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Encyclopedia > Psittaciformes
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Parrots and Cockatoos
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Wagler, 1830
Families
Cacatuidae
Psittacidae

The order Psittaciformes (Parrots) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots. The term parrot is generally used for both the entire order as well as for the Psittacidae alone. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Binomial name Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicatas Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Johann Georg Wagler (1800 - 1832) was a German herpetologist. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Genera The true parrots are about 330 species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae, one of the two families in the biological order Psittaciformes. ... Genera The true parrots are about 330 species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae, one of the two families in the biological order Psittaciformes. ...


All members of the order have a characteristic curved beak shape with the upper mandible having slight mobility in the joint with the skull and a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of an animal. ...


Parrots can be found in most of the warm parts of the world, including India, southeast Asia and west Africa, with one species, now extinct, in the United States (the Carolina Parakeet). By far the greatest number of parrot species, however, come from Australasia, South America and Central America. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Binomial name Conuropsis carolinensis (Linneaus, 1758) Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany The Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) was the only parrot species native to the eastern United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oceania. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Map of Central America Central America is an area of the American continent in the Western Hemisphere. ...

Contents


Origins

In general, an area which has, relative to other areas, a great concentration of different species within a particular family is likely to be the original ancestral home of that family. The diversity of Psittaciformes in South America and Australasia suggests that the order has a Gondwanian origin. The parrot family's fossil record, however, is sparse and their origin remains a matter of informed speculation rather than fact. Pangaea was formed by the merging of two continents, Laurasia and Gondwana East African and Kuungan Orogens 550 Ma reconstruction showing final stages of assembly The southern supercontinent Gondwana (originally Gondwanaland) included most of the landmasses which make up todays continents of the southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America...


The earliest known record of parrot-like birds dates to the late Cretaceous about 70 million years ago. A single 15 mm fragment from a lower bill found in Wyoming is similar to that of a modern lorikeet. It is not clear if this find should be classified as a parrot or not. Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lorikeets and lories are small, brightly coloured, highly aboreal parrots. ...


Europe is the site of more extensive records from the Eocene (58 to 36 million years ago). Several fairly complete skeletons of parrot-like birds have been found in England and Germany. Some uncertainty remains, but on the whole it seems more likely that these are not true ancestors of the modern parrots, but are a related group which evolved in the Northern Hemisphere but have since died out. Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to some dispute as to Europes actual borders. ... The Eocene epoch (56-34 Ma) is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Palaeogene period in the Cenozoic era. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked...


The Southern Hemisphere does not have nearly as rich a fossil record for the period of interest as the Northern, and contains no known parrot-like remains earlier than the early to middle Miocene, around 20 million year ago. At this point, however, is found the first unambiguous parrot fossil (as opposed to a parrot-like one), an upper jaw which is indistinguishable from that of a modern white cockatoo . The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ...


Phylogeny

Some authorities regard the lorikeets as a third family rather than part of the Psittacidae, or lump the cockatoos into one giant family. The majority view, however, is that the Cacatuidae are quite distinct, having a movable headcrest, different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, different skull bones, and not having the Dyck texture feather composition which, in the Psittacidae, scatters light in such a way as to produce the vibrant colours of so many parrots. This classification is used here: Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lorikeets and lories are small, brightly coloured, highly aboreal parrots. ... Two feathers A single white feather Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ...

  • Family Cacatuidae: cockatoos, 21 species in 6 genera
  • Family Psittacidae: true parrots, about 332 species
    • Subfamily Loriinae: 12 genera with 53 species of lorikeets and lories, centered in New Guinea, spreading to Australia, Indonesia, and the islands of the south Pacific. (Sometimes classed as a full family and thus termed Loriidae.)
    • Subfamily Psittacinae: subdivided into nine tribes:
      • Tribe Psittrichadini: Pesquet's Parrot
      • Tribe Nestorini: 3 species in 1 genus, the Kea and Kākā of New Zealand and the extinct Norfolk Island Kaka
      • Tribe Strigopini: Kakapo
      • Tribe Micropsittini: 6 species of pygmy parrot, all in a single genus
      • Tribe Cyclopsitticini: fig parrots, 6 species in 3 genera, all from New Guinea or nearby
      • Tribe Platycercini: 37 species in 14 genera, including the rosellas
      • Tribe Psittaculini: Paleotropic psittaculine parrots, 66 species in 12 genera, distributed from India to Australasia
      • Tribe Psittacini: Afrotropical parrots, 12 species in 3 genera
      • Tribe Arini: Neotropical parrots, 148 species in 30 genera

Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lorikeets and lories are small, brightly coloured, highly aboreal parrots. ... Species Nestor is a genus of New Zealand parrots, apparently the single genus of the Nestorinae subfamily. ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a semi-nocturnal parrot native to the alpine mountains of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a parrot native to the forests of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Nestor productus Gould, 1836 The Norfolk Island Kaka (Nestor productus) was a large parrot with a prominent beak. ... Binomial name Strigops habroptilus Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), is a species of nocturnal parrot endemic to New Zealand. ... Species Micropsitta pusio Micropsitta keiensis Micropsitta geelvinkiana Micropsitta meeki Micropsitta finschii Micropsitta bruijnii The pygmy parrots are the smallest members of the parrot family. ... A broad-tailed parrot is any of about 35 species belonging to the subfamily Platycercinae. ... Species Platycercus adscitus Platycercus caledonicus Platycercus elegans Platycercus eximius Platycercus icterotis Platycercus venustus A rosella is one of six species of colorful Australian parrots in the genus Platycercus. ...

