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Encyclopedia > Psychiatry
An MRI scan of a human brain and head. The brain is the most important organ studied by psychiatrists.
An MRI scan of a human brain and head. The brain is the most important organ studied by psychiatrists.[1]

Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat mental disorders in humans.[2][3][4] The science of the clinical application of psychiatry has been considered a bridge between the social world and those who are mentally ill.[5] Both its research and clinical application are considered interdisciplinary.[6] Because of this, various subspecialties and theoretical approaches exist in psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatrists can be considered physicians who specialize in the doctor-patient relationship[7] utilizing some of medicine's newest classification schemes, diagnostic tools and treatments.[8][9][10] Image File history File links MRI_head_side. ... Image File history File links MRI_head_side. ... MRI redirects here. ... A human brain. ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biological unit. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... In medicine, prevention is any activity which reduces the burden of mortality or morbidity from disease. ... Main article: Mental disorder The treatment of mental disorders may include the use of psychotherapy, psychiatric medication, case management, or other practices. ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


Ancient psychiatry originated in the 5th century BC with the ideology that psychotic disorders were supernatural in origin.[11] At that time clergy were the individuals in society with the responsibility of "curing" mental disorders.[11] In the Middle Ages, psychiatric hospitals were first created as custodial institutions to house those with mental disorders,[12] and to provide early forms of treatment.[13] By the 18th century, mental health institutions utilized more elaborate treatments for those with mental disorders.[14] As a result of these early psychiatric interventions, the 19th century saw a massive increase in patient populations.[15] This dramatic increase led to the decline of treatments offered in such institutions and damage to the reputation of psychiatry.[16] The 20th century saw a rebirth of a biological understanding of mental disorders as well the introduction of disease classification.[17][18] The shift of psychiatry to the hard sciences moved psychiatry into a different direction which resulted in an altered doctor-patient relationship.[19] These changes were seen by many in society as negative and anti-psychiatry movements emerged.[20] The shift in thinking, as well as the introduction of psychiatric medications, led to the dismantling of state psychiatric hospitals.[21] While community treatment was seen as the single solution for those suffering from mental disorders, clinicians soon realized that it was only another treatment option following the drift of disturbed populations into homelessness and prisons.[22] The dramatic changes associated with psychiatric diagnoses and treatments have pushed the field into recognizing the balance between the biological and social sciences and has called for a significant demand of research looking into the origins, classification, and treatment of mental disorders.[23][24] Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pure science. ... The patient-doctor relationship is considered to be essential in modern medicine and forms one of the foundations of contemporary medical ethics. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Deinstitutionalisation is the practice of moving people (especially those with developmental disability) from mental institutions into community-based or family-based environments. ...

Contents

Theory and focus

"Psychiatry, more than any other branch of medicine, forces its practitioners to wrestle with the nature of evidence, the validity of introspection, problems in communication, and other long-standing philosophical issues" (Guze, 1992, p.4). An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ...

Psychiatry, a word coined by Johann Christian Reil in 1808, has historically been seen as a specialty of medicine which acted as an intermediary between the world from a social context and the world from the perspective of those who are mentally ill.[5] Those who practice psychiatry are different than most other mental health professionals and physicians in that they must be familiar with both the social and biological sciences.[24] The discipline is interested in the operations of different organs and body systems as classified by the patient's subjective experiences and the objective physiology of the patient.[25] Psychiatry exists to treat mental disorders which are conventionally divided into three very general categories; mental illness, severe learning disability, and personality disorder.[26] While the focus of psychiatry has changed little throughout time, the diagnostic and treatment processes have evolved dramatically and continue to do so. Since the late 20th century, the field of psychiatry has continued to become more biological and less conceptually isolated from the field of medicine.[27] Johann Christian Reil (20 February, 1759 - 22 November, 1813) was a German physician, anatomist, physiologist and psychiatrist. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action (Cognitive modules). ...


Scope of practice

While the medical specialty of psychiatry utilizes research in the field of neuroscience, psychology, medicine, biology, biochemistry, and pharmacology,[6] it has generally been considered a middle ground between neurology and psychology.[7] Unlike other physicians and neurologists, psychiatrists specialize in the doctor-patient relationship and are trained in the use of psychotherapy and other therepautic communication techniques.[7] Psychiatrists can therefore prescribe medication, order laboratory tests, utilize neuroimaging in a clinical setting, and conduct physical examinations.[28] Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... The patient-doctor relationship is considered to be essential in modern medicine and forms one of the foundations of contemporary medical ethics. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ...


