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Encyclopedia > Psychiatric hospital

A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. Psychiatric wards differ only in that they are a unit of a larger hospital. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ...

Contents

History

The history of psychiatric hospitals is linked heavily with social and scientific attitudes towards mentally retarded people, which have changed greatly over the past centuries.


Cities

As the number of people living in cities increased, there became an increasingly large population of urban mentally ill. Generally speaking, in rural areas the mentally ill had been able to rely on local support of the people around them, or managed to simply go unnoticed amongst the rest of the population. However, under the demands of larger cities they faced a higher degree of difficulty and had a much greater chance of causing disruption or simply being a nuisance. This led to the building of the early asylums.


In England the Middlesex County Court Judges pressured the UK Government resulting in an act of parliament - The Madhouse Act 1828, allowing the building of purpose-built asylums, the first of which the 1st Middlesex County Asylum was at Hanwell in West London and opened its doors in late 1831. (Src. Museums of Madness, Andrew T. Scull, Penguin 1979) The (1st Middlesex) County Asylum at Hanwell was built for the pauper insane and has evolved to become the West London Mental Health NHS Trust (WLMHT). ... Hanwell is a town situated in the London Borough of Ealing in west London, between Ealing and Southall. ...


Initially these early asylums were little more than repositories for the mentally ill – removing them from mainstream society in the same manner as a jail would for criminals. Conditions were often extremely poor and serious treatment was not yet an option.


Bethlem Royal Hospital

Scene of Bethlem Hospital from the final plate of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress.
Scene of Bethlem Hospital from the final plate of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress.

Bethlem Royal Hospital (Bedlam) was the first known psychiatric hospital, founded in London in 1247 and by 1403, had begun accepting social outcasts, the "crazy people", "lunatics" and those who just couldn't stay hidden in society anymore. It soon became infamous for its cruel treatment of the insane, and in the 18th century would have outsiders pay a penny to come and watch their patients as a form of torturous entertainment. In 1700 it is recorded that the "lunatics" were called "patients" for the first time, and within twenty years separate wards for the "curable" and "incurable" patients had been established. Mental illness was now no longer an affliction, but a disease, to be diagnosed and potentially cured. The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, which has been variously known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlem Hospital, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is the worlds oldest psychiatric hospital. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2042x1782, 722 KB) Summary The Interior of Bedlam, from A Rakes Progress by William Hogarth, 1763. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2042x1782, 722 KB) Summary The Interior of Bedlam, from A Rakes Progress by William Hogarth, 1763. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Plate 3 - Tom succumbs to the pleasures of the flesh at The Rose Tavern, Drury Lane. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Events Shams ad-Din disappears resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ...


Humane treatment

Vienna's Narrenturm, built in 1784, was probably world's first building especially designed as a 'madhouse'.
Vienna's Narrenturm, built in 1784, was probably world's first building especially designed as a 'madhouse'.

Phillipe Pinel (1793) is often credited as being the first to introduce humane methods into the treatment of the mentally ill as the superintendent of the Asylum de Bicêtre in Paris.[1] A hospital employee of Asylum de Bicêtre, Jean-Baptiste Pussin, was actually the first one to remove patient restraints. Pussin influenced Pinel and they both served to spread reforms such as categorising the disorders, as well as observing and talking to patients as methods of cure. At much the same time William Tuke was pioneering a more enlightened approach to the treatment of the mentally ill in England at the Retreat in York. This included not just humane treatment but moral therapy as well. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Phillipe Pinel is credited as being the first to introduce humane methods into the treatment of the mentally ill as the superintendent of the Asylum de Bicêtre in Paris. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... William Tuke (March 24, 1732-1822) was born at York. ... The Retreat is a not for profit charitable organisation in the United Kingdom. ... Moral Treatment, also known as Moral Therapy or Management, was an approach to mental disorder based on humane psychosocial care and moral discipline. ...


