedative is a substance which depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...

Recreational drugs

Main article: Recreational drug use

Many psychoactive substances are used/abused for their mood and perception altering effects, including those with accepted uses in medicine and psychiatry. Classes of drugs frequently used recreationally include: This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Examples include caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, LSD, and cannabis.[10] This is true of many cultures throughout history; drugs have been viewed as status symbols since ancient times. For example, in ancient Egypt, gods were commonly pictured holding hallucinogenic plants.[11] A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Euphoria is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with alcohol (i. ... For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Euphoria is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


Ritual and spiritual use

Timothy Leary was a leading proponent of spiritual hallucinogen use.
Timothy Leary was a leading proponent of spiritual hallucinogen use.
Main article: Entheogens

Certain psychoactives, particularly hallucinogens, have been used for religious purposes since prehistoric times. Native Americans have used mescaline-containing peyote cacti for religious ceremonies for as long as 5700 years.[12] The muscimol-containing amanita mushroom was used for ritual purposes throughout prehistoric Europe.[13] Various other hallucinogens, including jimsonweed, psilocybin mushrooms, and cannabis have been used in religious ceremonies for centuries.[14] There is speculation that hallucinogenic mushrooms and cacti greatly influenced the major religions of India, North and South America, the Middle East, and Europe, including Christianity.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Timothy-Leary-Los-Angeles-1989. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Timothy-Leary-Los-Angeles-1989. ... For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, modern pioneer and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use, and one of the first people whose remains have been sent into space. ... Entheogens are psychoactive substances that have traditionally been used in a religious context, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms and Peyote cactuses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Muscimol (agarin, pantherine) is the psychoactive compound present in Amanita muscaria and Amanita Pantherina. ... The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics and contains some of the most toxic known mushrooms, found worldwide. ... Binomial name Datura stramonium Datura stramonium is the name of a poisonous weed, sometimes used as a hallucinogen. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


The use of hallucinogens for religious purposes resurfaced in the West during the counterculture movements of the 1960s and 70s. Under the leadership of Timothy Leary, new religious movements began to use LSD and other hallucinogens as sacraments.[15] However, in the United States, the use of hallucinogens for ritual purposes is legal only for members of the Native American Church, which is allowed to cultivate and distribute peyote.[16] // The counterculture of the 1960s began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US governments extensive military intervention in Vietnam. ... For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, modern pioneer and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use, and one of the first people whose remains have been sent into space. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Administration

For a substance to be psychoactive, it must cross the blood-brain barrier so it can affect neurochemical function. Psychoactive drugs are administered in several different ways. In medicine, most psychiatric drugs, such as fluoxetine and oxycodone, are ingested orally in tablet or capsule form. However, certain medical psychoactives are administered via inhalation, injection, or rectal suppository/enema. Recreational drugs can be administered in several additional ways that are not common in medicine. Certain drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, are ingested in beverage form; nicotine and THC are often smoked; peyote and psilocybin mushrooms are ingested in botanical form or dried; and certain crystalline drugs such as cocaine and MDMA (ecstasy) are often insufflated. The efficiency of each method of administration varies from drug to drug.[17] Freeze-fracture morphology of the blood-brain barrier of a rat The blood-brain barrier (abbreviated BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Fluoxetine pills. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming something edible, i. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word capsule (from the Latin capsula, a small box), has many similar meanings in English: In botany, a capsule is a type of dry fruit as in the poppy, iris, foxglove, etc. ... Injection has multiple meanings: In mathematics, the term injection refers to an injective function. ... Four 500mg acetaminophen/paracetamol suppositories A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... It has been suggested that Clyster be merged into this article or section. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... An industrially manufactured cigarette burning in an ashtray; today the most common form of smoking. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shrooms redirects here. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Effects

Illustration of the major elements of neurotransmission. Depending on its method of action, a psychoactive substance may block the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron (dendrite), or block reuptake or affect neurotransmitter synthesis in the pre-synaptic neuron (axon).

Psychoactive drugs operate by temporarily affecting a person's neurochemistry, which in turn causes changes in a person's mood, cognition, perception and behavior. There are many ways in which psychoactive drugs can affect the brain. Each drug has a specific action on one or more neurotransmitter or neuroreceptor in the brain. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (859x564, 69 KB)I created this image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (859x564, 69 KB)I created this image. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... Dendrites (from Greek dendron, “tree”) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... Technical advancements in recent years have allowed progress toward the understanding of the brain and how drugs can be made to affect it. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ...