Ethics

Like other professions, the World Psychiatric Association issues an ethical code to govern the conduct of psychiatrists. The psychiatric code of ethics, first set forth through the Declaration of Hawaii in 1977, has been expanded through a 1983 Vienna update and, in 1996, the broader Madrid Declaration. The code was further revised in Hamburg, 1999. The World Psychiatric Association code covers such matters as patient assessment, up-to-date knowledge, the human dignity of incapacitated patients, confidentiality, research ethics, sex selection, euthanasia,[29] organ transplantation, torture,[30][31] the death penalty, media relations, genetics, and ethnic or cultural discrimination.[32] In establishing such ethical codes, the profession has responded to a number of controversies about the practice of psychiatry. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The World Psychiatric Association is an international umbrella organisation for psychiatrists that sets ethical, scientific and treatment standards in the practice of psychiatry. ... In the context of a code adopted by a profession or by a governmental or quasi-governmental organ to regulate that profession, an ethical code may be styled as a code of professional responsibility, which may dispense with difficult issues of what behavior is ethical. Some codes of ethics are... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the property of being confidential. For the magazine of the same name, see Confidential (magazine). ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Subspecialties

Various subspecialties and/or theoretical approaches exist which are related to the field of psychiatry. They include the following:

  • Biological psychiatry; an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.
  • Child and adolescent psychiatry; a branch of psychiatry that specialises in work with children, teenagers, and their families.
  • Cross-cultural psychiatry; a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural and ethnic context of mental disorder and psychiatric services.
  • Emergency psychiatry; the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings.
  • Forensic psychiatry; the interface between law and psychiatry.
  • Geriatric psychiatry; a branch of psychiatry dealing with the study, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in humans with old age.
  • Liaison psychiatry; the branch of psychiatry that specializes in the interface between other medical specialties and psychiatry.
  • Military psychiatry; covers special aspects of psychiatry and mental disorders within the military context.
  • Neuropsychiatry; branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
  • Social psychiatry; a branch of psychiatry that focuses on the interpersonal and cultural context of mental disorder and mental wellbeing.

Biological psychiatry, or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system. ... A branch of psychiatry that specialises in work with children, teenagers, and their families. ... Cross-cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural and ethnic context of mental disorder and psychiatric services. ... Emergency psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry and emergency medicine designed to respond to emergencies requiring psychiatric intervention. ... Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. ... Geriatric psychiatry, also known as geropsychiatry or psychiatry of old age, is a subspecialty of psychiatry dealing with the study, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in humans with old age. ... Liaison psychiatry, also known as consultative psychiatry or consultation-liaison psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that specialises in the interface between other medical specialties and psychiatry, and concerns itself with patients with problems in both physical and mental health, as well as patients who may report physical symptoms as... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

History

Ancient times

Starting in the 5th century BC, mental disorders, especially those with psychotic traits, were considered supernatural in origin.[11] This view existed throughout ancient Greece and Rome.[11] Early manuals written about mental disorders were created by the Greeks.[33] In 4th century BC, Hippocrates theorized that physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders.[11] However further explorations of this perspective ceased shortly thereafter following the fall of the Roman Empire.[11] Religious leaders and others returned to using early versions of exorcisms to treat mental disorders which often utilized cruel, harsh, and other barbarous methods.[11] For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ...


Middle Ages

Main article: Islamic psychology

The first psychiatric hospitals were built in the medieval Islamic world from the 8th century. The first was built in Baghdad in 705, followed by Fes in the early 8th century, and Cairo in 800. Unlike medieval Christian physicians who relied on demonological explanations for mental illness, medieval Muslim physicians relied mostly on clinical observations. They made significant advances to psychiatry and were the first to provide psychotherapy and moral treatment for mentally ill patients, in addition to other forms of treatment such as baths, drug medication, music therapy and occupational therapy. In the 10th century, the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) combined psychological methods and physiological explanations to provide treatment to mentally ill patients. His contemporary, the Arab physician Najab ud-din Muhammad, first described a number of mental illnesses such as agitated depression, neurosis, priapism and sexual impotence (Nafkhae Malikholia), psychosis (Kutrib), and mania (Dual-Kulb).[13] A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... FES is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Family Expenditure Survey, a national survey in UK Functional electrical stimulation, a neurological treatment technique Flat Earth Society, an organization that advocates the belief that the Earth is flat Flywheel energy storage Fellowship of Evangelical Students Foundation for Ecological Security... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Moral treatment marks a period in psychiatry where asylums began to offer humane care to the mentally ill. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... In the context of mental illness, a mixed state (also known as dysphoric mania, agitated depression, or a mixed episode) is a condition during which symptoms of mania and depression occur simultaneously (e. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... Priapism (Ancient Greek: ) is a potentially harmful medical condition in which the erect penis does not return to its flaccid state (despite the absence of both physical and psychological stimulation) within about four hours. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ...