In 1817 a William Ellis was appointed as superintendent to the newly built West Riding Pauper Asylum at Wakefield. A Methodist, he too had strong religious convictions and with his wife as matron they put into action those things they had learn from the Sculcoates Refuge in Hull which was run on a similar model as the York Retreat. After 13 years their reputation had become such, that they were then invited to run the newly built first pauper asylum in Middlesex called the Hanwell Asylum. Accepting the posts, the asylum opened in May 1831. Here the Ellis's introduced their own brand of humane treatment and 'moral therapy' combined with 'therapeutic employment'. As its initial capacity was for 450 patients it was already the largest asylum in the country and subject to even more building soon after. Therefore, the immediate and continuing success of humane therapy working on such a large scale, encouraged its adoption at other asylums. In recognition of all this work he received a knighthood. He continued to development therapeutic treatments for mental disorders and always with moral treatment as the guiding principle. [2] The (1st Middlesex) County Asylum at Hanwell, also known as Hanwell Insane Asylum was built for the pauper insane and has evolved to become the West London Mental Health (NHS) Trust (WLMHT). ...


In Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England, Robert Gardiner Hill with the support of Edward Parker Charlesworth, develop a mode of treatment that suited 'all types' of patients, where by the reliance on mechanical restraint and coercion could be made obsolete altogether, a situation he finally achieved in 1838. Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... Robert Gardiner Hill MD (1811-1878) was born in Louth, Lincoln, of parents engaged in trade. ...


By the following year of 1839 Serjeant John Adams and Dr. John Conolly were so impressed by the work of Hill, that they immediately introduced the method into their Hanwell Asylum, which was by then the largest in the kingdom. The greater size required Hill's system to be developed and refined. This was necessary as it was beyond Conolly to be able to supervise each attendant as closely as Hill had, had to do. Even so, he bid a pair of extra soft slippers made so that he could walk around the building at night without his foot falls warning the attendance of his imminent approach. Yet by September 1839, all mechanical restraint were no longer required for any patient. For many years after, this day was remembered at the Hanwell asylum by celebration on the anniversary. He was a very accomplished communicator so wrote and lectured widely about his work in mental health and his fame ensure that his discoveries spread around the world. John Conolly (May 27, 1794 - March 5, 1866), English physician, was born at Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, of an Irish family. ... The (1st Middlesex) County Asylum at Hanwell, also known as Hanwell Insane Asylum was built for the pauper insane and has evolved to become the West London Mental Health (NHS) Trust (WLMHT). ...


By such means these and others, more effective treatment methods gradually took hold in different countries, and in the United States attitudes towards the treatment of the mentally ill began to drastically improve during the mid-19th century.


Reformers, such as Dorothea Dix in the U.S., began to advocate a more humane and progressive attitude towards the mentally ill. In the United States, for example, numerous states established state mental health systems paid for by taxpayer money (and often money from the relatives of those institutionalised inside them). These centralised institutions were often linked with loose governmental bodies, though in general oversight was not high and quality consequently varied. They were generally geographically isolated as well, located away from urban areas because the land was cheap and there was less political opposition. Many state hospitals in the United States were built in the 1850s and 1860s on the Kirkbride Plan, an architectural style meant to have curative effect. Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802 – July 17, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... The Kirkbride Plan refers to a system of mental asylum design advocated by Philadelphia psychiatrist Thomas Story Kirkbride in the mid-1800s. ...


While many of those in state hospitals were voluntarily admitted, many more were involuntarily committed by courts. [citation needed] For this reason, state hospital patients were usually from the lower class, as the mentally ill from families with money often had enough private care to avoid being labelled a public menace.


In the United States, state hospitals in some places began to overflow by the beginning of the 20th century. [citation needed] As state populations increased, so did the number of mentally ill and so did the cost of housing them in centralised institutions. During wartime, state mental hospitals became even more overburdened, often serving as hospitals for returning servicemen as well as for their regular clientele. The incentive to discharge patients was high, yet there were still no adequate treatments or therapies for the mentally ill.


Ineffective treatments

This provided a fruitful environment for the popularity of quick-fix solutions, like the eugenic compulsory sterilization programs undertaken in over 30 U.S. states (and, later, in Germany), which allowed institutions to discharge patients while still claiming to be serving the public interest. These new treatments of mental illness – which was now seen as a "defect", and likely a hereditary one – were seen less as therapeutic for the individual patient than as preventative for the society as a whole. The word eugenics (from the Greek εὐγενής, for well-born) was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, to refer to the study and use of selective breeding (of animals or humans) to improve a species over generations, specifically... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ...