Drugs that increase activity in particular neurotransmitter systems are called agonists. They act by increasing the synthesis of one or more neurotransmitters or reducing its reuptake from the synapses. Drugs that reduce neurotransmitter activity are called antagonists, and operate by interfering with synthesis or blocking postsynaptic receptors so that neurotransmitters cannot bind to them.[18] Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse. ... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... Antagonists In medicine and biology, a receptor antagonist is a ligand that inhibits the function of an agonist and inverse agonist for a specific receptor. ...


Exposure to a psychoactive substance can cause changes in the structure and functioning of neurons, as the nervous system tries to re-establish the homeostasis disrupted by the presence of the drug. Exposure to antagonists for a particular neurotransmitter increases the number of receptors for that neurotransmitter, and the receptors themselves become more sensitive. This is called sensitization. Conversely, overstimulation of receptors for a particular neurotransmitter causes a decrease in both number and sensitivity of these receptors, a process called desensitization or tolerance. Sensitization and desensitization are more likely to occur with long-term exposure, although they may occur after only a single exposure. These processes are thought to underlie addiction.[19] Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al. ... For medical purposes, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organisms negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ...


Affected neurotransmitter systems

The following is a classification of notable drugs by their primary effects on their respective neurotransmitters or receptors. However, it should be noted that most drugs act on more than one transmitter or receptor in the brain.[20]

Neurotransmitter/receptor Classification Examples
Serotonin Serotonin receptor agonists LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, DMT
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine, sertraline
Serotonin releasers MDMA (ecstasy)
GABA GABA reuptake inhibitors tiagabine
GABA receptor agonists ethanol, barbiturates, diazepam, muscimol, ibotenic acid
GABA antagonists thujone, bicuculline
Opioid receptor μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine, heroin, oxycodone
μ-opioid receptor inverse agonists naloxone, naltrexone
κ-opioid receptor agonists salvinorin A, butorphanol, nalbuphine
Dopamine Dopamine protein transporter blockers cocaine
Dopamine receptor antagonists haloperidol, droperidol
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) phenelzine, iproniazid
bind to MAO protein transporter amphetamine, methamphetamine
NMDA receptor NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine, PCP, DXM
Norepinephrine Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors amoxapine, atomoxetine
Norepinephrine releasers mianserin
Cannabinoid receptor Cannabinoid receptor agonists THC
Acetylcholine Cholinergics (acetylcholine agonists) nicotine, piracetam
Anticholinergics (acetylcholine antagonists) scopolamine, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine
Adenosine Methlyxanthines (adenosine receptor antagonists[21]) caffeine
AMPA receptor AMPA receptor antagonists kynurenic acid, NBQX
Melanocortin receptor Melanocortin receptor agonists bremelanotide

Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Agonists for muscle type see Agonist (muscle) An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... Serotonin Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders and some personality disorders. ... Fluoxetine pills. ... Zoloft bottles, with blue and green tablets Sertraline hydrochloride (also sold under brand names Zoloft, Lustral, Apo-Sertral, Asentra, Gladem, Serlift, Stimuloton, Xydep, Serlain, Concorz) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Tiagabine is an anti-convulsive medication produced by Cephalon and marketed under the brand name Gabitril. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Muscimol (agarin, pantherine) is the psychoactive compound present in Amanita muscaria and Amanita Pantherina. ... Categories: Stub | Amino acids ... Thujone is a ketone and a monoterpene that exists in two stereoisomeric forms: (+)-3-thujone or α-thujone and (-)-3-thujone or β-thujone. ... Bicuculline (BIC) is an antagonist of GABA receptors. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Heroin (INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is an opioid synthesized directly from the extracts of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... Diagram showing effect of inverse agonist In pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent which binds to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect. ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ... Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum (diviners sage, Mexican mint). ... Butorphanol (INN) is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Stadol. ... Nalbuphine (nalbuphine hydrochloride) is a synthetic opioid used commercially as an analgesic under a variety of trade names, including Nubain. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Droperidol (Dropletan®) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic and antipsychotic. ... Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Phenelzine (brand name Nardil) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) class of drugs. ... Iproniazid is a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was developed as the first anti-depressant (Also first psychiatric drug). ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as, beta-phenyl-isopropylamine, and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Methamphetamine (methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine), popularly shortened to meth, is a psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine. ... PCP can be used to describe many things including: Partido Comunista del Peru, a. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Amoxapine (Asendin®; Asendis®; Defanyl®; Demolox®; Moxadil®) is a tricyclic antidepressant of the dibenzoxazepine class. ... Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Mianserin is a tetracyclic antidepressant that has antihistaminic and hypnosedative, but almost no anticholinergic, effect. ... The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... AMPA Glutamic acid The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- propionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is a non-NMDA-type ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). ... Kynurenic acid is a product of the normal metabolism of aminoacid L-tryptophan. ... NBQX is an AMPA receptor antagonist. ... Melanocortins are a group of pituitary peptide hormones that include adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and the alpha, beta and gamma melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH). ... Chemical structure of Bremelanotide (formerly PT-141) Bremelanotide (formerly PT-141) is the generic term for a new medication for use in treating sexual dysfunction in men (erectile dysfunction or impotence) as well as sexual dysfunction in women (sexual arousal disorder). ...