In the 11th century, another Persian physician Avicenna recognized 'physiological psychology' in the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, and developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings, which is seen as a percursor to the word association test developed by Carl Jung in the 19th century.[34] Avicenna was also an early pioneer of neuropsychiatry, and first described a number of neuropsychiatric conditions such as hallucination, insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, vertigo and tremor.[35] (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... Word Association is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are associated together. ... Jung redirects here. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Paralysed redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ...


Psychiatric hospitals were built in medieval Europe from the 13th century to treat mental disorders but were utilized only as custodial institutions and did not provide any type of treatment.[12] Founded in the 13th century, Bethlem Royal Hospital in London is one of the oldest psychiatric hospitals.[12] By 1547 the City of London acquired the hospital and continued its function until 1948.[36] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, which has been variously known as St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Many consider Philippe Pinel to be the father of modern psychiatry.
Many consider Philippe Pinel to be the father of modern psychiatry.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Early modern period

In 1656, Louis XIV of France created a public system of hospitals for those suffering from mental disorders, but as in England, no real treatment was being applied.[36] In 1758 English physician William Battie wrote the Treatise on Madness which called for treatments to be utilized in asylums.[14] Thirty years later the new ruling monarch in England, George III, was known to be suffering from a mental disorder.[11] Following the King's remission in 1789, mental illness was seen as something which could be treated and cured.[11] By 1792 French physician Philippe Pinel introduced humane treatment approaches to those suffering from mental disorders.[11] William Tuke adopted the methods outlined by Pinel and that same year Tuke opened the York Retreat in England.[11] That institution became known as a model throughout the world for humane and moral treatment of patients suffering from mental disorders.[37] It inspired similar institutions in the United States, most notably the Brattleboro Retreat and the Hartford Retreat (now the Institute of Living). Louis XIV redirects here. ... William Battie was a physician who published in 1758 the first lengthy book on the treatment of mental illness, A Treatise on Madness’, and by extending methods of treatment to the poor as well as the affluent, helped raise psychiatry to a respectable specialty. ... George III redirects here. ... Remission is the state of absence of disease activity in patients with known chronic illness. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Moral treatment marks a period in psychiatry where asylums began to offer humane care to the mentally ill. ... William Tuke (March 24, 1732-1822) was born at York. ... The Retreat is a not for profit charitable organisation in the United Kingdom. ...


19th century

At the turn of the century, England and France combined only had a few hundred individuals in asylums.[38] By the late 1890s and early 1900s, this number skyrocketed to the hundreds of thousands.[38] The United States housed 150,000 patients in mental hospitals by 1904.[38] German speaking countries housed more than 400 public and private sector asylums.[38] These asylums were critical to the evolution of psychiatry as they provided a universal platform of practice throughout the world.[38] German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


Universities often played a part in the administration of the asylums.[39] Due to the relationship between the universities and asylums, scores of competitive psychiatrists were being molded in Germany.[39] Germany became known as the world leader in psychiatry during the nineteenth century.[38] The country possessed more than 20 separate universities all competing with each other for scientific advancement.[38] However, because of Germany's individual states and the lack of national regulation of asylums, the country had no organized centralization of asylums or psychiatry.[38] Britain, like Germany, also lacked a centralized organization for the administration of asylums.[40] This deficit hindered the diffusion of new ideas in medicine and psychiatry.[40]


In 1834, Anna Marsh, a physician's widow, deeded the funds to build the United States' first financially-stable private asylum in 1834. The Brattleboro Retreat marked the beginning of America's private psychiatric hospitals challenging state institutions for patients, funding, and influence. Although based on England's York Retreat, it would be followed by speciality institutions of every treatment philosophy. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In 1838, France enacted a law to regulate both the admissions into asylums and asylum services across the country.[41] By 1840, asylums existing as therapeutic institutions existed throughout Europe and the United States.[15]

Emil Kraepelin studied and promoted ideas of disease classification for mental disorders.