From 1942 to 1947, conscientious objectors in the US assigned to psychiatric hospitals under Civilian Public Service exposed abuses throughout the psychiatric care system and were instrumental in reforms of the 1940s and 1950s. The CPS reformers were especially active at the Byberry Hospital in Philadelphia where four Friends initiated The Attendant magazine as a way to communicate ideas and promote reform. This periodical later became the The Psychiatric Aide, a professional journal for mental health workers. On May 6, 1946, Life Magazine printed an exposé of the mental healthcare system based on the reports of COs. Another effort of CPS, namely the Mental Hygiene Project, became the National Mental Health Foundation. Initially sceptical about the value of Civilian Public Service, Eleanor Roosevelt, impressed by the changes introduced by COs in the mental health system, became a sponsor of the National Mental Health Foundation and actively inspired other prominent citizens including Owen J. Roberts, Pearl Buck and Harry Emerson Fosdick to join her in advancing the organization's objectives of reform and humane treatment of patients. A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and... Byberry is a place name in Northeast Philadelphia that can have several references. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... Pearl S. Buck (birth name Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker, Chinese name 賽珍珠) (June 26, 1892 - March 6, 1973) was a novelist. ... Harry Emerson Fosdick (1879-1969) was the most prominent liberal baptist minister of the early 20th Century. ...


Radical medicine

By the mid-1940s, treatment of the mentally ill took a new turn, with the advent of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and insulin shock therapy, and the use of frontal lobotomy. In modern times, insulin shock therapy and lobotomies are viewed as being almost as barbaric as the Bedlam "treatments", though in their own context they were seen as the first options which produced any noticeable effect on their patients. ECT is still used in the West, but it is seen as a last resort for treatment of mood disorders, and is administered much more safely than in the past. Elsewhere, particularly in India, reports have surfaced that ECT is enjoying increased use, as a cost-effective alternative to drug treatment. The effect of a lobotomy on an overly excitable patient often allowed them to be discharged to their homes, which was seen by administrators (and often guardians) as a preferable solution than institutionalisation. Lobotomies were performed in great numbers from the 1930s to the 1950s. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity for therapeutic effect. ... Insulin shock therapy is a treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis and drug addiction which involves injecting a patient with massive amounts of insulin, which causes convulsions and coma. ... Look up Lobotomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ...


Drugs

By the mid-1950s, the first psychiatric medications became available for the treatment of mental illness, such as chlorpromazine, which revolutionized psychiatric care and provided new ways for many of the severely mentally ill to return to normal society. Newly developed antidepressants were used to treat cases of depression, and the introduction of muscle relaxants allowed ECT to be used in a modified form for the treatment of severe depression and a few other disorders. The use of psychosurgery was narrowed to a very small number of people for specific indications. New treatments led to reductions in the number of patients in mental hospitals. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Psychosurgery is a term for surgeries of the brain involving procedures that modulate the performance of the brain, and thus effect changes in cognition, with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness. ...


Deinstitutionalization

In the early 1960s in U.S., amid public images of mental hospitals as sites for - and possibly like - horror movies, a deinstitutionalization movement caught hold in many states. At the time, mental hospitals were viewed as the least desirable solution to the problem of mental illness, both from a humane point of view and an economic one. California, for example, began to scale back its large mental health system in favour of community-based care, whereby smaller clinics would provide care. Although many facilities were emptied, outpatient services proved severely inadequate, a disaster according to some, which has only recently been addressed with the enactment of the California Mental Health Services Act. Popular books and movies such as One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance painted very unflattering portraits of mental hospitals as torture chambers run by sadistic staff, contributing to the deinstitutionalization movement. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... In November, 2004, California voters passed Proposition 63, the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA), which has been designed to expand and transform California’s county mental health service systems by increasing the taxes of high income individuals. ... One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest can refer to: One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest (novel), a 1962 fiction novel by Ken Kesey One Attempted to Fly Over the Cuckoos Nest But Didnt Give Himself Enough Clearing Room, (film), a 1975 film adaptation of the novel One... Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values is the first of Robert M. Pirsigs texts in which he explores a Metaphysics of quality. ...


The negative stereotypes (and an undercurrent belief that patients were "entitled to think what they wanted", rather than accept societal norms) continued to promulgate, however, and went even further in the backlash against social welfare policies in the 1980s, which led to massive deinstitutionalisation and funding cuts. These changes led to the closing of many mental hospitals and the further reliance on local community care. Many former patients, instead of reintegrating successfully into society or receiving community treatment, simply wound up as homeless persons. ... A homeless person in Paris. ...