Addiction

Main article: Addiction

Psychoactive drugs are often associated with addiction. Addiction can be divided into two types: psychological addiction, by which a user feels compelled to use a drug despite negative physical or societal consequence, and physical dependence, by which a user must use a drug to avoid medically harmful withdrawal.[22] Not all drugs are physically addictive, but any activity that stimulates the brain's dopaminergic reward system — typically, any pleasurable activity[23] — can lead to psychological addiction.[22] Drugs that are most likely to cause addiction are drugs that directly stimulate the dopaminergic system, like cocaine and amphetamines. Drugs that only indirectly stimulate the dopaminergic system, such as psychedelics, are not as likely to be addictive. Look up addiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Psychological addiction, as opposed to physiological addiction, is a persons need to use a drug out of desire for the effects it produces, rather than to relieve withdrawal symptoms. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Because so many consumers want to reduce or eliminate their own use of psychoactive drugs,[24] many professionals, self-help groups, and businesses specialize in drug rehabilitation, with varying degrees of success. Many parents attempt to influence the actions and choices of their children regarding psychoactives.[25] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Common forms of rehabilitation include psychotherapy, support groups and pharmacotherapy, which uses psychoactive substances to reduce cravings and physiological withdrawal symptoms while a user is going through detox. Methadone, itself an opioid and a psychoactive substance, is a common treatment for heroin addiction. Recent research on addiction has shown some promise in using psychedelics to treat and even cure addictions, although this has yet to become a widely accepted practice.[26][27] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Support groups exist to combat or legitimise conditions or behaviours. ... Pharmacotherapy is the practice of treating diseases with medication. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and in the treatment of narcotic addiction. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Heroin (INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is an opioid synthesized directly from the extracts of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. ... Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its negative consequences. ...


Legality and ethics

The legality of psychoactive drugs has been controversial through most of history; the Opium Wars and Prohibition are two historical examples of legal controversy surrounding psychoactive drugs. However, in recent years, the most influential document regarding the legality of psychoactive drugs is the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, an international treaty signed in 1961 as an Act of the United Nations. Signed by 73 nations including the United States, the USSR, India, and the United Kingdom, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs established Schedules for the legality of each drug and laid out an international agreement to fight recreational drug addiction by combatting the sale, trafficking, and use of scheduled drugs.[28] All countries that signed the treaty passed laws to implement these rules within their borders. However, some countries that signed the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, such as the Netherlands, are more lenient with their enforcement of these laws.[29] Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1840-1843 and 1856-1860 respectively) that were the climax of a long dispute between China and Britain. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authority over all drugs, including psychoactive drugs. The FDA regulates which psychoactive drugs are over the counter and which are only available with a prescription.[30] However, certain psychoactive drugs, like alcohol, tobacco, and drugs listed in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs are subject to criminal laws. The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 regulates the recreational drugs outlined in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.[31] Alcohol is regulated by state governments, but the federal National Minimum Drinking Age Act penalizes states for not following a national drinking age.[32] Tobacco is also regulated by all fifty state governments.[33] Most people accept such restrictions and prohibitions of certain drugs, especially the "hard" drugs, which are illegal in most countries.[34][35][36] hi “FDA” redirects here. ... See separate articles for over-the-counter trading and the medical condition Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency. ... Look up prescription in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (Title 23 U.S.C. §158) was passed on July 17, 1984 by the United States Congress as a mechanism whereby all states would become thereafter required to legislate and enforce the age of 21 years as a minimum age for purchasing...


In the medical context, psychoactive drugs as a treatment for illness is widespread and generally accepted. Little controversy exists concerning over the counter psychoactive medications in antiemetics and antitussives. Psychoactive drugs are commonly prescribed to patients with psychiatric disorders. However, certain critics believe that certain prescription psychoactives, such as antidepressants and stimulants, are overprescribed and threaten patients' judgement and autonomy.[37][38] See separate articles for over-the-counter trading and the medical condition Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A cough medicine is a drug used to treat coughing and related conditions. ... An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ...