However, the new and dominating ideas that mental illness could be "conquered" during the mid-nineteenth century all came crashing down.[15] Psychiatrists and asylums were being pressured by an ever increasing patient population.[15] The average number of patients in asylums in the United States jumped 927%.[15] Numbers were similar in England and Germany.[15] Overcrowding was rampant in France where asylums would commonly take in double their maximum capacity.[42] Increases in asylum populations may have been a result of the transfer of care from families and poorhouses, but the specific reasons as to why the increase occurred is still debated today.[43][44] No matter the cause, the pressure on asylums from the increase was taking its toll on the asylums and psychiatry as a specialty. Asylums were once again turning into custodial institutions[45] and the reputation of psychiatry in the medical world had hit an extreme low.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Emil Kraepelin (February 15, 1856–October 7, 1926) was a German psychiatrist. ... A poorhouse is a publicly maintained facility for the support and housing of dependent or needy persons, typically run by a local government entity such as a county or municipality. ...


20th century

Disease classification and rebirth of biological psychiatry

The 20th century introduced a new psychiatry into the world. The different perspectives of looking at mental disorders began to be introduced. The career and beginnings of Emil Kraepelin somewhat model this hiatus of psychiatry between the different disciplines.[17] Kraepelin initially was very attracted to psychology and ignored the ideas of anatomical psychiatry.[17] Following his acceptance for a professorship of psychiatry, and later his work in a university psychiatric clinic, Kraepelin's insterest in pure psychology began to fade and he introduced a plan of a more comprehensive psychiatry.[46][18] Kraepelin also began to study and promote the ideas of disease classification for mental disorders, an idea introduced by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum.[18] The initial ideas behind biological psychiatry, stating that these different disorders were all biological in nature, evolved into a new idea of "nerves" and psychiatry became a sort of rough neurology or neuropsychiatry.[47] Following Sigmund Freud's death, ideas stemming from psychoanalytic theory also began to take root.[48] The psychoanalytic theory became popular among psychiatrists because it allowed the patients to be treated in private practices instead of asylums.[48] However the progress of psychiatry by the 1970s turned psychoanalytic theory into a marginal school of thought within the field.[48] Emil Kraepelin (February 15, 1856–October 7, 1926) was a German psychiatrist. ... Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (December 28, 1828, Driesen - April 15, 1899) was a German psychiatrist who practiced medicine at Wehlau and Königsberg before becoming director of the mental hospital at Görlitz, Prussia in 1867. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases. ...

Otto Loewi's work led to the identification of the first neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.
Otto Loewi's work led to the identification of the first neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

This period of time saw the reemergence of biological psychiatry. Psychopharmacology became an integral part of psychiatry starting with Otto Loewi's discovery of the first neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.[49] Neuroimaging was first utilized as a tool for psychiatry in the 1980s.[50] The discovery of chlorpromazine's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia in 1952 revolutionized treatment of the disease, [51] as did lithium carbonate's ability to stabilize mood highs and lows in bipolar disorder in 1948.[52] While psychosocial issues were still seen as valid, psychotherapy was seen to be their "cure."[53] Genetics were once again thought to play a role in mental illness.[49] Molecular biology opened the door for specific genes contributing mental disorders to be identified.[49] By 1995 genes contributing to schizophrenia had been identified on chromosome 6 and those genes contributing to bipolar disorder on chromosomes 18 and 21.[49] Image File history File links Crest of Alcochete (Portugal) Author: Sérgio Horta The author has agreed to usage of his works under the GNU-FDL, as long as he is quoted as the source: Caro Senhor, Manuel Anastácio File links The following pages link to this file: Alcochete... Image File history File links Crest of Alcochete (Portugal) Author: Sérgio Horta The author has agreed to usage of his works under the GNU-FDL, as long as he is quoted as the source: Caro Senhor, Manuel Anastácio File links The following pages link to this file: Alcochete... Otto Loewi (June 3, 1873 – December 25, 1961) was a Austrian-German-American pharmacologist. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Otto Loewi (June 3, 1873 – December 25, 1961) was a Austrian-German-American pharmacologist. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is a carbonate salt of lithium. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Chromosome 18 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ...