A similar movement took place in the UK, in which "Care in the Community" came to take the place of most mental hospitals. Care in the Community was a policy of the Margaret Thatcher government in the 1980s. ...


Political device

In some nations, mental hospitals were used as sites for the stifling of political dissidence or even genocide. Under Nazi Germany, a euthanasia program began which resulted in the killings of tens of thousands of the mentally ill housed in state institutions, and the killing techniques perfected at these sites became later implemented in the Holocaust (see T-4 Euthanasia Program). In the Soviet Union, dissidents were often put into asylums and kept on a variety of destabilising medications, with the hope of not simply removing them from society, but making them unreliable in the eyes of others (see Psikhushka). In the case of Zhores Medvedev, the ire of officials was aroused by manuscripts that had been published (without his permission) in the West and a book, Biology and the Cult of Personality, which was an attack on Lysenkoism. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see animal euthanasia. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Psikhushka (Russian: ) is a Russian colloquialism for psychiatric hospital. ... Zhores Aleksandrovich Medvedev (born in the former USSR on November 14, 1925) is a Russian biologist and dissident. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The attitudes in these cases – that the mentally ill were a scourge and needed to be eliminated, and that the line between 'patient' and 'prisoner' is incredibly blurry – have their precedents in the history of mental hospitals, though were taken to extremes by totalitarian regimes. The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ...


Types

There are a number of different types of modern psychiatric hospitals, but all of them house people with mental problems.


Crisis stabilization

One type is the crisis stabilization unit, which is in effect an emergency room for mental disorders. Involuntary commitment laws in many jurisdictions require a judge to issue a commitment order within a short time (often 72 hours) of the patient's entry to the unit. The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ... Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a mental health law to commit a person to a mental hospital, insane asylum or psychiatric ward without their informed consent, against their will or over their protests. ...

See also: Emergency psychiatry

Emergency psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry and emergency medicine designed to respond to emergencies requiring psychiatric intervention. ...

Open units

Open units are psychiatric units that are less secure than crisis stabilization units. They are not used for acutely suicidal persons; the focus in these units is to make life as normal as possible for patients while continuing treatment to the point where they can be discharged. However, patients are usually still not allowed to hold their own medications in their rooms, because of the risk of an impulsive overdose. While some open units are still physically unlocked, other open units still use locked entrances and exits. This is to keep patients from escaping, which may be described as "leaving impulsively," or leaving without being discharged from the unit.


Medium-term

Another type of psychiatric hospital is a medium term, which provides care lasting several weeks. Most drugs used for psychiatric purposes take several weeks to take effect, and the main purpose of these hospitals is to watch over the patient while the drugs begin their expected effect and the patient can be discharged.


Juvenile wards

Juvenile wards are sections of psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wards set aside for children and/or adolescents with mental illness.


These usually consist of anyone aged under 18.


Geriatric wards

Geriatric wards are designed to help treat older adult patients. The staff of these wards are specially trained to deal with older patients.


Long term care facilities

In the UK, at least, long-term care facilities are now being replaced with smaller secure units (some within the hospitals listed above). Modern buildings, modern security and being locally sited to help with reintegration into society once medication has stabilized the condition are often features of such units. An example of this is the Three Bridges Unit, in the grounds of Hanwell Asylum in West London. However these modern units have the goal of treatment and rehabilitation back into society within a short time-frame (two or three years) and not all forensic patients' treatment can meet this criterion, so the large hospitals mentioned above often retain this role. The (1st Middlesex) County Asylum at Hanwell, also known as Hanwell Insane Asylum was built for the pauper insane and has evolved to become the West London Mental Health (NHS) Trust (WLMHT). ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... A patient is the name given to any person who is ill or injured and is being treated by, or in need of treatment by, a physician or other medical professional. ...


Halfway houses

One final type of institution for the mentally ill, that is not a hospital, is a community-based halfway house. These houses provide assisted living for patients with mental illnesses for an extended period of time. These institutions are considered to be one of the most important parts of a mental health system by many psychiatrists, although some localities fail to provide sufficient funding for them, such provision being seen as costly. A halfway house is a term for a drug rehabilitation center or sex offender center where drug users or sex offenders respectively are allowed to move more freely than in a correctional center but are still monitored by staff and/or law enforcement. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ...