Species list

Species list of parrots sorted:

This is a species list of parrots sorted alphabetically for ease of reference. ... This is a species list of parrots sorted taxonomically for ease of reference. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ...

Parrots as pets

Parrots are kept as pets, particularly conures, macaws, amazons, cockatoos, african greys, lovebirds, minimacaws, cockatiels and budgerigars (also known as parakeets), because of their rich and varied colouration. Often the wings of such birds are clipped, but many people keep flighted pet parrots. Some parrots species have very long life-spans of up to 80 years. In 2004, Britain's Daily Mirror newspaper carried the story of a female macaw supposedly born in 1899, and subsequently a pet of Winston Churchill during the World War; the aged parrot, called Charlie, was reputed to curse the Nazis and Adolf Hitler [1]. Subsequent research strongly suggested that the parrot had never belonged to Winston Churchill, [2] [3] although Charlie's great age was not in question. Pets and humans often contribute toward the happiness of the other in a pet relationship. ... Conures are a loosely-defined group of large, new world parakeets. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Propyrrhura Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca Macaws are large colorful New World parrots, classified into six of the many Psittacidae genera: Ara, Anodorhynchus, Cyanopsitta, Propyrrhura, Orthopsittaca, and Diopsittaca. ... Species Many, see text. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Binomial name Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 The African Grey Parrot is a medium-sized parrot about 12 inches/30cm long (Congo subspecies) of the genus Psittacus, native to Africa. ... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, which is Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ... Binomial name Nymphicus hollandicus (Kerr, 1792) The Cockatiel or Nymphicus hollandicus is a type of cockatoo endemic to Australia that is prized as a household pet. ... Binomial name Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed Budgie), is a small parrot. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Propyrrhura Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca Macaws are large colorful New World parrots, classified into six of the many Psittacidae genera: Ara, Anodorhynchus, Cyanopsitta, Propyrrhura, Orthopsittaca, and Diopsittaca. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Rt Hon. ... A world war is a military conflict affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Charlie (born c. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ...


The popularity of parrots as pets has led to a thriving - often illegal - trade in the birds, and some species are now threatened with extinction. The scale of the problem can be appreciated in the Tony Silva case of 1996, in which a world-renowned parrot expert and former director at Tenerife's Loro Parque (Europe's largest parrot park) was jailed in the US for 82 months and fined $100,000 for smuggling Hyacinth macaws1. The case rocked conservationist and ornithological circles, leading to calls for greater protection and control over trade in the birds. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Flag of Tenerife Tenerife (English also Teneriffe), a Spanish island, is the largest of the seven Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Loro Parque is a zoo on Tenerife. ...


Sound imitation

Many species can imitate human speech or other sounds, and at least one researcher, Irene Pepperberg, has made controversial claims for the learning ability of one species; an African Grey Parrot named Alex has been trained to use words to identify objects, describe them, count them, and even answer complex questions such as "How many red squares?" (with over 80% accuracy). Other scholars claim that parrots are only repeating words with no idea of their meanings and point to Pepperberg's results as being nothing but an expression of classical conditioning. One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ... Irene Pepperberg (born April 1, 1949, Brooklyn, New York) is a scientist noted for her studies in animal cognition, particularly in relation to parrots. ... Binomial name Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 The African Grey Parrot is a medium-sized parrot about 12 inches/30cm long (Congo subspecies) of the genus Psittacus, native to Africa. ... Alex is an African grey parrot whose use of language has been studied intensively for over 20 years by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg, initially at the University of Arizona and currently at Brandeis University. ... Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning) is a type of associative learning. ...


Feral populations

Escaped parrots can represent a threat to local ecosystems if they become established in the wild. This is now occurring in Spain, in Barcelona and Tenerife. Several species, including Red-lored Parrots (Amazona autumnalis), Lilac-crowned Parrots (Amazona finschi), and Yellow-chevroned Parakeets (Brotogeris chiriri), have become well established in Southern California. A sizeable population of feral Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) exists in and around London, England, and in various larger cities in the Netherlands, thought to have descended from escaped or released pets. The largest roost of these is thought to be in Esher, Surrey, numbering several thousand. There are also feral Monk Parakeets in many areas of the United States. Barcelona is the capital city of Catalonia, an autonomous region in Spain. ... Binomial name Amazona autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-lored Parrot (Amazona autumnalis), also known as loro cariamarillo in spanish, is a species of parrot from the psittacidae family and one of the most common pet parrots. ... Binomial name Amazona finschi (Sclater, 1864) The Lilac-crowned Amazon, Amazona finschi, is a parrot endemic to the Pacific slopes of Mexico. ... Southern California Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, sometimes abbreviated SoCal or colloquially, the Southland, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the state of California. ... Binomial name Psittacula krameri (Scopoli, 1769) The Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri ), also known as the Ring-necked Parakeet , is a tropical parakeet. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation) and Defining London (below). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked... Esher is a town in the Surrey borough of Elmbridge in South East England near the River Mole. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), also known as the Quaker Parrot, is a species of parrot that originated in the temperate areas of Argentina and Brazil in South America. ...


References

  • Joseph Michael Forshaw: Parrots of the World (Still a standard work)

See also

Wikispecies has information related to:
Psittaciformes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Psittaciformes - definition of Psittaciformes in Encyclopedia (486 words)
The order Psittaciformes includes about 342 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae, the parrots.
Birds of the parrot families can be found in most of the warmer parts of the world, including India, South East Asia and West Africa, with one species, now extinct, in the United States (the Carolina Parakeet).
The diversity of Psittaciformes in South America and Australasia suggests that the order has a Gondwanian origin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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