Anti-psychiatry and deinstitutionalization

The introduction of psychiatric medications and the use of laboratory tests altered the doctor-patient relationship between psychiatrists and their patients.[19] Psychiatry's shift to the hard sciences had been interpreted as a lack of concern for patients.[19] Anti-psychiatry had become more prevalent in the late twentieth century due to this and publications in the media which conceptualized mental disorders as myths.[20] Others in the movement argued that psychiatry was a form of social control and demanded that institutionalized psychiatric care, stemming from Pinel's thereapeutic asylum, be abolished.[21] Incidents of physical abuse by psychiatrists took place during the reign of some totalitarian regimes as part of a system to enforce political control with some of the abuse even continuing to our present day.[54] Historical examples of the abuse of psychiatry took place in Nazi Germany [55], in the Soviet Union under Psikhushka, and in the apartheid system in South Africa.[56] Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... The patient-doctor relationship is considered to be essential in modern medicine and forms one of the foundations of contemporary medical ethics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pure science. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Psikhushka (Russian: ) is a Russian colloquialism for psychiatric hospital. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

Members of the Church of Scientology hold an anti-psychiatry demonstration in 2005.
Members of the Church of Scientology hold an anti-psychiatry demonstration in 2005.

Electroconvulsive therapy was one treatment that the anti-psychiatry movement wanted eliminated.[57] They alleged that electroconvulsive therapy damaged the brain and it was used as a tool for discipline.[57] While there is no evidence that brain damage was a result of electronconvulsive therapy[58][59][60], there have been isolated incidents where the use of electroconvulsive therapy was threatened to keep the patients "in line."[57] State government by enforcing the use of shock-therapy has abused psychiatry with impunity.[61] The prevalence of psychiatric medication helped initiate deinstitutionalization,[62] the process of discharging patients from psychiatric hospitals to the community.[63] The pressure from the anti-psychiatry movements and the ideology of community treatment from the medical arena helped sustain deinstitutionalization.[62] Thirty-three years after deinstitutionalization started in the United States, only 19% of the patients in state hospitals remained.[62] Mental health professionals envisioned a process wherein patients would be released into communities where they could participate in a normal life while living in a therapeutic atmosphere.[62] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x693, 178 KB)Church of Scientology anti-psychiatry demonstration in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 2005 By Legolam File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x693, 178 KB)Church of Scientology anti-psychiatry demonstration in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 2005 By Legolam File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity for therapeutic effect. ... Deinstitutionalisation usually refers to the process of discharging long term patients from psychiatric hospitals and other long-term facilities, so that they can live in the general community. ... A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ...


Transinstitutionalization and the aftermath

In 1963, United States president John F. Kennedy introduced legislation delegating the National Institute of Mental Health to administer Community Mental Health Centers for those being discharged from state psychiatric hospitals.[62] Later, though, the Community Mental Health Center's focus was diverted to provide psychotherapy sessions for those suffering from acute and/or mild mental disorders.[62] Ultimately there were no arrangements made for actively ill patients who were being discharged from hospitals.[62] Some of those suffering from mental disorders drifted into homelessness or ended up in prisons and jails.[62][22] Studies found that 33% of the homeless population and 14% of inmates in prisons and jails were already diagnosed with a mental illness.[62][64] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. ...


In 1972, psychologist David Rosenhan published the Rosenhan experiment, a study analyzing the validity of psychiatric diagnoses.[65] The study arranged for eight individuals with no history of psychopathology to attempt admission into psychiatric hospitals. The individuals included a graduate student, psychologists, an artist, a housewife, and two physicians, including one psychiatrist. All eight individuals were admitted with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists then attempted to treat the individuals using psychiatric medication. All eight were discharged within 7 to 52 days. Rosenhan's study concluded that individuals with no presence of mental disorders could not be distinguished from those suffering from mental disorders.[65] While critics such as Robert Spitzer placed doubt on the validity and credibility of the study, they also conceded that the consistency of psychiatric diagnoses needed improvement.[66] David Rosenhan is a psychiatrist See also: Rosenhan experiment On being sane in insane places Categories: People stubs ... The Rosenhan experiment was a famous experiment into the validity of psychiatric diagnosis conducted by David Rosenhan in 1972. ... Dr. Robert L. Spitzer is a Professor of Psychiatry at Columbia University. ...


Psychiatry, like many medical specialties, has a continuing, significant demand for research investigating its related diseases, classifications, origins, and treatments.[23] Psychiatry falls into biology's fundamental belief that disease and health are different elements of an individual's adaptation to an environment.[67] But psychiatry also recognizes that the environment of the human species is complex and includes physical, cultural, and relational elements.[67] In addition to external factors, the human brain must recognize or organize an individual's hopes, fears, desires, fantasies and feelings.[67] Psychiatry's difficult task is the attempt to envelop the understanding of these factors so that they can be studied both clinically and physiologically.[67] A human brain. ...