Used as a form of prison

In some countries the mental institution may be used for the incarceration of political prisoners, as a form of punishment (see Psikhushka). In the United States, more so in the past than now (although it still happens) a 72 hour hold would be placed on a person by police when that person had committed no crime, but the police still wanted to take action against that person. Psikhushka (Russian: ) is a Russian colloquialism for psychiatric hospital. ...


Anti-psychiatry objections

Some critics, notably psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Szasz, have objected to calling mental hospitals "hospitals" (see anti-psychiatry). Lawrence Stevens has described mental hospitals as "jails" [1]. Michael Foucault is widely known for his comprehensive critique of the use and abuse of the mental hospital system in Discipline and Punish. Erving Goffman coined the term 'Total Institution' for places which took over and confined a person's whole life. The anti-psychiatry movement coming to the fore in the 1960s oppose many of the practices, conditions or existence of mental hospitals. The Consumer/Survivor Movement has often objected to or campaigned against conditions in mental hospitals or their use, voluntarily or involuntarily. For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Szasz redirects here. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France choosing for himself the title Professor of the History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact across the humanities and social sciences including... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... Erving Goffman Erving Goffman (June 11, 1922 – November 19, 1982), was a sociologist and writer. ... Total institution as defined by Erving Goffman, is an institution where all the aspects of life of individuals under the institution is controlled and regulated by the authorities of the organization. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... The Consumer/Survivor Movement, also known as the User/Survivor Movement, refers to a diverse association of individuals (and organisations representing them) who are currently consumers (clients) of mental health services or who consider themselves survivors of mental health services. ...


Some anti-psychiatry activists have advocated for the abolition of long-term hospitals for the criminally insane, including on the grounds that those judged not guilty by reason of insanity should not then be indefinitely confined with potentially less legal rights, or on the converse grounds that insanity is not a coherent concept and so should not be a basis for different treatment. Criminally insane refers to a legal standard in most countries, where the motive for murder or grievous bodily harm is insanity. ...


See also

Hanwell Insane Asylum was a mental hospital that was built in 1831 in England. ... The History of mental illness has long been a process of trial and error guided by public attitudes and medical theory with each society developing its own responses. ... The Kirkbride Plan refers to a system of mental asylum design advocated by Philadelphia psychiatrist Thomas Story Kirkbride in the mid-1800s. ... The Longview Psychiatric Unit is sited at 216 Turner Road, Colchester. ... Mental health law is that area of law that deals with mental conditions. ... A banner ad for MindFreedom International MindFreedom International is a coalition of over 100 grassroots groups and thousands of individual members in 14 nations committed to winning and protecting the human rights of people labeled with psychiatric disorders. ... President George W. Bush established the controversial President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health in April, 2002, to conduct a comprehensive study of the United States mental health service delivery system and make recommendations based on their findings. ... A number of people considered ill and needing treatment by specific psychiatrists or psychiatric doctrine in general do not perceive benefit from the services offered or forced upon them. ... The Treatment Advocacy Center (TAC) is a United States nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting laws allowing Assisted Outpatient Commitment (AOC) for individuals, who either become dangerous due to the symptoms of untreated severe mental illness, or are deemed to be in need of treatment and incapable of making rational medical... The hospital in what has been called a Gothic-themed fantasy castle design. ...

References

  1. ^ "Asylums and Care for the Insane". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  2. ^ Oxford DNB (2004) 'Ellis, Sir William Charles (1780-1839)' Oxford Uni. Press

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Psychiatric hospital - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2860 words)
A psychiatric hospital (also called at various places and times, mental hospital, mental ward, asylum or sanitarium) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness.
In the United States, psychiatric hospitals in the past were often set up as separate institutions with funding and administrations separate from those of general health care.
Another type of psychiatric hospital is designed for long-term care, a combination hospital and prison for the "criminally insane," typically for people with a psychotic illness who have committed serious crimes.
psychiatric hospital - definition of psychiatric hospital in Encyclopedia (2396 words)
Psychiatric hospitals in the past were often set up as separate institutions with funding and administrations separate from those of general health care.
One other type of psychiatric hospital is designed for long-term care: a combination hospital and prison for the "criminally insane": typically, people with a psychotic illness or personality disorder who have committed serious crimes.
The first known psychiatric hospital, Bethlem Royal Hospital (Bedlam) was founded in London in 1247 and by 1403 had begun accepting "lunatics." It soon became (in)famous for its harsh treatment of the insane, and in the 18th century would allow visitors to pay a penny to observe their patients as a form of freak show.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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