Recreational drugs are heavily regulated, an indication of widespread moral objection to recreational psychoactive drug use. However, critics believe that regulation of recreational drug use is a violation of personal autonomy and freedom.[39] In the United States, critics have noted that prohibition or regulation of recreational and spiritual drug use might be unconstitutional.[40] Because there is controversy about regulation of recreational drugs, there is an ongoing debate about drug prohibition. Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into constitutionality. ... The prohibition of drugs is a subject of considerable controversy. ...


See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Demand reduction is a term used by drug control authorities to refer to educational and other efforts aimed at stopping people from seeking drugs, as opposed to cutting off their supply. ... For other meanings, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Hard and soft drugs are loose categories of psychoactive drugs. ... Technical advancements in recent years have allowed progress toward the understanding of the brain and how drugs can be made to affect it. ... Poly drug use refers to the use two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. ... The concept of responsible drug use is that a person can use drugs with reduced or eliminated risk of negatively affecting other parts of ones life or other peoples lives. ... The Yogurt Connection was a drug smuggling ring which operated out of Indianapolis, Indiana in the late 1970s and eary 1980s. ...

References

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  10. ^ Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence by the WHO. In many cultures, possessing or having used recreational drugs is seen as a status symbol. Recreational drugs, especially those known as club drugs, are seen as status symbols at social events such as at nightclubs and parties.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Anderson TL |title=Drug identity change processes, race, and gender. III. 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Retrieved at [http://www.fda.gov/oc/history/historyoffda/section1.html FDA's website] on June 23, 2007.</li> <li id="_note-18">'''[[#_ref-18|^]]''' United States Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Retrieved from the [http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa.html DEA's website] on June 20, 2007.</li> <li id="_note-19">'''[[#_ref-19|^]]''' [http://epw.senate.gov/title23.pdf Title 23 of the United States Code, Highways.] Retrieved on June 20, 2007.</li> <li id="_note-20">'''[[#_ref-20|^]]''' Taxadmin.org. [http://www.taxadmin.org/FTA/rate/cigarett.html State Excise Tax Rates on Cigarettes.] Retrieved on June 20, 2007.</li> <li id="_note-burchfield">'''[[#_ref-burchfield_0|^]]''' {{cite web | title=What's your poison?| work=Caffeine | url=http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/poison/caffeine/caffeine.htm |accessdate=July 12| accessyear=2006}} </li> <li id="_note-griffiths">'''[[#_ref-griffiths_0|^]]''' {{cite book | last=Griffiths | first=RR | year=1995 | title=Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress (4th edition)| pages=2002 | publisher=Lippincott Williams & Wilkins | id=ISBN 0-7817-0166-X}}</li> <li id="_note-edwards">'''[[#_ref-edwards_0|^]]''' {{cite book | last=Edwards | first=Griffith |year=2005 | title=Matters of Substance : Drugs--and Why Everyone's a User| pages=352 | publisher=Thomas Dunne Books | id=ISBN 0-312-33883-X}}</li> <li id="_note-21">'''[[#_ref-21|^]]''' Dworkin, Ronald. ''Artificial Happiness.'' New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006. pp.2-6. ISBN 0786719338</li> <li id="_note-22">'''[[#_ref-22|^]]''' {{cite journal |author=Manninen BA |title=Medicating the mind: a Kantian analysis of overprescribing psychoactive drugs |journal=Journal of medical ethics |volume=32 |issue=2 |pages=100-5 |year=2006 |pmid=16446415 |doi=10.1136/jme.2005.013540}}</li> <li id="_note-23">'''[[#_ref-23|^]]''' {{cite journal |author=Hayry M |title=Prescribing cannabis: freedom, autonomy, and values |journal=Journal of medical ethics |volume=30 |issue=4 |pages=333-6 |year=2004 |pmid=15289511 |doi=}}</li> <li id="_note-24">'''[[#_ref-24|^]]''' Barnett, Randy E. [http://law.wustl.edu/Journal/22/p29Barnett.pdf The Presumption of Liberty and the Public Interest: Medical Marijuana and Fundamental Rights.] Retrieved on July 4, 2007.</li></ol></ref>

is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... A nightclub (often dance club or club, particularly in the UK) is an entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Psychoactive drug Summary (4030 words)
Psychoactive drugs are among the most widely used group of pharmacologically active agents, with extremely important clinical applications, including anesthesia for surgery and analgesia for relief of pain.
Psychoactive drugs are used to suppress disorders of movement and to treat anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder (manic-depression), and schizophrenia, among other mental illnesses.
Psychoactive drugs are used to treat movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depression), and schizophrenia.
ScienceDaily: Psychoactive drug (1493 words)
A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.
Psychoactive drug -- A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception,...
Drug addiction -- Drug addiction, or substance dependence is the compulsive use of psychoactive drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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