Industry and academia

Practitioners

Main article: Psychiatrist

As with most medical specialties, all physicians can diagnose mental disorders and prescribe treatments utilizing principles of psychiatry. Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in psychiatry and are certified in treating mental illness using the biomedical approach to mental disorders.[68] Psychiatrists may also go through significant training to conduct psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, and/or cognitive behavioral therapy, but it is their medical training, access to medical laboratories, and ability to prescribe medication that differentiates them from other mental health professionals.[68] For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ...


Research

Psychiatric research is, by its very nature, interdisciplinary. From a general perspective it studies and combines social, biological and psychological approaches and how those perspectives cause mental disorders.[69] While practicing psychiatrists and other psychiatric researchers study outcomes from such a wide variety of fields, research institutions and publications exist that are dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of mental disorders within the psychiatric context.[6][70][71][72] Under the supervision of institutional review boards, psychiatric researchers looks at a variety of topics such as neuroimaging, genetics, and psychopharmacology, which in turn help enhance diagnostic consistency, discover new treatment methods, and classify new mental disorders.[73] An institutional review board/independent ethics committee (IRB/IEC) (also known as ethical review board) is a group that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the alleged aim to protect the rights and welfare of the subjects. ...


Clinical application

Diagnostic systems

fMRI images such as these may be used for diagnosis by a psychiatrist.
fMRI images such as these may be used for diagnosis by a psychiatrist.

Psychiatric diagnoses take place in a wide variety of settings and are performed by many different health professionals. Therefore, the diagnostic procedure may vary greatly based upon these factors. Typically, though, a psychiatric diagnosis utilizes a differential diagnosis procedure where mental status examinations and physical examinations are conducted, pathological, psychopathological and psychosocial histories obtained, neuroimages or other neurophysiological measurements are taken, and personality tests or cognitive tests may be administered.[74][75][76][77][78][10][79] In addition psychiatrists are beginning to utilize genetics during the diagnostic process.[9] Some endophenotypes being researched may predispose certain individuals to certain conditions.[80][81] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 586 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1017 pixels, file size: 922 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 586 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1017 pixels, file size: 922 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Psychosocial refers to ones psychological development in the context of a social environment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of living entities. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Diagnostic manuals

Three main diagnostic manuals used to classify mental health conditions are in use today. The ICD-10 is produced and published by the World Health Organisation and includes a section on psychiatric conditions, and is used worldwide.[82] The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, produced and published by the American Psychiatric Association, is solely focused on mental health conditions and is the main classification tool in the United States.[83] It is currently in its fourth revised edition and is also used worldwide.[83] The Chinese Society of Psychiatry has also produced a diagnostic manual, the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders.[84] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The adjective global and adverb globally imply that the verb or noun to which they are applied applies to the entire Earth and all of its species and regions. ... The Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP) is the largest organization for psychiatrists in China. ... The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD), published by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP), is a clinical guide used in China for the diagnosis of mental disorders. ...


The stated intention of diagnostic manuals is typically to develop replicable and clinically useful categories and criteria, to facilitate consensus and agreed standards, whilst being atheoretical as regards etiology.[83][8] However, the categories are nevertheless based on particular psychiatric theories and data; they are broad and often specified by numerous possible combinations of symptoms, and many of the categories overlap in symptomology or typically occur together.[85] While originally intended only as a guide for experienced clinicians trained in its use, the nomenclature is now widely used by clinicians, administrators and insurance companies in many countries.[86]


Treatment settings

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

General considerations

Individuals with mental health conditions are commonly referred to as patients but may also be called clients, consumers, or service recipients. They may come under the care of a psychiatric physician or other psychiatric practitioners by various paths, the two most common being self-referral or referral by a primary-care physician. Alternatively, a person may be referred by hospital medical staff, by court order, involuntary commitment, or, in the UK and Australia, by sectioning under a mental health law. A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Referral n. ... A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties before the court and requires or authorizes the carrying out of certain steps by one or more parties to a case. ... Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a mental health law to commit a person to a mental hospital, insane asylum or psychiatric ward without their informed consent, against their will or over their protests. ... The British Mental Health Act 1983 has a number of sections that provide powers for involuntary detention, hospitalization or other medical treatment for people affected by mental illness. ... Mental health law is that area of law that deals with mental conditions. ...

