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Encyclopedia > Psychic
Edgar Cayce (1877 – 1945) was one of the best-known American psychics of the 20th century and made many highly publicized predictions.
Edgar Cayce (1877 – 1945) was one of the best-known American psychics of the 20th century and made many highly publicized predictions.

Psychic (sī'kĭk); from the Greek psychikos - "of the soul, mental". The term Psychic is commonly used in popular culture to refer to the ability to perceive things hidden from traditional senses through means of extra-sensory perception. The term is also used to refer to theatrical performers who use techniques such as prestidigitation and cold reading to produce the appearance of having such abilities. People said to be sensitive to, or able to use, psychic forces are referred to as being psychics. Parapsychologists attempt to study what some believe are psychic phenomena using a variety of methods such as random number generators to test for psychokinesis or the Ganzfeld experiment to test for extra-sensory perception.[1] Image File history File links Cayce_1910. ... Image File history File links Cayce_1910. ... Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) is defined as ability to acquire information by paranormal means independent of any known physical senses or deduction from previous experience. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the communication technique. ... A random number generator is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of numbers that does not have any easily discernable pattern, so that the sequence can be treated as being random. ... The term psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, psyche, meaning mind, soul, or breath; and κίνησις, kinesis, meaning motion; literally movement from the mind)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, denotes the paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter, time... Participant of a Ganzfeld telepathy experiment. ... Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) is defined as ability to acquire information by paranormal means independent of any known physical senses or deduction from previous experience. ...


Early examples of individuals thought by some to have psychic powers include the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi who was thought to provide prophecies from Apollo himself[2] as well as Nostradamus, a French apothecary who is thought by some to have had the ability to predict the future.[3] During the 19th century belief in psychics became more common and many notable individuals gained notoriety including Daniel Dunglas Home. Psychics are also very popular in science fiction today and many works of fiction include individuals with psychic abilities, including The Dead Zone by Stephen King as well as Jean Grey form the Marvel and DC comic book universes. Today, belief in psychic phenomena is widespread amongst the general public. A 2005 Gallup poll concluded that 41% of Americans believe in extra-sensory perception.[4] Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... Daniel Dunglas Home (March 20, 1833 - June 21, 1886) was a Scottish spiritualist, famous as a physical medium with the reported ability to levitate to a variety of heights, elongate his body and handle fire and hot coals without injury. ... The Dead Zone is a novel by Stephen King published in 1979. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... Jean Grey-Summers (born Jean Grey) is a fictional superheroine who lives in the Marvel Comics Universe. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) is defined as ability to acquire information by paranormal means independent of any known physical senses or deduction from previous experience. ...


The existence of extra sensory psychic abilities is disputed by skeptics who contend that there is no scientific evidence supporting such abilities and apparent psychic phenomena are nothing more than intentional trickery or self delusion.[5] Debunker James Randi has has offered a $1 million prize to any individual who can, under controlled circumstances, demonstrate any paranormal or supernatural ability. As of yet no one has passed the preliminary challenge.[6] A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a Fort Lauderdale, Florida non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. ...

Contents

History

Etymology

The word psychic is derived from the Greek word psychikos (of the soul/mental) and refers in part to the human mind or psyche (ex. "psychic turmoil"). French astronomer and spiritualist Camille Flammarion is credited as having first used the word psychic, while it was later introduced to the English language by Edward William Cox in the 1870s.[7] Some credit William Crookes, an English chemist and physicist, as having first used the term in describing medium and magician Daniel Dunglas Home.[8] Spiritualism is a religion in which contact with the spirits of the dead through a medium is central. ... Camille Flammarion Camille Flammarion (February 26, 1842 – June 3, 1925) was a French astronomer and author. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Sir William Crookes, OM, FRS (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was an English chemist and physicist. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Mediumship is a term used mostly in Spiritualism to denote the ability of a person (the medium) to produce psychic phenomena of a mental or physical nature. ... John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit: Elizabethans who claimed magical knowledge A magician is a person skilled in the mysterious and hidden art of magic, which can be described as either the act of entertaining with tricks that are in apparent violation of natural law, such as those... Daniel Dunglas Home (March 20, 1833 - June 21, 1886) was a Scottish spiritualist, famous as a physical medium with the reported ability to levitate to a variety of heights, elongate his body and handle fire and hot coals without injury. ...


Early seers and prophets

Aegeus, a mythical king of Athens, consults the Pythia, who sits on a tripod.