A psychiatric patient room in the United States.
A psychiatric patient room in the United States.

Whatever the circumstance of a person's referral, a psychiatrist first assesses a person's mental and physical condition. This usually involves interviewing the person and often obtaining information from other sources such as other health and social care professionals, relatives, associates, law enforcement and emergency medical personnel and psychiatric rating scales. A physical examination is usually performed to establish or exclude other illnesses, such as thyroid dysfunction or brain tumors, or identify any signs of self-harm; this examination may be done by someone else other than the psychiatrist, especially if blood tests and medical imaging are performed. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ...


Like all medications, psychiatric medications can have heavy toxic effects in patients and hence often involve ongoing therapeutic drug monitoring, for instance full blood counts or, for patients taking lithium salts, serum levels of lithium, renal and thyroid function. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes administered for serious and disabling conditions, especially those unresponsive to medication. The efficacity[87] and adverse effects of psychiatric drugs has been challenged. The close relationship between those prescribing psychiatric medication and pharmaceutical companies has become increasingly controversial [88] along with the influence which pharmaceutical companies are exerting on mental health policies.[89][90] Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... Therapeutic drug monitoring is a branch of clinical chemistry that specialises in the measurement of medication levels in blood. ... A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood stabilizing drugs. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity for therapeutic effect. ...


Also controversial are forced drugging and the "lack of insight" label. According to a report published by the National Council on Disability,

Involuntary treatment is extremely rare outside the psychiatric system, allowable only in such cases as unconsciousness or the inability to communicate. People with psychiatric disabilities, on the other hand, even when they vigorously protest treatments they do not want, are routinely subjected to them anyway, on the justification that they "lack insight" or are unable to recognize their need for treatment because of their "mental illness." In practice, "lack of insight" becomes disagreement with the treating professional, and people who disagree are labeled "noncompliant" or "uncooperative with treatment."[91]

Inpatient treatment

Psychiatric treatments have changed over the past several decades. In the past, psychiatric patients were often hospitalized for six months or more, with some cases involving hospitalization for many years. Today, people receiving psychiatric treatment are more likely to be seen as outpatients. If hospitalization is required, the average hospital stay is around one to two weeks, with only a small number receiving long-term hospitalization. Treatment of mental illness refers to various treatments (therapies) for mental illness used in psychiatry: Somatotherapy (type of pharmacotherapy; biology-based treatment) Psychiatric medications (psychoactive drugs used in psychiatry) Antianxiety drugs (anxiolytics) Antidepressant drugs Antipsychotic drugs Mood stabilizers Electroconvulsive therapy Psychosurgery Leukotomy (prefrontal lobotomy; no longer practiced) Cingulotomy Deep brain... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... This article needs to be classified. ...


Individuals with mental health problems are commonly referred to as patients but may also be called clients, consumers, or service recipients. They may come under the care of a psychiatric physician or other psychiatric practitioners by various paths, the two most common being self-referral or referral by a primary-care physician. Alternatively, a person may be referred by hospital medical staff, by court order, involuntary commitment, or, in the UK and Australia, by sectioning under a mental health law. A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Referral n. ... A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties before the court and requires or authorizes the carrying out of certain steps by one or more parties to a case. ... Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a mental health law to commit a person to a mental hospital, insane asylum or psychiatric ward without their informed consent, against their will or over their protests. ... The British Mental Health Act 1983 has a number of sections that provide powers for involuntary detention, hospitalization or other medical treatment for people affected by mental illness. ... Mental health law is that area of law that deals with mental conditions. ...


Whatever the circumstance of a person's referral, a psychiatrist first assesses a person's mental and physical condition. This usually involves interviewing the person and often obtaining information from other sources such as other health and social care professionals, relatives, associates, law enforcement and emergency medical personnel and psychiatric rating scales. A physical examination is usually performed to establish or exclude other illnesses, such as thyroid dysfunction or brain tumors, or identify any signs of self-harm; this examination may be done by someone else other than the psychiatrist, especially if blood tests and medical imaging are performed. In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ...


Like all medications, those used in psychiatry can have toxic effects in patients and hence often involve ongoing therapeutic drug monitoring, for instance full blood counts or, for patients taking lithium salts, serum levels of lithium, renal and thyroid function. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes administered for serious and disabling conditions, especially those unresponsive to medication. In all these there are specific ethical issues, especially if treatment is given involuntarily. Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... Therapeutic drug monitoring is a branch of clinical chemistry that specialises in the measurement of medication levels in blood. ... A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood stabilizing drugs. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity for therapeutic effect. ...


Psychiatric inpatients are people admitted to a hospital or clinic to receive psychiatric care. Some are admitted involuntarily, perhaps committed to a secure hospital, or in some jurisdictions to a facility within the prison system. In many countries including the USA and Canada, the criteria for involuntary admission vary with local jurisdiction. They may be as broad as having a mental health condition, or as narrow as being an immediate danger to themselves and/or others. Bed availability is often the real determinant of admission decisions to hard pressed public facilities. European Human Rights legislation restricts detention to medically-certified cases of mental disorder, and adds a right to timely judicial review of detention.


Patients may be admitted voluntarily if the treating doctor considers that safety isn't compromised by this less restrictive option.

Injections are one of many ways to administer psychiatric medication.
Injections are one of many ways to administer psychiatric medication.

Inpatient psychiatric wards may be secure (for those thought to have a particular risk of violence or self-harm) or unlocked/open. Some wards are mixed-sex whilst same-sex wards are increasingly favored to protect women inpatients. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 623 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Syringe fitted with needle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 623 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Syringe fitted with needle. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ...


Once in the care of a hospital, people are assessed, monitored, and often given medication and care from a multidisciplinary team, which may include physicians, psychiatric nurse practitioners, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychiatric social workers, occupational therapists and social workers. If a person receiving treatment in a psychiatric hospital is assessed as at particular risk of harming themselves or others, they may be put on constant or intermittent one-to-one supervision, and may be physically restrained or medicated. People on inpatient wards may be allowed leave for periods of time, either accompanied or on their own.


In many developed countries there has been a massive reduction in psychiatric beds since the mid 20th century, with the growth of community care. Standards of inpatient care remain a challenge in some public and private facilities, due to levels of funding, and facilities in developing countries are typically grossly inadequate for the same reason.


Outpatient treatment

People receiving psychiatric care may do so on an inpatient or outpatient basis. Outpatient treatment involves periodic visits to a clinician for consultation in his or her office, usually for an appointment lasting thirty to sixty minutes. These consultations normally involve the psychiatric practitioner interviewing the person to update their assessment of the person's condition, and to provide psychotherapy or review medication. The frequency with which a psychiatric practitioner sees people in treatment varies widely, from days to months, depending on the type, severity and stability of each person's condition, and depending on what the clinician and client decide would be best. Increasingly, psychiatrists are limiting their practice to psychopharmacology (prescribing medications) with less time devoted to psychotherapy or "talk" therapies, or behavior modification. The role of psychiatrists is changing in community psychiatry, with many assuming more leadership roles, coordinating and supervising teams of allied health professionals and junior doctors in delivery of health services.[citation needed]


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Psychiatry

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ...

Related topics

References

General references

  • Ford-Martin, Paula Anne Gale (2002), "Psychosis" Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Farmington Hills, Michigan
  • Hirschfeld et al 2003, "Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder: how far have we really come?", J. Clin. Psychiatry vol.64(2), p.161-174.
  • McGorry PD, Mihalopoulos C, Henry L et al (1995) Spurious precision: procedural validity of diagnostic assessment in psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 152 (2) 220-223
  • MedFriendly.com, Psychologist, Viewed 20 September, 2006
  • Moncrieff J, Cohen D. (2005). Rethinking models of psychotropic drug action. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 74, 145-153
  • National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists, What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?, Viewed 20 September, 2006
  • van Os J, Gilvarry C, Bale R et al (1999) A comparison of the utility of dimensional and categorical representations of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 29 (3) 595-606
  • Williams, J.B., Gibbon, M., First, M., Spitzer, R., Davies, M., Borus, J., Howes, M., Kane, J., Pope, H., Rounsaville, B., and Wittchen, H. (1992). The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) II: Multi-site test-retest reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 630-636.

Works cited

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  24. ^ a b Storrow, H.A. (1969). Outline of Clinical Psychiatry. New York:Appleton-Century-Crofts, p 1. ISBN 978-0-39-085075-1
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  32. ^ The WPA code of ethics.
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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ... The National Council on Disability (NCD) was initially established in 1978 as an advisory board within the Department of Education. ...

External links

  • World Psychiatric Association
  • American Psychiatric Association
  • The Royal College of Psychiatrists
  • Emotional Clearing (EmC)/ Advanced Psychiatry


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