Elaborate systems of divination and fortune-telling date back to ancient times. Perhaps the most widely-known system of early civilization fortune-telling was astrology, where practicioners believed the relative positions of celestial bodies could lend insight into people's lives and even predict their future circumstances. Some fortune-tellers were said to be able to make predictions without the use of these elaborate systems (or in conjunction with them), through some sort of direct apprehension or vision of the future. These people were known as seers or prophets, and in later times as clairvoyants and psychics. Image File history File links Pythia1. ... Image File history File links Pythia1. ... In Greek mythology, Aegeus, also Aigeus, Aegeas or Aigeas, was the father of Theseus and an Athenian King. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... ... Prediction of future events is an ancient human wish. ... In religion, visions comprise inspirational renderings, generally of a future state and/or of a mythical being, and are believed (by followers of the religion) to come from a deity, directly or indirectly via prophets, and serve to inspire or prod believers as part of a revelation or an epiphany. ... Seers is a short-lived rock band from the early 90s. ... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with remote viewing. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ...


Seers formed a functionary role in early civilization, often serving as advisors, priests, and judges.[9] A number of examples are included in biblical accounts. The book of 1 Samuel (Chapter 9) illustrates one such functionary task when Samuel is asked to locate the donkeys of the future king Saul.[10] The role of prophet appeared perennially in ancient cultures. In Egypt, the priests of Ra at Memphis acted as seers. In ancient Assyria seers were referred to as nabu, meaning "to call" or "announce".[9] (Redirected from 1 Samuel) The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


The Delphic Oracle is one of the earliest stories in classical antiquity of psychic abilities. The Pythia, the priestess presiding over the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, was believed to be able to deliver prophecies inspired by Apollo during rituals beginning in the 8th century BC.[2] It is often said that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from the ground, and that she spoke gibberish, believed to be the voice of Apollo, which priests reshaped into the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature.[11] Other scholars believe records from the time indicate that the Pythia spoke intelligibly, and gave prophecies in her own voice.[12] The Pythia was a position served by a succession of women probably selected from amongst a guild of priestesses of the temple. The last recorded response was given in 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I ordered pagan temples to cease operation. Recent geological investigations raise the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia's state of inspiration.[13][14] The word Sibyl comes (via Latin) from the ancient Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...

Michel de Nostredame(Nostradamus) was a seer who published collections of prophecies in the 1500s.

One of the most enduring historical references to what some consider to be psychic ability is the prophecies of Michel de Nostredame (15031566), often Latinized to Nostradamus, published during the French Renaissance period. Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and seer who wrote collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide and have rarely been out of print since his death. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Taken together, his written works are known to have contained at least 6,338 quatrains or prophecies,[3] as well as at least eleven annual calendars. Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, and battles — all undated. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... Nostradamus, (December 14, 1503 – July 1, 1566) born Michel de Nostredame, is one of the worlds most famous authors of prophecies. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ... This article is about the cultural movement known as the French Renaissance. ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... A quatrain is a poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines. ...


Nostradamus is a controversial figure. His many enthusiasts, as well as the popular press, credit him with predicting numerous major world events. Interest in his work is still considerable, especially in the media and in popular culture. By contrast, most academic scholars maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus' quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power.[15] The prophecies of the sixteenth century author Nostradamus have become a ubiquitous part of the popular culture of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. ...


In addition to the belief that some historical figures were endowed with a predisposition to psychic experiences, some psychic abilities were thought to be available to everyone on occasion. For example, the belief in prophetic dreams was common and persistent in many ancient cultures.[16]


Modern psychics

In the mid-nineteenth century, modern Spiritualism became prominent in the United States and the United Kingdom. The movement's distinguishing feature was the belief that the spirits of the dead could be contacted by mediums to lend insight to the living.[5] The movement was fueled in part by anecdotes of psychic powers. One such person believed to have extraordinary abilities was Daniel Dunglas Home, who gained notoriety during the Victorian period for his reported ability to levitate to a variety of heights and speak to the dead.[17] // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... Mediumship is a term used mostly in Spiritualism to denote the ability of a person (the medium) to produce psychic phenomena of a mental or physical nature. ... Daniel Dunglas Home (March 20, 1833 - June 21, 1886) was a Scottish spiritualist, famous as a physical medium with the reported ability to levitate to a variety of heights, elongate his body and handle fire and hot coals without injury. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


As the Spiritualism movement grew, philosophical distinctions branched other groups, including the Theosophical Society, which was co-founded in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky (1831 - 1891). Blavatsky coupled Spiritualism with Eastern mysticism forming both Theosophy and the early roots of what would later become known as the New Age movement during the 1970s. Blavatsky herself claimed numerous psychic powers.[18] The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Eastern Mysticism is a somewhat imprecise term summarizing mystic traditions of the Middle East, India and the Far East, including mystic elements in Gnosticism] Sufism Yoga Vedanta Buddhism Taoism Category: ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Popular culture

Belief in psychic abilities

A survey of the beliefs of the general United States population regarding paranormal topics was conducted by the Gallup Organization in 2005.[4] The survey found that 41 percent of those polled believed in extrasensory perception and 26 percent believed in clairvoyance. Thirty-one percent of those surveyed indicated that they believe in telepathy or psychic communication. The Gallup Organization provides a variety of management consulting, human resources and statistical research services. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Clairvoyance, from 17th century French Clair meaning clear and voyant meaning seeing, is a term used to describe the transference of information about an object, location or physical event through means other than the 5 traditional senses (See Psi). ...


A poll of 439 college students conducted in 2006 by researchers Bryan Farha of Oklahoma City University and Gary Steward of University of Central Oklahoma, suggested that college seniors and graduate students were more likely to believe in psychic phenomena than college freshmen. Twenty-three percent of college freshmen expressed a belief in paranormal ideas. The percentage was greater among college seniors (31%) and graduate students (34%).[19] Oklahoma City University is a small urban private university located in Oklahoma City, in the Midtown District. ... The University of Central Oklahoma, often referred to as UCO, located in Edmond, Oklahoma. ...


Some people also believe that psychic abilities can be activated or enhanced through the study and practice of various disciplines and techniques such as meditation, with a number of books and websites being dedicated to instruction in these methods. Another popular belief is that psychic ability is hereditary, with a psychic parent passing their abilities on to their children.[20]


Psychic advice industry

Many people proclaim to have psychic abilities and some make a living as professional fortune tellers or host their own TV programs. Individuals such as John Edward and Sylvia Browne either have their own television shows or are frequently featured on talk shows. (see Paranormal television). For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... John Edward McGee, Jr. ... Sylvia Browne (born October 19, 1936) is a bestselling American author on the subject of spirituality who is known as a psychic and medium. ... Paranormal television is a genre of popular television broadcasting. ...


Science fiction

The use of psychic abilities as a plot device or super power is common in fiction. For example, novel The Dead Zone by Stephen King - and subsequent film and TV series - about a psychic named Johnny Smith whose abilities are awakened after a car accident. Other examples include characters such as Jean Grey form the Marvel and DC comic book universes. For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... The Dead Zone is a novel by Stephen King published in 1979. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... The Dead Zone is a 1983 horror film/Thriller film based on the Stephen King novel of the same name. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... Jean Grey-Summers (born Jean Grey) is a fictional superheroine who lives in the Marvel Comics Universe. ...


Validity of psychic abilities

Psychical research

Main article: Parapsychology
Participant of a Ganzfeld Experiment which proponents say may show evidence of telepathy.

Psychical research is largely conducted in the field of parapsychology. Parapsychological research uses a variety of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in an attempt to find evidence for psychic ability.[21] The experimental methods of parapsychologists include the use of random number generators to test for psychokinesis, mild sensory deprivation in the Ganzfeld experiment to test for extra-sensory perception, and research trials conducted under contract by the U.S. government to investigate remote viewing. The statistical methods of parapsychologists have generated a number of meta-analytical studies, which combine the data from several previous experiments into one large data set. Although all of the research methods of parapsychology have contributed to the field, the experimental and statistical methods have attracted much attention and debate.[1][22] Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... Image File history File links Ganzfeld. ... Image File history File links Ganzfeld. ... The ganzfeld (total field) experiment uses audio and visual sensory deprivation to test for extra-sensory perception (ESP). ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... A random number generator is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of numbers that does not have any easily discernable pattern, so that the sequence can be treated as being random. ... The term psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, psyche, meaning mind, soul, or breath; and κίνησις, kinesis, meaning motion; literally movement from the mind)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, denotes the paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter, time... Participant of a Ganzfeld telepathy experiment. ... Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) is defined as ability to acquire information by paranormal means independent of any known physical senses or deduction from previous experience. ... Remote viewing (RV) is a broad term for a variety of techniques or protocols employed to produce and control extra-sensory perception (ESP). ... In statistics, a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses. ...


Parapsychology is a fringe science because it involves research that does not fit within standard theoretical models accepted by mainstream science. Scientists such as psychologists Ray Hyman and James A. Alcock, among others, are critical of the methodology and results of parapsychology. Skeptical researchers suggest that methodological flaws best explain apparently successful experimental results, as opposed to the paranormal explanations offered by many parapsychologists. Some critical analysts argue that parapsychology crosses the line into pseudoscience. To date, no evidence has been accepted by the mainstream scientific community as irrefutably supporting paranormal phenomena.[23][24][25][26] Fringe science is a phrase used to describe scientific inquiry in an established field that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories. ... Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract or conceptual models. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... Ray Hyman (b. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ...


Skepticism

The existence of psychic abilities and the validity of parapsychological experiments is disputed by skeptics. Skeptics assert that the evidence presented for psychic phenomena is not sufficiently verified for scientific acceptance and contend that there are better non-paranormal alternative explanations available.[5] Many parapsychologists who study psychic phenomena agree that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena such as mediumism and other psychic feats, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading and hot reading, or even self-delusion.[27][28] Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, but they present psychological explanations opposed to paranormal ones.[29] They have identified, described, and developed complex psychological techniques of cold reading and hot reading. Numerous organizations also exist to promote skepticism and critical thinking concerning psychic and other paranormal phenomena. Organizations such as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry[30][31] or the James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) attempt to educate the public and encourage them to think critically about psychic phenomena. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Mediumship is a term used mostly in Spiritualism to denote the ability of a person (the medium) to produce psychic phenomena of a mental or physical nature. ... This article is about the communication technique. ... In parapsychology, hot reading is the use of foreknowledge when giving a psychic reading. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ... Ian Rowland is a mentalist who lives in London, England. ... Derren Victor Brown (born 27 February 1971) is an English psychological illusionist, mentalist, and skeptic of paranormal phenomena. ... This article is about the communication technique. ... In parapsychology, hot reading is the use of foreknowledge when giving a psychic reading. ... The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is a U.S. nonprofit organization whose stated purpose is to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and... The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a Fort Lauderdale, Florida non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. ...


Former stage magician and debunker James Randi has offered a $1 million prize to anyone who can actively demonstrate under controlled experimental circumstances that they possess a "psychic, supernatural or paranormal ability".[6] In order to claim the prize, a challenger must first complete a preliminary evaluation - demonstrate a psychic ability in uncontrolled circumstances - and then demonstrate the same ability under mutually agreed upon, controlled, circumstances. To date none of the challengers have been able to pass the preliminary evaluation. [6] A Debunker is an individual who strongly believes that certain claims are false, exaggerated, unscientific or pretentious and therefore discredits and exposes them. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a Fort Lauderdale, Florida non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. ...


Correspondence and claims from 150 applicants are listed on the James Randi Educational Foundation website. [32] The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a Fort Lauderdale, Florida non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. ...


See also

This article is about psychics. ... It has been suggested that Crystal ball be merged into this article or section. ... Mediumship is a term used mostly in Spiritualism to denote the ability of a person (the medium) to produce psychic phenomena of a mental or physical nature. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... In parapsychology, a Mentalist, as opposed to a psychic, is defined as someone who is believed not only to be able to read information mentally, but also to alter that information. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Gracely, Ph.D., Ed J. (1998). Why Extraordinary Claims Demand Extraordinary Proof. PhACT. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  2. ^ a b Morgan 1990, p. 148.
  3. ^ a b Chevignard, Bernard, Présages de Nostradamus 1999
  4. ^ a b Gallup poll shows that Americans' belief in the paranormal persists, Skeptical Inquirer, accessed October 28, 2006
  5. ^ a b c Carroll, Bret E. (1997). Spiritualism in Antebellum America. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33315-6. 
  6. ^ a b c One million dollar paranormal challenge, James Randi Educational Foundation (2007-04-25)
  7. ^ Melton, J. G. (1996). Psychic. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0810394872. 
  8. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2005). Psychic. Skepdic.com. The Skeptics Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  9. ^ a b Melton, J. G. (1996). Prophecy. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0810394872. 
  10. ^ 1 Samuel Chapter 9/Hebrew - English Bible. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
  11. ^ For an example, see Farnell 1907, p. 189.
  12. ^ Fontenrose 1978, pp. 196-227; Maurizio 2001, pp. 38-54.
  13. ^ Spiller et al., 2000; de Boer, et al., 2001; Hale et al. 2003.
  14. ^ Mason, Betsy. The Prophet of Gases in ScienceNow Daily News 2 October 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
  15. ^ Lemesurier, Peter, The Unknown Nostradamus, 2003
  16. ^ Melton, J. G. (1996). Dreams. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0810394872. 
  17. ^ Podmore, Frank (1997). Mediums of the Nineteenth Century. University Books. ISBN 0-253-33315-6. 
  18. ^ Melton, J. G. (1996). Theosophical Society. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0810394872. 
  19. ^ Britt, R.: "Higher Education Fuels Stronger Belief in Ghosts" LiveScience, January 2006, Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  20. ^ Hargreaves, Julie: Psychics - myths & misconceptions, Nov 2002, Retrieved April 25, 2007. http://www.hark.net.au/articles/psychics_info.htm
  21. ^ Parapsychological Association FAQ. Parapsychological Association (1995). Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
  22. ^ Myers, David G; Blackmore, Susan. Putting ESP to the Experimental Test. Hope College. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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The realm of psychic phenomenon is a fascinating subject that has intrigued mankind through the ages.
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